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Black cumin oil

Black cumin oil

Black cumin oil is obtained by pressing the seeds of the Nigella Sativa plant. The plant has been traditionally used as a medicine and spice for thousands of years. The earliest references date back to ancient Egypt. Black cumin seeds have been found in the tomb of Pharaoh Tutakhamun and historians believe that Neferit and Cleopatra also used it for beauty care. Black cumin has a wide variety of health-promoting effects, which have been compiled in this article. (1)

What is black cumin (Ryytineito / Nigella sativa)?

Black gum (Nigella sativa L.), also known as the lady’s mite and the herb maiden’s flower, is an annual classified as a buttercup (Ranunculaceae) a spice plant that is also grown as an ornamental plant. Black cumin occurs naturally in North Africa, Southern Europe and Southwest Asia, and it is also cultivated in many other places. The largest producing countries of black cumin are Turkey, India, Pakistan and Syria. (2)

Black cumin seeds contain a lot of valuable fatty acids and other compounds that have been used in Asia and the Middle East for thousands of years as a medicine and spice. The medicinal plant in question is also called “blessed seed” and “cure”, referring to its medicinal effects. The seeds and the oil pressed from the seeds have been used as a cure for e.g. from allergies to various infections, colds, toothaches and headaches, as well as to support digestive disorders, immunity and respiratory well-being. (2)


Health effects of black cumin oil


The health effects of black cumin seed oil have been known for millennia and are largely based on its rich fatty acid profile and miracle-working thymoquinone. In addition to these, the plant contains a wide variety of minerals and vitamins such as zinc, iron, potassium and vitamin E.

Black cumin oil supports the immune system and is especially used in the treatment of allergies, cancers, and chronic and hormonal diseases. Classified as a superfood, the seeds are also used as a spice in cooking. The flowers and leaves of the plant are also suitable for making “power tea”. (2)

The health effects observed in scientific studies of the plant are listed below.


1. Helps lower cholesterol levels


Black cumin seeds may have a significant effect on blood plasma lipid levels, which in turn may lower cholesterol levels. The seeds can also lower triglyceride levels. (3) Triglycerides are fats circulating in the blood. Elevated fatty acid chains increase the risk of being overweight and the possibility of developing fatty liver , pancreatitis, and cardiovascular diseases. (4)

Scientific studies conducted on average-weight men have shown that black cumin seeds lower total cholesterol. Larger doses and longer-term use may give even significantly more positive results than what this particular study says. (5)


2. Fights oxidative stress

A compound called thymoquinone found in black cumin has helped fight oxidative stress (6, 23). Oxidation in cells is a natural process. In a balanced state, free radicals prevent pathogens, but when there is an imbalance in the body between the activity of antioxidants and free radicals, it can cause oxidative stress and thus weaken the state of health. In an unbalanced stress state, these free radicals can cause damage to DNA, cells, proteins and fatty tissues.


3. Supports weight loss


In some studies, black gum has also helped moderate weight loss by improving BMI values ​​and reducing waist circumference. Losing weight also prevents the risk of cancer, diabetes and heart disease, which are common in overweight people. No adverse effects have been observed with the use of seeds. (7)


4. Fights cancer and destroys tumors


One of the most interesting effects of black cumin seeds is that in studies they have been used to fight cancer and reduce the size of tumors. (8, 9, 10). The seeds have been found to prevent at least skin cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer, cervical cancer and liver cancer. (11) The anti-cancer effects are thought to be at least partly due to the seeds’ anti-inflammatory and immune-enhancing effects. (12)

5. Reduces inflammation


Nigella sativa or black cumin seeds have been found in studies to reduce inflammation in the body. The thymoquinone contained in the seeds can counteract the effects of cytokines that cause inflammation. Cytokines are neurotransmitters that play a significant role in the generation of inflammatory reactions and in the regulation of the immune system. (13)

In addition to thymoquinone, other antioxidant properties of the plant also help to reduce inflammatory reactions and thus also diseases related to inflammation, such as cardiac fibrosis. (14)

Thanks to the antibacterial and antimicrobial properties of the seeds, they can also be effective against the hospital bacteria called MRSA. The seed extract has been found to have an effect on staphylococcus present on the skin (Staphylococcus aureus) against infection. (15)


6. Regulates blood sugar levels


Eating black cumin seeds can have a positive effect on the blood sugar levels of diabetic patients. According to research, even two grams of black cumin seeds may be enough to regulate blood sugar levels. (16)

7. Improves lung function and asthma control


In a British study, black cumin seed oil was found to improve lung function and promote asthma control. The study was published in 2017 in the monthly international journal Phytotherapy Research, which publishes original studies. (17)

8. Treats skin diseases such as acne and psoriasis


Black cumin oil and extracts have been found to have antipsoriatic effects. Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease in which dry, itchy and scaly patches appear on the skin. Using the oil on the skin has also been shown to help with acne (acne vulgaris). (18)

The seeds containing thymoquinone are also antifungal, so they can be helpful for fungal infections on the skin, such as yeast fungus ( Candida albicans). (19)

In addition to the mentioned benefits, black cumin seed oil is also used in hair masks to increase shine, promote natural hair growth and structure. (20)


9. Increase fertility


The antioxidant properties of black cumin seeds can increase fertility by affecting the amount of free radicals and thus sperm quality (21). Free radicals are unwanted oxygen atoms that are formed in a metabolic reaction.

Based on research, Nigella sativa seeds alone can be helpful in the treatment of male infertility without side effects. (22)


10. Improves kidney and liver health


Due to its antioxidant properties, black cumin seeds have liver protective effects. Antioxidants combat oxidative stress, which is harmful to the liver. The thymoquinone contained in the seeds fights free radicals and reduces their harmful effect on DNA and the health of the internal organs. (23)

The thymoquinone contained in black cumin oil also protects the liver from damage caused by parasites. A 2002 study found that black cumin oil prevented Fissure worm (Schistosoma mansoni) in the liver. In addition to the liver, the number of parasite ova in the intestine was significantly reduced by the effect of thymoquinone. (24)

In addition to the aforementioned properties, black cumin seeds may help treat kidney-related problems such as kidney damage and kidney stones. Thanks to the use of the seed extract, the study also found that it reduces the accumulation of calcium oxalates in the body. (25)

Black cumin seeds contain thymoquinone, which is used in beauty care and wellness.

The thymoquinone contained in black cumin seeds is the most significant active ingredient of black cumin oil.


Thymoquinone (Thymoquinone – TQ)


The most unique and interesting ingredient of black cumin oil is certainly thymoquinone, or more familiarly known as TQ. This unique compound has only been found in black cumin (Nigella sativa L.), red mint ( Monarda didyma) and prairie mint ( Monarda fistulosa), also known as Wild Bergamot. (26).

Black cumin enhances the effect of CBD


The active ingredients of black cumin seeds, such as thymoquinone, enhance the synergistic benefits of CBD (entourage effect). Black cumin also contains terpenes, which have been studied to have properties that enhance positive interactions with cannabinoids. You can read more about these synergistic benefits in the article “Entourage effect and the full spectrum of CBD oil explained ”.


Black cumin is a Sativa plant


Like hemp, black cumin belongs to the sativa family (Nigella sativa). Black cumin, however, does not belong to the hemp plants, to which for example hops are classified, but is classified as a buttercup plant (Ranunculaceae). Although Finland is the world’s largest cumin producer, black cumin is not grown in Finland, at least for commercial purposes.


Experiences with black cumin oil


Many may have read experiences related to black cumin oil and noticed that the plant in question is often spoken of as an ancient medicinal herb for many different ailments. In addition to experiences, scientific studies also confirm the healing effects of vegetable oil.


Not recommended for pregnant women


According to some preliminary studies, black cumin oil should be avoided during pregnancy because it can cause the uterus to contract and possibly increase the risk of premature labor or even miscarriage. The oil can also have unwanted interactions with medications used during childbirth.




