CBD dosage for dogs and pets

CBD dosage for dogs and pets

In the same way as humans, dogs and other mammals have numerous in their bodies cannabinoids maintaining receptive receptors and maintaining body balance endocannabinoid system , which is responsible for vital tasks. On this page you will find information on how much CBD can be given to a dog. Although this guide is for dogs, it can be applied to other mammals.


How much CBD can be given to a dog?

There is as yet no official standard for the administration of CBD to dogs or pets. The appropriate dosage also depends on a number of different factors, such as your dog’s weight, condition, and the CBD product you choose and its strength. For safety reasons, we always recommend starting with a small dose of 1 mg CBD for every five (5) kilograms of body weight, or 1 mg / 5 kg.

What factors determine the correct dose of CBD oil for dogs?


The three most important factors that affect how much CBD you can give your dog are the size of your dog, what condition or symptom of the dog you are trying to treat, and what kind of CBD product you are giving to your dog.

Does the size and condition of the dog affect the dosage?


Although your dog’s weight will not always correlate with how much CBD is needed, it is a good starting point for determining the appropriate dose. We therefore always recommend starting with the lowest dose of 1 mg CBD for every 5 pounds of body weight. Sometimes, however, conditions require higher doses of CBD. If your dog’s condition is more severe, you may consider a higher dose such as 2-5 mg CBD / 5 kg body weight once or several times a day as needed.

See the table below for the recommended CBD dose by weight.

Weight (kg)Amount of CBD (mg)
5 kg1 mg
5 – 11 kg1 – 3 mg
11 – 22 kg3 – 5 mg
22 – 34 kg5 – 8 mg
34 – 45 kg8 – 16 mg
45 – 68 kg16 – 33 mg
68+ kg33 mg
These instructions are not an official recommendation, so we recommend that you consult your veterinarian before use

What is a suitable CBD product for a dog?


For human consumption CBD oils and in addition to tinctures, there are CBD products of different strengths for the market for dogs and other domestic pets separately. Dog CBD products most often contain fish oil or another flavoring ingredient designed to make the product easier to taste and dispense. CBD products for human use can also be given to a dog if the products do not contain ingredients that are not suitable for the dog. So always check the ingredient list of the product carefully before giving it to your pet!

In addition to the strength of a CBD product, some products, such as CBD dog treats, may be absorbed more slowly than CBD oil or tincture, in which case you may need to give your dog a slightly higher dose to achieve the same effect.

If you plan to use CBD oil to care for your dog, you will often find clear instructions in the product on how many drops contain the desired amount of CBD.

For example, if a 5% CBD oil bottle contains 200 drops and contains a total of 500 mg of CBD, then one drop contains about 2.5 mg of CBD. If you wish, you can mix one drop with the food and, if necessary, divide it into several more portions, so that you can start using it with the lowest possible dosage.

Once you notice the results you want in your dog, such as calmer behavior, you can continue with the same dosage. However, if you do not notice a large change after several days, you can increase the dose slowly and gradually until you see the desired effects.

Can I give my dog too much CBD?

There have been many studies on CBD showing that CBD is well tolerated, even at very high doses and reasonable doses there is virtually no risk of overdose. However, we recommend that you consult a qualified veterinarian before use.

When you buy CBD products for your dog, always check with the seller, its quality and that it really contains CBD. Although CBD products are not intoxicating, they may still contain very small amounts of THC. Remember that legally CBD oil products must contain no more than 0.2% THC, which is well below the amount needed to produce psychoactive, ie intoxicating, effects.

Finally


Determining and testing the correct dose of CBD for your dog may take some time and require monitoring. Always consider the weight and condition of your dog, and get your CBD product from a reliable vendor.

What are cannabinoids?

What are cannabinoids?