Black cumin seeds contain medicinal thymoquinone, which is only found in certain colored mints ( Monarda Didyma and Monarda fistulosa) in addition to black cumin. Black cumin oil can be used both for medicinal purposes and as a spice without significant side effects. The compounds contained in the seeds have been found to have a positive effect on e.g. cancer cells, cholesterol level, weight loss, inflammation, oxidative stress, lung function and blood sugar level. Black cumin seed oil is also used directly on the skin for various skin problems and beauty care, and it is also sold mixed with CBD oil to enhance the effects of the substances.




  1. Freeman Institute. The Black Cumin Seed. Referred on 30/05/2023
  2. The Seed Bank of Finland. Mole Maiden . Referred on 30/05/2023.
  3. A. Sahebkar. et al. 2016. Pharmacol Res. Nigella sativa (black seed) effects on plasma lipid concentrations in humans: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials . Referred on 30/05/2023
  4. Kia Toivanen. 2020. Give it. Elevated triglyceride level? “Increased triglyceride content is the cholesterol of the 21st century,” says the expert and explains what you need to know about the value. Referred on 30/05/2023
  5. EA Datau et al. 2010. Acta Med Indonesia. Efficacy of Nigella sativa on Serum free testosterone and metabolic disturbances in central obese male. Referred on 30/05/2023
  6. H. Kaatabi et al. 2012. J Family Community Med. Favorable impact of Nigella sativa seeds on lipid profile in type 2 diabetic patients. Referred on 30/05/2023
  7. A. Tavakkoli et al. 2017. J Pharmacopuncture. Review on Clinical Trials of Black Seed (Nigella sativa ) and Its Active Constituent, Thymoquinone. Referred on 3/7/2024
  8. NO Salim. Oncology Letters. 2010. Cancer chemopreventive potential of volatile oil from black cumin seeds, Nigella sativa L., in a rat multi-organ Carcinogenesis bioassay . Referred on 30/05/2023
  9. N. Khan & S. Sultana. 2005. Eur J Cancer Prev. Inhibition of two stage renal carcinogenesis, oxidative damage and hyperproliferative response by Nigella sativa . Referred on 30/05/2023.
  10. H. Gali-Muhtasib et al. 2004. Int J Oncol. Thymoquinone extracted from black seed triggers apoptotic cell death in human colorectal cancer cells via a p53-dependent mechanism . Referred on 30/05/2023.
  11. Md. A. Khan et al. 2011. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. Anticancer Activities of Nigella Sativa (Black Cumin) . Referred on 30/05/2023.
  12. AF Majdalawieh & MW Fayyad. 2016. J Ayurveda Integr Med. Recent Advances on the anti-cancer properties of Nigella sativa, a widely used food additive . Referred on 30/05/2023
  13. N. Chehl et al. 2009. HPB (Oxford). Anti-inflammatory effects of the Nigella sativa seed extract, thymoquinone, in pancreatic cancer cells . Referred on 30/05/2023
  14. F. Norouzi et al. 2017. Res Pharm Sci. The effect of Nigella sativa on inflammation-induced myocardial fibrosis in male rats . Referred on 30/05/2023.
  15. A. Hanna et al. 2008. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. Anti bacterial activity of Nigella sativa against clinical isolates of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus . Referred on 30/05/2023.
  16. AO Bamosa et al. 2010. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. Effect of Nigella sativa seeds on the glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus . Referred on 30/05/2023.
  17. A. Koshak et al. 2017. Phytother Res. Nigella sativa Supplementation Improves Asthma Control and Biomarkers: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial . Referred on 30/05/2023.
  18. SHM Aljabre et al. 2015. Journal of Dermatology & Dermatologic Surgery. Dermatological effects of Nigella sativa . Referred on 30/05/2023.
  19. EA Rogozh et al. 2011. Plant Physiol Biochem. Novel antifungal defenses from Nigella sativa L. seeds . Referred on 30/05/2023.
  20. AM Eid et al. 2017. J Trop Med. A Review on the Cosmeceutical and External Applications of Nigella sativa. Referred on 30/05/2023.
  21. R. Mahdavi et al. 2015. Journal of Herbal Medicine. Effects of black seeds (Nigella sativa) on male infertility: A systematic review . Referred on 30/05/2023.
  22. M. Mossa et al. 2013. ResearchGate. The use of Nigella sativa as a single agent in the treatment of male infertility . Referred to 06/01/2023.
  23. H. Mollazadeh & H. Hosseinzadeh. 2014. Iranian J Basic Med Sci. The protective effect of Nigella sativa against liver injury: a review . Referred to 06/01/2023.
  24. MR Mahmoud et al. 2002. J Ethnopharmacol. The effect of Nigella sativa oil against the liver damage induced by Schistosoma mansoni infection in mice. Referred to 06/01/2023.
  25. P. Hayatdavoudi et al. 2016. Avicenna J Phytomed. Renal injury, nephrolithiasis and Nigella sativa: A mini review . Referred to 06/01/2023
  26. H. Sovova et al. 2015. ResearchGate. Journal of Supercritical Fluids. Supercritical CO2 extraction of volatile thymoquinone from Monarda Didyma and M. fistulosa herbs . Referred on 06/05/2023
CBD creams now permanently more affordable

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What can a cannabinoid deficiency cause?

What can a cannabinoid deficiency cause?

More is being known about the human internal cannabinoid system all the time. For example, according to a review by the US Department of Health endocannabinoid system and its deficiency states are associated with almost all diseases (1). This article looks specifically at endocannabinoid deficiency as a potential cause of migraines, fibromyalgia, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

Purpose of the endocannabinoid system

The purpose of the endocannabinoid system is to monitor, balance and maintain the body’s various functions. This clever system is part of a vast receptor network. Cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 are located everywhere in the body and therefore it affects almost all physiological functions of the body (2).

Substances naturally found in hemp such as cannabinoids ( CBD etc.), terpenes and flavonoids affect the endocannabinoid system in a balancing way all together ( Entourage effect ) and individually (3).

The human internal cannabinoid system was only discovered in the 1990s.

The endocannabinoid system, i.e. the internal cannabinoid system a significant discovery took place in the early 1990s. It was only then, thanks to Lisa Matsuda and her colleagues, that the first cannabinoid receptor CB1 was discovered. Next, the CB2 receptor was discovered, which was found to be part of the immune system and the nervous system. CB2 cannabinoid receptors have been found all over the body. They are found, among other things, in blood vessels, heart, liver, kidneys, intestine, spleen, bones, genitals and lymph cells (4).


Cannabinoid system deficiency states (CECD) can be the cause of e.g. for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), fibromyalgia and migraine

In a 2004 study, leading endocannabinoid researcher Dr. Ethan Budd Russo was the first to put forward a theory related to the state of internal cannabinoid deficiency (CECD, or Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency ). and related health problems. The deficiency state can be caused by a low amount of cannabinoids in the body, or it can also be related to defective or missing cannabinoid receptors in the body. If the body is unable to maintain homeostasis, i.e. a state of balance in its physiological systems, it may contribute to the onset of various diseases. The diseases under study are significantly related to the functioning of the immune system.

Based on new research, several researchers think that deficits in the internal cannabinoid system may be related to migraines and diseases such as fibromyalgia and irritable bowel syndrome, or IBS (5). Although not all medical professionals support this idea yet, new research results support the theory and there are more and more of them all the time.


Migraine refers to a disease that causes headache attacks. Although the exact cause of migraine is still not completely known, it is known that it is usually caused by a disturbance in the brain stem caused by external factors. Genetic predisposition also has a decisive influence on the development of migraine. Migraine with aura in particular seems to be a hereditary type (6).