In this article, we will discuss what cannabinoids are. Cannabinoids are compounds associated with cannabinoid receptors that are present in all mammals as part of endocannabinoid system. Cannabinoids are also found in various plants and especially in hemp, where there are at least 120 different ones (Scherma, Masia, Deidda, Fratta, Tanda and Fadda. 2018.) Internal cannabinoids are called endocannabinoids and external phytocannabinoids. Most of the effects of all cannabinoids are still unknown, but more cannabinoid research is being conducted year after year, and existing studies illustrate that cannabinoids have a lot of health and medical potential. The most studied cannabinoids in hemp are THC and CBD , but nowadays more and more new studies are also being found on CBG, CBN and other phytocannabinoids, as well as on acidic cannabinoids such as CBDA or cannabidiol acid.

Phytocannabinoids in hemp

Hemp cannabinoids are synthesized and stored especially in hairy trichomes, i.e. resin glands, found on the surface of hemp leaves and inflorescences. These trichomes occur in both female and male plants, but the highest concentration is found in the inflorescences of female plants. In addition, cannabinoids are also present in fruit plant pollen. (Atakan 2012) The presence of phytocannabinoids in plants is explained by their properties to control various biotic (insects, bacteria, fungi) and abiotic (drought and ultraviolet radiation) stressors.

Biosynthesis of cannabinoids

In cannabinoid synthesis, more complex compounds are produced from smaller molecules (Marks et al., 2009; de Meijer, 2014). The first step in cannabinoid biosynthesis is the biosynthesis of geranyl pyrophosphate, olivetolic acid, and divaric acid, the precursors of cannabinoid acids. Next, geranyl pyrophosphate and olivetolic acid form cannabigeric acid (CBGA) and second, geranyl pyrophosphate and divaric acid form cannabigerovaric acid (CBGVA), which forms all other cannabinoid acids – from CBGA to THVA, CBDA, CBCA and CBG. The number and ratio of different synthase enzymes determine the cannabinoid profile of different varieties (Marks et al., 2009; de Meijer, 2014). Cannabinoids are acidic in fresh plants and decarboxylated by heat, time and UV light to cannabinoids – From CBDA to CBD and so on. Henceforth, cannabinoids of the cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabic chromium (CBC) types can be degraded to cannabielson (CBE) and cannabicyclol (CBL) by oxygen and UV light. (de Meijer, 2014). Cannabinoids of the tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) type also degrade at high temperatures and upon oxidation to cannabinol (CBN).

Classification of phytocannabinoids

Natural compounds combined from hemp with a typical C21 terpenophenol backbone are called cannabinoids. This class of compounds also includes derivatives and metabolites that are also considered cannabinoids. The cannabinoid study has isolated at least 120 different cannabinoids that can be divided into 11 different categories: Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9 -THC), Δ8-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ8 -THC), cannabiger gol (CBG), cannabic chromene (CBC), cannabin (CBD) (CBND), cannabisoline (CBE), cannabis cyclol (CBL), cannabinol (CBN), cannabis triol (CBT) and other cannabinoids.

Production of endocannabinoids in the body

Precursors of endocannabinoids include polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic acid (Omega 6). They are synthesized in postsynaptic neurons as derivatives of arachidonic acid (omega 6), which are obtained mainly from food, but the body can also produce it from linoleic acid (omega 6). Studies show that adding essential fatty acids to the diet increases endocannabinoid levels and the number of receptors. (Osei-Hyiaman et al. 2005, Berger et al. 2001).

Unlike other mediators in the body, endocannabinoids are rapidly synthesized as needed and are not stored as needed. The formation of endocannabinoids occurs through several enzymatic pathways. For example anandamidine in the synthesis, first N-acetyltransferase (NAT) attaches the cell membrane phosphatiphylethanolamine to N-arachidonyl to form N-arachidonylphosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE), which is hydrolyzed by phospholipase D (PLD) to anandamide (Di Marzo et al. 1999). 2-AG, on the other hand, can be synthesized in the body in three different ways. Phospholipase C (PLC) and diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL) contribute to its formation. In addition to arachidonic acid, anandamide is composed of ethanolamine. In 2-AG, on the other hand, ethanolamine is replaced by glycerol, and in virodhamine, ethanolamine is attached by an ester bond instead of an amide bond. Thus, in various endocannabinoids, other compounds have been linked to arachidonic acid by various bonds. (MJ Savolainen, T. Huusko, A. Keränen, S. Lindeman, A. Reponen and H. Koponen. 2004.). Shortly after synthesis, ananadamide is degraded back to arachidonic acid and ethanolamine by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). In the rat brain, for example, this occurs within minutes (Cravatt et al. 2001). Other enzymes are also involved in this degradation of endocannabinoids, such as monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), which is responsible for most of the degradation of 2-AG, and its inhibition increases the amount of 2-AG (Long et al. 2008 and Jokipii 2010.). They also produce various endocannabinoid derivatives in addition to degradation. For example, COX-2 produces prostaglandin ethanolamide and prostaglandin glycerol esters, which are more stable as long-term signal transducers (Kozak et al. 2001 and Savolainen, Huusko, Keränen, Lindeman, Reponen and Koponen 2004).

A few of the more important findings in the metabolism of endocannabinoids are FAAH and MAGL, which, by influencing the amount of activity, can regulate endocannabinoid levels in the body, as they are responsible for the degradation of anandamide and 2-AG. These are affected by different foods, spices, herbs and the medicines targeted at them.

 

Sources

 

  • Savolainen, T. Huusko, A. Keränen, .S Lindeman, A. Reponen and H. Koponen. 2004. Endocannabinoids – a multifunctional neurotransmitter system in the regulation of pleasure and eating behavior.
  • Duodecim De Meijer E., 2014. The Chemical Phenotypes (Chemotypes) of Cannabis.
  • In Pertwee RG Handbook of Cannabis, p. 89-110. Oxford University Press, United Kingdom.
  • Jokipii. 2010. Endocannabinoid receptor. University of Jyväskylä
  • Scherma, P. Masia, M. Deidda, W. Fratta, G. Tanda, and P. Fadda. 2018. New Perspectives on the Use of Cannabis in the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders. Medicines. https://www.mdpi.com/2305-6320/5/4/107/htm
  • Marks MD, Tian L., Wenger JP, Omburo SN, Soto-Fuentes W., He J., Gang DR, Weiblen GD, and Dixon RA, 2009. Identification of candidate genes affecting Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol biosynthesis in Cannabis sativa.
  • J Exp Bot 60 (13): 3715-3726. Kozak KR, Crews BC, Ray JL, Tai HH, Morrow JD, Marnett LJ. Metabolism of prostaglandin glycerol esters and prostaglandin ethanolamides in vitro and in vivo.
  • J Biol Chem 2001; 276: 36993–8. Z. Atakan. 2012. Cannabis, a complex plant: different compounds and different effects on the individual. Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology published online 5 September 2012
  • Osei-Hyiaman, L. Wang, G. Kunos. 2005. Endocannabinoid activation at hepatic CB1 receptors stimulates fatty acid synthesis and contributes to diet-induced obesity. The Journal of Clinical Investigation.
  • Berger, G. Crozier, T. Bisogno, P. Cavaliere, S. Innis, and V. Di Marzo. 2001. Anandamide and diet: Inclusion of dietary arachidonate and docosahexaenoate leads to increased brain levels of the corresponding N-acylethanolamines in piglets. PNAS.
  • J. Savolainen, T. Huusko, A. Keränen, S. Lindeman, A. Reponen and H. Koponen. 2004. Endocannabinoids – a multifunctional neurotransmitter system in the regulation of pleasure and eating behavior. Duodecim. 120: 1457–65.hamppumaa.fi

CBD oil and insomnia

CBD oil and insomnia

CBD oil and insomnia (insomnia) go hand in hand, for most CBD benefit users take CBD oil just in the evenings to calm down, relax, and get a better deep sleep. In this article, we examine the factors that affect sleep and what kind of effect endocannabinoid system and CBD has insomnia.

 

One third of life is a dream

We sleep an average of a third of our lives. So it is quite clear that what happens during that time has a big impact on how we can stay active. Sleep is a vital function during which the brain rests, the mind calms down and the body is cleansed. (1).