Migraine occurs to some degree in one in ten people and is three times more common in women than in men. For women, migraine attacks most often occur at the same time as menstruation, when it is possible to talk from menstrual migraines. Migraines also occur in children and young people (6).

Migraine symptoms

Migraine attacks and intensities vary from person to person and are often caused by external factors. A migraine attack can be triggered by, for example, stress, sunlight, alcohol, insomnia and too long meal breaks (6).


Fibromyalgia refers to a chronic disease that causes long-term musculoskeletal pain that is not caused by injury, inflammation or damage. Other common symptoms associated with fibromyalgia include memory problems, fatigue, and sleep problems. Sleep problems usually mean that sleep is not refreshing, i.e. fatigue continues even after a night’s sleep (7).

Fibromyalgia is a fairly common syndrome in Finland and about five percent of Finns suffer from it. The majority of patients are female (7).

According to research conducted by Ethan Russo in 2004, it has been found that the internal cannabinoid system is involved in the perception of pain and the sending of pain signals to the brain. Based on research results, disturbances in signals can contribute to the formation of diseases that produce long-term pain conditions. The study found that cannabinoids can reduce mechanisms in the peripheral nervous system, digestive system and spinal cord that increase pain perception (5).

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

Irritable bowel syndrome or IBS (Irritable Bowel Syndrome) is very common in Finland. At least 10% of Finns suffer from this problem. In general, IBS occurs twice as often in women as in men (8).

Despite the fact that IBS is an unpleasant problem, it is not considered dangerous and is not associated with other serious diseases. In the past, this syndrome was called irritable bowel syndrome, but later its name has been changed because the symptoms are essentially also related to the small intestine (8).

IBS symptoms

Irritable bowel syndrome is a functional problem of the intestines, in which the functioning of the intestines is disturbed and the patient may experience pain in the abdominal area. Usually the symptoms are also accompanied by abdominal swelling and flatulence. The function of the intestine can also change, so that defecation is less frequent or more frequent than average and the stomach is, so to speak, either loose or hard (8).

In most cases, the spectrum of intestinal microbes in an IBS patient is smaller than in a completely healthy person. The reasons for the symptoms are not yet completely known, but researchers estimate that it is related to bowel movements, the permeability of the walls in the intestine, low-grade inflammation, pain perception or nervous system activity. For others, eating may make symptoms more difficult and therefore changes in eating habits may ease symptoms caused by irritable bowel syndrome. Sometimes irritable bowel is associated with another functional symptom. Psychological factors such as anxiety and depression can also be associated with irritable bowel syndrome (8).

In the future, deficiency states could be alleviated with suitable cannabinoid medicines.

Based on Dr. Ethan Russo’s research, a lack of endocannabinoids can be a significant factor in the development of irritable bowel syndrome in the same way as it is with migraines and fibromyalgia. All of these diseases seem to be related to serotonin levels and its function.

It would seem that the treatment of symptoms can be developed especially by affecting the patient’s serotonin levels, and cannabinoids naturally offer essential help in this. Although more research is needed, according to Ethan Russo, endocannabinoid deficiency could be alleviated with appropriate cannabinoid medications. More research is also needed on the subject, so that the whole concept of the endocannabinoid deficiency state can be better understood (5).


1. Pál Pacher & George Kunos. 2014. Modulating the endocannabinoid system in human health and disease: successes and failures. FEBS J .

2. Bradley E. Alger. 2013. Getting High on the Endocannabinoid System. Cerebrum .

3. Ethan Russo & John McPartland. 2001. Cannabis and Cannabis Extracts: Greater Than the Sum of Their Parts.

4. Sean Munro et al. 1993. Molecular characterization of a peripheral receptor for cannabinoids. Nature.

5. Russo, EB 2004. Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency (CECD): Can this Concept Explain Therapeutic Benefits of Cannabis in Migraine, Fibromyalgia, Irritable Bowel Syndrome and other Treatment-Resistant Conditions? Neuroendocrinology Letters.

6. Sari Atula. 2019. Migraine . Medical book Duodecim. Referred on 03.01.2022

7. Heikki Julkunen. 2019. Medical book Duodecim. Referred on 04.01.2022

8. Tiia Reho. 2021. Doctor’s journal Duodecim. Referenced 04.01.2022

CBD, Thyroid and Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism

CBD, Thyroid and Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism

The thyroid gland is a small, butterfly-shaped organ in the lower part of the throat, and its role in the various functions of the body is significant. This article takes a general look at the effect of cannabidiol, or CBD, on thyroid function and how it affects hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.


What is the thyroid gland?


The thyroid gland is located on both sides of the trachea and its job is to produce a hormone called thyroxine. The thyroid gland plays an important role in regulating metabolism, and the thyroxine hormone it produces is essential for humans. If a person develops thyroid disease, it can negatively affect their health by causing a hormonal imbalance. (1)

Diseases related to the thyroid gland can manifest in many different ways. Below is a list of the most common challenges related to thyroid function:

  • Inflammation of the thyroid gland
  • The thyroid gland grows larger than usual
  • Tumors form in the thyroid gland
  • Abnormal production of tyrosine causing hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. (1)


The endocrine and endocannabinoid system


The thyroid gland is one of the eight largest glands that make up the endocrine system. This term refers to the system that produces and secretes several different hormones in the body. The endocannabinoid system i.e. the internal cannabinoid system describes a biological system that also regulates and balances key functions of the body. Two important components of this system are endocannabinoids and cannabinoid receptors.

Endocannabinoids are naturally occurring compounds in the body that have a similar structure to cannabinoids. Both endocannabinoids and exogenous cannabinoids can bind to cannabinoid receptors and affect the body’s balance, depending on the location of the receptor in the body. Some evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system may interact with the endocrine system and thus also affect thyroid function. (2)


Hyperthyroidism and symptoms


Hyperactivity of the thyroid gland affects the body’s functions in many ways. An overactive thyroid means that the thyroid gland produces more thyroid hormones than necessary. Hyperactivity of the thyroid gland speeds up the metabolism, and its symptoms include, for example, deterioration of condition, increased sweating, weight loss, increased heart rate and bowel function. In addition to these, fatigue, atrial fibrillation, various eye symptoms and impaired vision can also occur. Excessive activity can also cause speech and movement to become more lively than normal. The symptoms often increase little by little and become worse over time. (3)


Symptoms caused by thyroid dysfunction.

Thyroid hormone deficiency slows down the metabolism, which can result in symptoms such as dry skin, sensitivity to cold, fatigue, constipation and slowing of the heart rate. Symptoms may also include memory problems and mood swings.


Hypothyroidism and its symptoms


Hypothyroidism means that the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones to meet the body’s needs. The deficiency of the hormone produced by the thyroid gland affects the metabolism by slowing it down. Dry skin, sensitivity to cold, fatigue, constipation and slowing of the heart rate can occur as a result of the slowing down of the metabolism. In addition to these, swelling can also occur, especially in the area of ​​the legs, face and eyes. In severe cases, symptoms may also include memory problems and mood swings. Often, all symptoms appear gradually at first and get worse over time. (4)

More than 300,000 people in Finland use thyroxine for the treatment of hypothyroidism, or about 6% of the entire population. Deficiency is 4 times more common in women than in men. Although the disease can also occur in younger people, it is by far the most common among middle-aged and older people. (4)


Thyroid cancer


Thyroid cancer is a rare cancer that develops in thyroid cells. The type of thyroid cancer varies depending on which cells it affects. There are four different types of cancer related to the thyroid gland, which can be distinguished from each other with the help of a cell image examination under a microscope. Of these, the most common types are papillary thyroid cancer and follicular thyroid cancer. Less common are medullary thyroid cancer and anaplastic thyroid cancer, the latter of which is very rare. In Finnish women, cancer related to the thyroid gland is 2-4 times more common than in men. (5)

Evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system may play a role in the treatment of thyroid cancer. Many studies highlight that CBD has potential in general as support for cancer treatment and for this reason it can also affect the development of thyroid cancer in a preventive way.


Is CBD good for the thyroid?


CBD is one of the many natural cannabinoid compounds in the hemp plant. Although research is still in its early stages, evidence shows that cannabinoids may be useful in the treatment of a number of diseases and their associated symptoms. Although further research is needed, studies show that CBD can support the functioning of the thyroid gland and thus help alleviate the symptoms of some thyroid diseases.

Some evidence suggests that CBD may also play a role in hormonal regulation. In this regard too, CBD can offer an alternative form of treatment for thyroid hormone balance. However, further research is needed and the matter should be discussed with an expert doctor before using CBD products. (6)

According to research, CBD is an effective alternative for pain relief and can be useful in the treatment of both joint and muscle pain. CBD also affects the well-being of the skin by treating dry skin, which is a common symptom of thyroid-related problems.

To find out more about the benefits of CBD for these, see also the article Pain and CBD , and Rashes and skin care with CBD .

One common cause of thyroid dysfunction is Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. It is a type of autoimmune disease that involves chronic inflammation of the thyroid gland. Evidence shows that CBD has anti-inflammatory properties, which means it can help reduce inflammation in the thyroid gland as well.

At worst, symptoms related to the thyroid gland can significantly interfere with normal life, increasing stress, anxiety and thus worsening mood swings. Evidence shows that CBD may be helpful as well anxiety and insomnia in treatment, as well as in the management of the resulting symptoms. For this reason, CBD can offer alternative help to alleviate these symptoms as well.


Safety of CBD


The World Health Organization ( WHO), CBD is generally well tolerated and has a good safety rating. Made in 2017 research According to the report, cannabis use was not found to have a harmful relationship with thyroid problems. (7)

However, some evidence shows that CBD can alter the effects and duration of action of other medications. For example, CBD and some thyroid medications can both affect the activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes in the liver. CBD may therefore affect the metabolism of the drug, if they are used with certain drugs at the same time. For this reason, the joint use of medicines and CBD should always be discussed with a doctor first.


Risks and considerations


Although quite a lot is already known about the therapeutic possibilities of CBD, it is also worth being aware that it can also have unwanted side effects. In addition, it is important to take into account the dosage method, the potency and quality of the product, as well as the interactions of other possible medicines.

To reduce the risk of hypothyroidism, it would be good to use enough iodine, as iodine plays an essential role in the functioning of the thyroid gland. Since the body does not produce iodine itself, people must eat iodine-rich foods or take iodine supplements. However, it is important that the daily dose does not exceed 150 micrograms, because excessive iodine intake can also cause hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, as well as enlargement of the thyroid gland. Foods containing iodine include e.g. eggs, meat, fish, grains and dairy products. (8)

According to people’s experiences, the amino acid tyrosine (i.e. l-tyrosine) and selenium, also available as a natural product, have eased the challenges related to the thyroid gland. Selenium has been studied to prevent the development of various types of cancer. Brazil nuts contain a lot of selenium in a highly absorbable form. However, you should limit your consumption to a few brazil nuts a day. There is also some talk about the benefits of red light as a form of treatment that supports the thyroid gland. However, the red light must be of good quality and such products are sold in expert online stores and wellness stores.



The thyroid gland produces a hormone called thyroxine, which is essential for health and regulates metabolism. Diseases related to the thyroid gland can cause a hormonal imbalance, the symptoms of which can include a variety of challenges such as inflammation, fatigue and metabolic changes.

CBD is an important chemical compound that occurs naturally in the hemp plant and can offer a wide variety of health benefits, including thyroid-related challenges. Some studies suggest that CBD may support thyroid health and reduce the symptoms of certain thyroid conditions. However, further research is needed to confirm these findings.

CBD can interact with certain thyroid medications and for this reason, it is recommended that a person consult a doctor before using CBD products. Special attention is recommended to the use of iodine and healthy lifestyles that reduce inflammation.




  1. P. Mustajoki. 2021. Medical book Duodecim. Thyroid diseases. Referred on 02/07/2024
  2. M. Borowska et al. 2018. Endocrinology Polska. The effects of cannabinoids on the endocrine system. Referred on 02/07/2024
  3. P. Mustajoki. 2021. Medical book Duodecim. Hyperactivity of the thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism). Referred on 02/07/2024
  4. P. Mustajoki. 2021. Duodecim. Thyroid deficiency (hypothyroidism). Referred on 12/02/2024
  5. K. Muona. 2021. Duodecim. Thyroid cancer. Referenced 02/13/2024.
  6. A. Porcella et al. 2002. PubMed. Evidence for functional CB1 cannabinoid receptor expressed in the rat thyroid. Referred on 02/07/2024
  7. S. Malhotra et al. 2017. Effect of Marijuana Use on Thyroid Function and Autoimmunity. Referred on 12/02/2024.
  8. K. Englund. 2022. Iodine is an essential nutrient for the body, which is needed for thyroid hormone production. Referred on 12/02/2024
Does CBD oil have side effects?

Does CBD oil have side effects?

Want to know if CBD oil has side effects? This article has compiled the most common information about the side effects that some people may experience from using CBD oil. Possible side effects are always case-specific and are affected by many factors such as the characteristics of the user (weight, metabolism, diseases), as well as the quality of the CBD oil or CBD products used.


What are the side effects of using CBD oil or can there be?

Although there are generalizations that give direction about the side effects of CBD, each user reacts to it in their own way and based on the situation that the user has at any given time. The individual’s effects on CBD products cannot be predicted with certainty until it has been tried. We therefore recommend always starting the use of CBD oil with the lowest possible dosage and increasing the dosage slowly by observing your own situation for a couple of weeks.

According to a study conducted in 2017, the most commonly reported side effects were fatigue, diarrhea and changes in appetite and weight. Compared to other drugs used to treat these conditions, CBD has fewer side effects (1).

Below you will find a more detailed list and comments on the most common side effects that the use of CBD may have in some cases.



Some users experience some degree of fatigue after consuming CBD products. At the same time, many also feel that CBD helps them fall asleep and deepen sleep, so fatigue cannot be considered a direct harmful effect.

If you find CBD too tiring, you can try to reduce the dosage a little and monitor your situation again. The experience of fatigue may change after using CBD products for a longer period of time. The recommendation is to start using it with the smallest possible dosage and increasing it as needed when the body is used to its effects.


Dry mouth


Dry mouth is one of the most common side effects caused by CBD. Cannabidiol or CBD affects the receptors in the salivary glands and may temporarily reduce saliva production. However, dry mouth is not harmful and can be easily prevented by drinking fluids such as water when necessary.


Changes in appetite


Side effects related to experiencing appetite are fairly common with CBD oil. Factors affecting appetite are above all mental and physical well-being, which may also be affected by the use of CBD. Depending on the situation, CBD products may increase or decrease appetite. If you experience unwanted effects on your appetite, you should try reducing the dosage of CBD oil until your appetite returns to normal.


Changes in blood pressure


The use of CBD oil may cause a decrease in blood pressure. Sometimes it can go completely unnoticed, and that’s why especially those suffering from health problems should monitor their blood pressure regularly if they want to use CBD products. If you are concerned about the use of CBD and the possible lowering of blood pressure, we recommend that you discuss the matter with your doctor before using CBD products.




In some cases, diarrhea has been observed as a side effect of CBD oil. Diarrhea may also be affected by using the carrier oil in CBD oil into which CBD has been extracted.

The carrier oil is usually olive oil, hemp oil or MCT oil obtained from coconut, whose function is to improve the absorption of cannabinoids in the body and to bring additional nutrients to the product. In some cases, certain oils may irritate the mucous membranes of the stomach, and therefore it is recommended to start dosing as carefully as possible and consider changing the carrier to another, if diarrhea occurs repeatedly as a side effect.