Sleep quality is affected by many different factors such as stress, health, bedding and bedding. The endocannabinoid system, which maintains the balance of the whole body, also plays a role in the background.

A restful restful sleep should be obtained 6-9 hours a night and during it the body has a huge number of small and large tasks with which it prepares us for the new day. During the night you learn and rest, cleanse and balance. According to the population survey, about a third of Finnish adults suffer from various sleep problems and the same amount worldwide. Sleep problems are either short-lived or chronic and range from long-term insomnia through night sweats to nightmares (1). There are already good treatments for insomnia and other various sleep problems, both in Western medicine and in complementary therapies, but an interesting and well-proven CBD with therapeutic effects
is still an unfortunate unknown potential sleep helper.

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a therapeutic compound that is not intoxicating. Its relaxing properties are well known and it is already widely used to treat anxiety, pain and depression. Studies have shown that it is also helpful in promoting alertness and reducing drowsiness during the day. So CBD oil can help with sleep problems.

 

Endocannabinoids are part of the circadian rhythm

Endocannabinoid system is, as it were, a backbone that is not actually responsible for anything, but affects everywhere. There is hardly a single physiological activity in which it would not be involved. Thus, it also plays a very important role in sleep quality and sleep cycle regulation. Not necessarily directly but through the various functions of the body. The endocannabinoid system affects sleep e.g. by regulating the sleep-wake rhythm. (2)

It appears to be responsible for the stability of the sleep-wake cycle, rather than a single function (3). Daily Anandamide variations could play a significant role in the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle. Studies in rats have shown endocannabinoids in biological samples taken e.g. spinal cord, hippocampus, and hypothalamus. In spinal fluid samples, cannabinoid Anandamide concentrations increased during the light period and decreased correspondingly during the dark period. It has been suggested that anandamide would accumulate as a nitrogen cell in the dark and then be released when light enters the spinal cord at those sites that regulate sleep (4). The endocannabinoid system also indirectly affects sleep through knowledge of other bodily functions such as stress levels, metabolism, and pain (5).

Endocannabinoids are a lipid-based network of mediators that act by activating cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. There are receptors almost everywhere in the body. The two most potent cannabinoids, Anandamide and 2-AG, are able to be produced by almost all cells themselves, so there are a huge number of places in the body and brain where the endocannabinoid system can affect sleep (5). The location of cannabinoid receptors in the brain in areas of sleep regulation potentially activates cholinergic neurons. It is known that Anandamide an activated cholinergic neuron expressing the CB1 receptor promotes the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Acetylcholine affects e.g. learning and remembering and is released most during deep sleep. This activation could trigger thalamic neuronal activity, which in turn enhances cortical desynchronization. Studies have shown that the function of the brainstem as well as the basal brain in relation to the thalamus is an important element in the regulation of sleep (4).

Fatty acids acting on cannabinoid receptors are known to show diurnal variations in nervous tissues and appear to follow a circadian rhythm (3). It has also been observed that they could act as zeitges, i.e. affect our internal clock (5). When these findings are combined with the knowledge that the endocannabinoid system maintains the body’s overall equilibrium and regulates various bodily functions in the direction of equilibrium, it is clear that transient or chronic cannabinoid deficiency or endocannabinoid imbalance is inevitably reflected in sleep quality.

 

CBD oil to support sleep

Our bodies produce the necessary cannabinoids themselves, but we can help balance the cannabinoid system by utilizing plants that are naturally abundant. cannabinoids . Hemp is known to have more than 100 different cannabinoids and the best known and most studied of these are THC and CBD . Different hemp varieties produce different amounts of different cannabinoids that respond to the cannabinoid receptors in our body. (6)

Psychoactive THC mainly responds to the CB1 receptor. The topic has been extensively studied in cannabis and sleep research since the 1970s, although it was not yet a direct study of the cannabinoid receptor (5). It has been observed that long-term cannabis (THC) users experience sleep problems, especially during weaning, and that THC use easily becomes a twist specifically related to sleep (6).