What are the side effects of CBD oil when used in combination with medications?


CBD is often used as a complementary treatment. Therefore, more clinical research is needed on the effect of CBD on liver enzymes, drug transporters and interactions with other drugs and to determine whether it causes mainly positive or negative effects, for example by reducing the necessary doses of clobazam in epilepsy and thus the side effects of clobazam.

Together, the combination of certain medicinal substances and CBD may increase or decrease the effectiveness of the medicine in a significant way. If you use certain products belonging to the pharmaceutical group below, we recommend discussing the use of CBD products together with your doctor.

​​CBD affects the user through cannabinoid receptors and the substance is removed from the body mainly through the liver. An enzyme called cytochrome p450 is essentially related to the metabolism of CBD and the use of CBD can increase the activity of these enzymes in the body. These CYP enzymes are everywhere in the body, especially in the liver. CYP enzymes also have a central effect on the behavior of other medicinal substances in the body, i.e. CBD and certain medicinal substances can reduce or increase the effectiveness of the medicine in a sometimes dangerous way (2).

According to the study, not all interactions have been studied yet. So more clinical trials with a larger number of participants are needed. Read more about the possible interactions of CBD oil with drugs commonly used in Finland in our article “ The effect of CBD oil with drugs “.

What is safe CBD oil?


Safe CBD oil is always made from high-quality and pure raw materials and extracted using safe methods such as carbon dioxide extraction without additional solvents. Safety is also significantly increased by third-party laboratory analyzes of the contents of the products. Such analyzes include e.g. cannabinoid profile, heavy metal and contamination analyses.

If you’re looking for safe CBD oils, we recommend checking out the selection in our online store. In the online store, you can find third-party analyzes of the products and more information on the use and manufacture of CBD.




  1. K. Iffland & F. Grotenhermen. 2017. An Update on Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol: A Review of Clinical Data and Relevant Animal Studies Referred on 31.08.2021
  2. Johns Hopkins University. Clinical Trials. Interactions Between Cannabinoids and Cytochrome P450-Metabolized Drug. Referred to on September 1, 2021
Gingivitis and CBD

Gingivitis and CBD

Gingivitis is certainly one of the most common health challenges for all people all over the world. Gums become inflamed easily and if left untreated, it may have irreversible effects. Fortunately, it is easy to influence the health of your mouth and teeth yourself, and in this article we will introduce you to CBD oil as an addition to good dental hygiene to make your mouth and gums easier to breathe.


What is gingivitis?


Gingivitis, or inflammation of the gums, is very common and sometimes occurs even in those who take care of their dental hygiene very well. Gingivitis is the result of plaque remaining on the surface of the tooth, which irritates the gums and causes redness and bleeding. (1,2)

Gingivitis in itself is not dangerous and if treated well, it does not cause any more serious symptoms.


Gingivitis symptoms


Gingivitis is easy to recognize, because the inflamed gum bleeds when you brush your teeth. The inflammation can be local and the blood can only come from one tooth, but the gum can also bleed from the entire tooth line. In addition to bleeding, the gums are usually a little red and swollen, and sensitivity to touch may also appear. (1,2)


Treatment of gingivitis


Gingivitis is a temporary problem and usually heals quickly by improving dental hygiene. You should brush your teeth in the morning and in the evening, use dental floss and preferably gargle your mouth with water at the end of every meal.

Even more careful cleaning of the bleeding and reddened area for a few days is usually enough to calm the inflamed gum. (1,2)

Untreated gingivitis can lead to periodontitis, a disease that destroys the attachment tissues of the teeth.


Swollen, inflamed and bleeding gums require treatment.

Swollen and inflamed gums can be treated with regular tooth brushing. with dental floss and CBD oil.




There is also pain associated with the teeth, which is most commonly caused by a hole in the tooth and the inflammation it causes, gingivitis or inflammation at the root of the tooth. Of course, the cause of the toothache should always be checked by a dentist, but while waiting for that, CBD oil may be helpful because according to studies, it is an effective anti-inflammatory. You can read about relieving toothache with CBD oil in the article Toothache and CBD Oil .


Lifestyles that support dental well-being


The well-being of the teeth is largely dependent on lifestyle. Substances, coffee, nutrient-poor food and poor dental hygiene cause various challenges to the mouth and they are also relatively easy to treat by changing lifestyles.

Teeth can withstand about six acid attacks every day, so regular eating habits are very important, as is a rich, varied diet that contains nutrients that support dental health. Substances such as tobacco and drugs also add challenges to dental equipment, while careful cleaning in the morning and evening reduces them.

The endocannabinoid system in the gums


The endocannabinoid system is an observer system that works throughout the body, and the area of ​​operation also extends to the mouth. Both cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, as well as the best-known endocannabinoids AEA and 2-AG. In addition to these, the endocannabinoid system also includes their disintegrating molecules.

The endocannabinoid system is at least involved in tissue regeneration and alleviating inflammation. (3)


CBD relieves gingivitis


Cannabidiol ( CBD) is a cannabinoid found in hemp, which has also been found to have good properties in terms of gums. CBD may relieve gum inflammation and can be applied directly to the inflamed area. You can read about the effect of CBD oil on inflammation more here .

In the world, even dentists recommend CBD, as part of dental care, because studies have shown CBD to be effective against plaque and for general oral hygiene thanks to CBD’s antibacterial properties. (4,5)




Although gingivitis is a problem that passes quickly, they can even cause irreversible damage, especially if they are repeated and prolonged. Good, enhanced dental hygiene is usually enough to correct the situation, but if the inflammation recurs often, you should definitely pay attention to daily dental care and its effectiveness. CBD oil can be helpful in terms of healing inflammation, because according to studies, CBD is an effective destroyer of inflammatory mediators.



  1. Könönen E.. 2021. Health Library Duodecim. Gingivitis (gingivitis). Referenced 11/1/2023.
  2. Bee. Gingivitis. Referenced 11/1/2023.
  3. Kozono S., Matsuyama T. and Biwasa K. et al. 2010. Involvement of the endocannabinoid system in periodontal healing. . Referenced 11/1/2023.
  4. Stahl V. and Vasudevan K.. 2020. Comparison of Efficacy of Cannabinoids versus Commercial Oral Care Products in Reducing Bacterial Content from Dental Plaque: A Preliminary Observation. Referenced 11/1/2023.
  5. Assatourians G.. How Cannabidiol Can Impact Your Dental Health. Referenced 11/1/2023.
Scalp and CBD

Scalp and CBD

The flakes that slowly fall on the shoulders and the simultaneous intense itching and tingling in the scalp do not indicate that the first snow is falling, but that the scalp is not well. According to studies, CBD affects the well-being of the skin and may also be helpful in dealing with scalp-related challenges. There are many things behind the optimal functioning of the scalp, and in this article we will get to know both of them and whether CBD oil could be of help.


Well-being of the scalp


The scalp is doing well when the hair grows strong, the scalp does not itch, flaky, get too greasy or have a rash. A healthy scalp is evenly colored and unnoticeable. The well-being of the scalp is the sum of many things and you can influence it quite easily yourself. According to studies and user experiences , CBD oil is an effective and gentle product that may also be helpful for various scalp challenges.

Diet also has a significant impact on the health of the scalp.


Scalp problems and their treatment


The skin is the same all over the body, including the scalp. Hair, which is washed often, treated chemically and styled with various products, brings its own additional challenge to the scalp. There are many causes for scalp symptoms and they vary from case to case, but the most common are probably treatments with strong substances, stress, diet or illnesses.

The most common scalp problems are flaking, itching and greasiness. Troubles are very common and almost everyone has them, at least sometimes.