Non-intoxicating CBD responds to the CB2 receptor. It has been said that CBD has many positive effects on us. It lowers the inflammatory state of the body and, if necessary, also acts like pharmacological drugs, e.g. as an anti-acceleration and antiemetic drug. In the absence of solid evidence for the role of CBD in sleep regulation, the following hypothesis has been put forward; CBD enhances c-Fos gene expression in the hypothalamus as well as in the Raphe nucleus, both of which play a significant role in sleep production (7). Dosage appears to play a very important role in the success of treatment of sleep problems. A low dose accelerated subjects and made sleep more difficult, whereas at a higher dose, sleep problems were significantly alleviated (8). CBD is non-intoxicating, so it has a calming and stress-reducing effect on us.

 

Studies

There has been relatively little research on cannabinoids and sleep alone. Cannabis and sleep have been studied since the 1970s, but cannabinoids and sleep only after 1990. Cannabis-related research has provided an excellent basis for more sophisticated research into the endocannabinoid system today (5). The results of research on cannabinoids and sleep have been obtained mainly in connection with other studies, but the relationship between cannabinoids and sleep itself has also been studied to some extent.

Research has been done in both humans and English bulldogs (6), but the results obtained with rats and other rodents help us better understand the effect of cannabinoids on sleep. The sleep of rodents is very similar to that of humans and samples and information can be collected from them at all stages of the sleep cycle (6). A study of sleep apnea in rats found that cannabinoids play an important role in achieving autonomic balance during sleep. Rats were given two cannabinoids (THC and Oleamide) and serotonin, all simultaneously and separately. These cannabinoids were also found to have an effect on the development and treatment of sleep apnea (5).

It is possible that studies with both different CBD products and THC preparations will give a placebo effect on the results due to the awareness of the medicinal effects of cannabis. Nevertheless, several studies have shown that CBD products in particular, when found in the right dose size, are highly effective, well tolerated, and safe. Studies have not shown any bad side effects and as a general rule, those treated have found CBD products pleasant and favorite to use!

 

Summary and concluding remarks

 

There has been so little research on the endocannabinoid system, cannabinoids and sleep that it is not yet possible to say for sure in what way it affects sleep, only that it is of great importance. The results are contradicted by the fact that there are more than 100 different cannabinoids and that the individual effect of all of these is not yet known. Most studies focus mainly on THC and CBD cannabinoids and the effect of these on us is very different. However, it is undeniable that the endocannabinoid system plays a very important role in sleep and sleep quality through many different functions. A more holistic understanding of it would make a significant contribution to the treatment of many diseases and open up more to the subtle functioning of the human body. Human experience and research findings on the positive effects of CBD on sleep are a gratifying perspective on the ever-increasing variety of sleep problems.

 

Source list:

 

  1. Current care recommendation. Published: 6/26/2020. https://www.kaypahoito.fi/hoi50067 Referenced on 31.3.2021
  2. Russo, E. 2015. Introduction to the Endocannabinoid System. PHYTECS. https://www.phytecs.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Russo-Introduction-to-the-Endocannabinoid-System-corr-January-2015.pdf Referenced on 31.3.2021
  3. Kesner AJ & Lovinger DM 2020. Cannabinoids, endocannabinoids and sleep https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnmol.2020.00125/full Referenced on 31.3.2021
  4. Murillo-Rodriguez E. 2008. The role of the CB1 receptor in the regulation of sleep https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18514375/ Referenced 5.4.2021
  5. Babson KA & Sottile J. & Morabito D. 2017. Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and Sleep: a Review of the Literature https://www.med.upenn.edu/cbti/assets/user-content/documents/s11920-017-0775-9.pdf Referenced 5.4.2021
  6. Carley DW & Paviovic S. & others. 2002. Functional role for cannabinoids in respiratory stability during sleep https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12071539/ Referenced on 31.3.2021
  7. Murillo-Rodriguez & others. 2014. Potential effects of cannabidiol as a wake-promoting agent https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4023456/ Referenced on 31.3.2021
  8. Shannon S. & others. 2019. Cannabidiol in anxiety and sleep: a large case series https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30624194/ Referenced on 31.3.2021