Flaky scalp


A scaly scalp is an unpleasant problem caused by e.g. sebaceous dermatitis, psoriasis , atopy and dry scalp. The background is skin inflammation , as a result of which the skin tries to renew itself too quickly. In the outermost layer of the skin, ceramide fats do not have time to mature and cause the skin to dry out. Immature cells stick together and form dandruff. (1)

There are several reasons for dandruff. The flaking caused by sebum dermatitis is the result of Malassezia fatty yeasts breaking down the sebum, which irritates the skin when it goes rancid. Irritated skin is characterized by peeling, itching and slight redness. (2) When the seborrheic dermatitis is very bad, a topical cortisone shampoo for the scalp may be in order, but there is no actual treatment for seborrheic dermatitis.

Flaky scalp is also caused by inflammatory skin diseases such as atopy and psoriasis.

Treatment for flaky scalp depends on the cause. The inflammation can possibly be eased by e.g. With the help of CBD oil, leaving out excess chemicals and washing the scalp with gentle products that moisturize the skin.


Dry and itchy scalp


Dry scalp cannot go unnoticed, because the itching and tingling is so intense that scratching is unavoidable. Dry scalp often reacts to washing either by relieving the symptoms or by making them worse. There are many reasons behind dry scalp, and external treatment does not always help. The scalp dries out as a result of various styling products, chemical treatments, extreme cold and stress, and it is also caused by the body’s poor fat balance and nutrient-poor food.

Dry scalp can be treated with proper nutrition and using hair washing products that contain as few additives and chemicals as possible. It is also good to avoid hair styling products, or at least look for products that are as chemical-free as possible. Slightly moisturizing shampoos and a diet containing enough good fats and nutrients will help treat dryness.


Oily scalp


An oily scalp may be hereditary, but it can also be caused by an excessively fatty diet, stress, uneven hormonal activity and chemicals such as styling products and shampoos. It can be quickly recognized by flat and sticky hair after washing, which may also smell unpleasant.

Oily scalp can be treated by correcting the fat balance in the diet, paying attention to your own hormonal activity and washing your hair and scalp with gentle products.

Psoriasis, atopy and scalp


Inflammatory skin diseases, such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis , often cause problems for the scalp as well. The skin cannot breathe, and it cannot be lubricated properly. Shampoos and styling products can worsen the symptoms.

With atopy, the skin of the scalp may become dry. Symptoms include itching, a feeling of tightness and peeling. Atopy can also cause hair loss.

Psoriasis causes patchy, slightly reddened areas on the scalp that itch and peel. The skin is irritated by dandruff, which in turn causes redness, itching and scratching of the scalp. This creates a cycle that is difficult to break.

Atopy and psoriasis-related scalp discomfort can be treated according to the doctor’s instructions. In addition, you should pay special attention to e.g. to the products you use on your scalp, as well as your diet and try to live as stress-free as possible.


Hair loss


An individual hair has its own life cycle, when it reaches the end the hair falls off by itself or e.g. as a result of brushing. There are thousands of hairs and their thickness and quality varies depending on the person. Abundant hair loss or baldness is not common, although it is also part of the effects of age. As people get older, the hair becomes thinner, their number decreases and often the color also becomes lighter.

A moderate amount of hair loss is normal, but regional or extensive hair loss usually indicates something else. Typically, sudden heavy hair loss is caused by stress , injury, infection, diseases such as atopy and psoriasis, and chemotherapy used to treat cancer.


Baldness or androgenetic alopecia


Androgenetic alopecia is an inherited trait that causes baldness from a young age, especially in men. Female pattern baldness due to androgenetic reasons usually begins only after middle age and rarely leads to complete pattern baldness as in men. Baldness starts at the temples and forehead, moving slowly but surely towards the scalp. (3)


Telogen hair loss


Telogen hair loss refers to sudden, even sudden shedding of hair, which is usually caused by a strong stress reaction, childbirth, injury or serious infection. At the same time, hair dies and a larger number of new ones are born, so this kind of hair loss usually heals on its own. (4)


Bald head


Baldness or alopecia areata is an autoimmune disease that causes localized, sudden hair loss. It is most common in adolescents and young adults and occurs in less than 2% of the population. The course of the disease cannot be predicted, but usually the hair grows back on its own over time.

Tips for treating dry and itchy scalp.

Treatment of dry and itchy scalp with CBD.


The endocannabinoid system and the scalp


The endocannabinoid system is a system found in every person and in almost all species of organisms, whose task is to observe the events of the body and, if necessary, to intervene in it, so that everything works on time and correctly. The endocannabinoid system consists of endocannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors and enzymes that break them down.

The endocannabinoid system is involved in almost all functions of the body and it works in the background of the skin, scalp and hair. studies have found that the CB1 receptor is especially related to hair growth and also

There are two endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-AG. Among them, anandamide in particular seems to promote hair growth, especially via the CB1 receptor. (5)


Cannabinoids and the scalp


Hemp contains many different cannabinoids. One of the most well-known, and also the most studied cannabinoids is cannabidiol or CBD. According to studies, CBD has numerous properties that affect well-being and may also have effects on the health of the scalp.

According to studies, CBD can reduce general and local inflammation in the body. Cannabinoid also has similar effects CBGwith both alone and together with CBD. (6) The effect of CBD on inflammation can be read more here .

CBD has also been found to support the well-being of the skin and is well absorbed through the skin. It seems that CBD may calm down inflamed sebaceous glands and thus help, for example, with sebaceous dermatitis (7).

CBD may also be helpful in hair-related issues, as it promotes the well-being of hair follicles and can even restore hair growth in case of baldness. (8)

You can read about the effect of CBD oil on the skin and rashes here and about CBD cosmetics here. CBD also has a stress-relieving effect and you can read about it more here .




There are numerous scalp-related challenges and even more reasons leading to them. In general, the challenges can be overcome with home techniques, and the treatment is sufficient to soothe the scalp and wash it regularly. Sometimes there is a disease in the background and in that case improving the condition of the scalp depends largely on the typical treatment of the disease, but in many situations CBD oil may also help, but in general the scalp can be taken care of in the same way as the skin in general. A nutritious, balanced diet, lowering stress levels, reducing the chemical load and treatment with natural products provide a good basis for the well-being of the scalp and scalp. The scalp can also be treated with various baths, oiling and massage.




  1. Airola K.. 2023. Duodecim health library. Flaking. Referenced 10/10/2023
  2. Airola K.. 2021. Duodecim health library. Sebaceous rash. Referenced 10/10/2023
  3. Airola K.. 2022. Health Library Duodecim. Male pattern baldness and female pattern baldness (androgenetic alopecia). Referenced 10/10/2023
  4. Airola K.. 2022. Health Library Duodecim. Hair loss and baldness. Referenced 10/10/2023.
  5. Telek A., Biro T., Bodo E., et al.. 2007. Inhibition of human hair follicle growth by endo- and exocannabinoids. Referenced 10/10/2023
  6. Cabrera C., Keir-Rudman S., Horniman N., Clarkson N. and Page C..2021. The anti-inflammatory effects of cannabidiol and cannabigerol alone, and in combination. Referenced 10/10/2023.
  7. Olah A., Toth B. and Borbiro I. et al.. 2014. Cannabidiol exerts sebostatic and anti-inflammatory effects on human sebocytes. Referenced 10/10/2023
  8. Klosner A., ​​Glynn k., Rajgopal A., Malik K., Yim S. and Stern N.. 2020. Therapeutic Potential of Cannabidiol (CBD) for Skin Health and Disorders. . Referenced 10/10/2023
Celiac disease and CBD

Celiac disease and CBD

Celiac disease is an autoimmune disease that a certain hereditary susceptibility and sensitization to gluten is usually required for outbreaks. Its occurrence is more common than previously thought. Celiac disease, which was previously only considered a rare childhood disease, has unexpectedly turned out to be a popular disease as research has developed.

What is celiac disease?


Celiac disease is inflammation of the surface of the small intestine caused by gluten, a protein found in grains, and the resulting destruction of the intestinal lining. Celiac disease is classified as an autoimmune disease and approx. 2% of the population. Celiac disease occurs in people of all ages, from children to the elderly, and skin-celiac disease occurs in about one in ten people with celiac disease. (1,2)

There is usually a predisposing factor for celiac disease in the genes, but it can also appear as a co-morbidity of another disease. Celiac disease is also associated with other diseases such as type 1 diabetes and thyroid diseases. (1,2)


Celiac disease symptoms


The symptoms of celiac disease are clear, but not entirely clear-cut. Celiac disease is associated with similar symptoms that may differ from the symptoms of other sufferers. The most common reasons to suspect celiac disease are prolonged diarrhea or loose stools, changes in bowel function and stomach-related symptoms that appear after eating, such as bloating, flatulence and pain. (1,2)

Untreated celiac disease can also be caused by e.g. anemia, vitamin deficiencies, tooth enamel damage and aphthae on the oral mucosa. In children, celiac disease can also cause growth retardation. (1,2)

Symptoms of celiac disease include itchy blisters on the elbows, knees and buttocks.



Celiac disease is only treated with diet. Symptoms and intestinal inflammation are caused by a protein contained in grains called glutenmy. Gluten is found in wheat, barley and rye, and avoiding these grains is usually enough to keep the symptoms under control. For some, even a small chance of gluten residues causes symptoms, while others can even eat a little gluten from time to time without any major harm. (1,2)

For skin celiac disease, the doctor often prescribes a cream called Dapsone, because the skin symptoms improve obviously slowly compared to the recovery of bowel function. (2)

Nowadays, pasta, bread, cereals and flour are easy to switch to gluten-free, because they are made from naturally gluten-free ingredients with a huge selection, and the price is no longer sky-high.


Gluten-free is also a trend


Today, various stomach symptoms are very common and many people avoid at least gluten-containing grains in order to make the stomach work better and feel lighter and brighter. There are many reasons why grains cause symptoms. Hereditary susceptibility to celiac disease, poor general condition of the intestines and a diet unsuitable for the intestines are mainly the cause of poor stomach function, but the plant protection agent glyphosate, which is widely used in grain cultivation, may also be to blame for the symptoms, at least in part.

Whole grains contain various nutrients that are essential for the body. When the cereal grain is ground into flour, the nutrients contained in the grain begin to evaporate into the air rather quickly and the grain loses its nutritional value unnecessarily effectively. The flour on the store shelf, often packed in paper or cardboard, not in tight packages, can already be ground months before it ends up in the cupboard waiting to be used. At the point when the bread has been brought to the table through the oven, the nutritional value of the bread can be practically negligible. If you eat grains for the nutrients they contain, it is best to buy whole grains and grind them just before baking.


A gluten-free option. Celiac disease is treated with a gluten-free diet.

Gluten-free options are available in almost all forms these days.


Stool is a measure of a functioning bowel


Having a bowel movement is a necessary procedure for everyone, but it is talked about very little, if at all. The quality of the stool tells a lot about the state of health, and deviations in rhythm, quality and quantity may indicate problems. Good stool comes out easily, is evenly brown and sinks to the bottom of the pot. Loose, hard, light, dark, bloody, floating, or one with undigested food in it, signals that something is wrong. A single instance may not be serious yet, but it is good to find out the cause of symptoms that have continued for a longer period of time.

The Bristol stool scale was developed in 1997 to facilitate the assessment of bowel function. It is also a good help for home use and can be found in, e.g. from here (3).


The cannabinoid system and the gut


The observer of the whole body, the endocannabinoid system, also works in the intestinal area. This system includes the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, as well as other endocannabinoids, the two most famous of which are Anandamide and 2-AG, as well as the degraders of all of them.

Changes in the endocannabinoid system have been observed in the intestines of people with celiac disease. Both cannabinoid receptors have increased on the intestinal surface and the levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide have also increased. (4)


CBD oil and celiac disease


CBD, a cannabinoid found in hemp is known for its numerous therapeutic properties. It can also have an effect that eases the symptoms of celiac disease, as it has been observed e.g. reduce inflammation, promoting bowel function and helping with the symptoms of autoimmune diseases. CBD has also been studied to alleviate stress , which may also be a symptom associated with celiac disease, especially in its early stages.

CBD can also help with skin symptoms because, according to user experience, it is effective in soothing inflamed skin and the resulting itching.



Celiac disease is an unfortunate disease, because it cannot be cured and it usually has symptoms throughout life, whenever you eat grains containing gluten. Treating celiac disease is relatively easy, as gluten-free products are now available easily and quite cheaply. CBD oil can be a big help for many symptoms related to celiac disease, such as stress, eczema and bowel function.


  1. Celiac Association. Information about celiac disease. Referenced 11/1/2023.
  2. Tunturi S.. 2022. Terveyskirjasto duodecim. Celiac disease. Referenced 11/1/2023.
  3. Leinonen L. 2016. Hey. Poop is a mirror of gut health. Referenced 11/2/2023.
  4. Battista N., Di Sabatino A. and Di Tommaso M.. 2013. Altered Expression of Type-1 and Type-2 Cannabinoid Receptors in Celiac Disease. Referenced 11/1/2023.
Focus and CBD

Focus and CBD

The phone beeps to signal a new social media post. An email will follow. There are footsteps coming from the corridor and the colleague sitting at the next table is laughing, possibly at a funny video he just saw. The summer’s most played hit is playing on the radio and thoughts are already turning to next week’s menu. Attention is drawn to everything else except what you should be doing, and it’s no wonder! Lack of concentration is one of the biggest challenges of today. It is understandable, because the flood of stimuli in the environment is huge.

Is good concentration a gift given at birth, or can it be improved when it is impaired? In this article, we will get to know what concentration is, how it can be supported and whether CBD oil could help with this!


What is focus?


Focusing is paying attention and concentrating on what is being done and what is essential in terms of the operation.

When you are deeply focused, you lose track of time, you immerse yourself in what you are doing and things seem to flow naturally. As a result of concentration, the quality of work improves, learning deepens and thinking can develop.

The background is the activity in the frontal lobe of the brain and concentration is the cooperation of the brain and nervous system. The frontal lobe matures until the teenage years, and the nerve connections related to concentration can be strengthened throughout childhood. The brain is plastic, which means it can change throughout life. The ability to concentrate can also be improved when it weakens.

The central nervous system’s neurotransmitter, dopamine, is central to brain activity related to concentration. Dopamine is produced not only in the brain but also in the gut and it carries signals between brain cells. Dopamine especially affects concentration, motivation, movement and the feeling of pleasure, as well as sleep, emotion regulation and energy balance. It also improves the general functioning of the brain. (1)


Difficulty concentrating


Difficulty concentrating is not uncommon and everyone has it at times. There may be other challenges in the background such as ADHD , depression or stress , but the flood of environmental stimuli that strongly affects concentration unfortunately touches and challenges everyone. Life is hectic and there is a lot to think about, instant videos are watched for hours a day and work and studying are interrupted by the disturbances coming from this environment. It’s as if the brain has already learned that the required time to focus on one thing is very short, and that’s why fidgeting is a weakness of the neural connection.

Poor concentration shows up as interruptions in thought. It seems that he does not understand what is being said, what is meant by the text, and even familiar tasks seem more difficult than they really are. My mind wanders somewhere else and it’s hard to get a grip on what’s going on.

The fast rhythm of life and the stimuli in the environment have made it very common for children and adults alike to have poor concentration. Concentration challenges are already common enough that its symptoms have their own term, attention deficit disorder (ADT).


Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a disorder that affects the ability to concentrate due to a flood of stimuli.

Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) reflects difficulty concentrating due to a constant barrage of stimuli.


ADT stands for Attention Deficit Disorder


ADT (Attention Deficit Trait) or concentration disorder is a relatively new term and it refers to the so-called self-acquired difficulty concentrating. R. Hallowelli, an American psychiatrist who treats ADHD patients, noticed that people suffering from hyperactivity, i.e. ADHD symptoms, but who do not have ADHD, i.e. a neurological abnormality in brain function, are coming to his office. He interpreted that they have self-acquired attention deficit disorder instead of congenital ADHD and coined the term Attention Deficit Trait (ADT) to describe the symptomatology. ADT is precisely difficulty concentrating caused by a flood of stimuli. (2,3)


Developing a child’s ability to concentrate


The frontal lobe continues to mature until adolescence, so childhood is a good time to pay attention to the development of concentration. When life is fast-paced, it is important to stop in peace at the edge of doing things and give the child experiences of moments where there are no distractions. Memory games, long-lasting role plays, crafts and arts, etc. help the child focus on one thing and strengthen the nerve connections needed for concentration. (4,5)


Concentration can be improved


Concentration can be improved in many ways, e.g. with supplements that support it. Magnesium is one of the most important minerals for the body and its deficiency is very common. Taking a good magnesium supplement can have a positive effect on the ability to concentrate and you can read about it more here. Similarly, e.g. L-theanine , the effects of which can be read here .

From the plant ashwagandha (herbaceous plant) and Ginkgo Bilopa (maiden hair tree) can also help with concentration. In addition to these, medicinal mushrooms such as lion’s mane can be helpful.

Vitamins of the B group obtained from food and glucose, a monosaccharide belonging to carbohydrates, are the most significant in terms of concentration. B group vitamins are most abundant in e.g. in beans, sprouts, dairy products and nutritional yeast flakes. Glucose e.g. in dried fruit, fresh fruit and dried fresh vegetables such as carrots. (6)

The ability to concentrate can also be improved by practicing concentration. As with children, an adult’s concentration is also improved by such hobbies that require concentration and deepening. Reading a book, doing crafts, learning new skills, etc. put the brain to work and help in the formation of new nerve connections.


Supporting concentration


Concentration can be supported by taking care of general well-being. A life as stress-free as possible, exercise, a sufficient amount of good sleep , clean and nutritious food, and moments without smart devices provide a good basis for the ability to concentrate, but it should also be supported with, for example, conscious stopping. Daily moments when you just be, listen and observe and don’t do or think about anything, help the nervous system to calm down and create new connections.

Concrete actions at the workplace and at school can also increase the possibility of concentration. You can’t always change the environment, but by openly discussing the need for peace of mind at work and, for example, by using noise canceling headphones, you can achieve the desired peace for your own work.

The ability to concentrate can be improved with music. Rhythmic music has been scientifically proven to help you concentrate better.

According to research, listening to rhythmic music improves concentration.


Music affects concentration


Many people know from experience that music deepens the effect, and this is also confirmed by research. Others need a little noise in the background of their work, while others need silence, but mostly rhythmic music supports everyone’s concentration. According to American research, it is not so much the tempo or nature of the music that is important, but the rhythm in it. (7,8)


The endocannabinoid system underlying attention


The endocannabinoid system is a balancing system of the human body, whose task is to ensure that all bodily functions take place correctly and on time. The endocannabinoid system consists of endo- or internally-born cannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors and the enzymes that break them down.

Endocannabinoids are formed in many places in the body, but usually only when needed. There are two known endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-AG . In the background of concentration, they influence e.g. dopamine production (9) and brain function (10).

Cannabinoids to support concentration


The hemp plant contains many different active compounds, the most familiar of which are cannabinoids. There are more than 120 different types of cannabinoids and this is probably the most famous CBD ( cannabidiol). Other cannabinoids have also been studied and, apart from CBD, CBG or cannabigerol may have the greatest effect on concentration.

CBD oil is extracted from hemp and, according to research, it has numerous properties that affect the well-being of both humans and animals. In the background of concentration, cannabidiol, or CBD, may have a positive effect sleep quality , which you can read more about here. Sstress, which you can read about the interaction with CBD here, and depression, which you can read more about here . According to studies, cannabidiol also has calming effects on the nervous system.

CBD may not directly affect the ability to concentrate, but by helping the body towards balance, its effects most likely extend there as well. The brain plays a significant role in the background of concentration, and according to research, CBD increases blood circulation in those areas where e.g. learning and remembering takes place. (11)




Poor concentration is a common challenge for people of all ages, but there is an opportunity to improve it. There are many ways, but it is also important to stop and think about what might be the cause of poor concentration, so that you can rule out other possible causes such as depression, ADHD or other diseases affecting concentration. Concentration can be supported by e.g. by strengthening the nerve connections necessary for concentration, and with the help of versatile nutrition, supplements and quality sleep. Also CBD oil may be helpful for increasing and maintaining concentration. A new large-scale American study is currently underway on this topic, which will lead to a better understanding of activities related to concentration in the future (12).




  1. Wium M.. 2022. Science photo magazine. Dopamine – a multifunctional pleasure substance. Referenced 10/6/2023.
  2. Student Health Care Foundation. ADHD or even ADT? 6.10.2023.
  3. Edward Hallowell. 2005. Harvard business review. Overloaded Circuits: Why Smart People Underperform. Referenced 10/6/2023.
  4. Mannerheim Child Welfare Association. Supporting the ability to concentrate. Referenced 10/6/2023.
  5. Learning and Joy. Temper increases with age – this is how you support a child’s concentration and self-regulation skills. Referenced 10/6/2023.
  6. Fine. Department of Health and Welfare. Nutritional values. . Referenced 10/6/2023.
  7. Hogenes M., Van Oers B., Diextra R. and Sklad M.. 2015. The effects of music composition as a classroom activity on engagement in music education and academic and music achievement: A quasi-experimental study. Referenced 10/6/2023.
  8. Stammeier J. and Wiksten A.. 2019. Too much noise? Is it difficult to concentrate?. Referenced 10/6/2023.
  9. Covey D., Mateo Y., Sulzer D., Cheer J., and Lovinger D.. 2017. Endocannabinoid modulation of dopamine neurotransmission. Referenced 10/6/2023.
  10. Zou S. and Kumar U.. 2015. Cannabinoid Receptors and the Endocannabinoid System: Signaling and Function in the Central Nervous System . Referenced 10/6/2023.
  11. Bloomfield M., Green S., et al.. 2020. Sage Journals. The effects of acute cannabidiol on cerebral blood flow and its relationship to memory: An arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging study. Referenced 10/6/2023.
  12. Laura Stewart, University of Northern Colorado. Cannabidiol and Focus Study (CBD-Focus). Referenced 10/6/2023.
Psoriasis and CBD

Psoriasis and CBD

Psoriasis, known as a severe skin disease, is an unpleasant problem, but luckily its symptoms can be controlled with many different means. In this article, we will get to know psoriasis as a disease and whether CBD oil could have any effect on the symptoms of psoriasis.

What is psoriasis?

Immune-mediated disease, psoriasis or psori, is an inflammatory chronic condition that manifests itself as a rash either locally or over the entire body. Psoriasis appears only on the skin or also on the nails and joints. Psoriasis usually starts in young or middle-aged people, but it can be found in people of all ages. (1)

Psoriasis is partly caused by hereditary factors. In young people, it often starts from an infection, but in addition to genes, it is also predisposed to e.g. heavy alcohol consumption, smoking and unhealthy lifestyles. The exact cause behind the disease is unknown. (1)

Psoriasis is mostly mild, but sometimes it causes symptoms that make life very difficult, and in the worst case may even cause people to avoid social situations. (1)


Skin or plaque psoriasis

Skin symptoms are the most common manifestation of psoriasis. The psoriatic rash is red-based, well-defined, scaly and itches intensely. They appear in larger areas most sensitively on the elbows, temples and scalp, but it can also appear as small, round spots all over the body. Psoriatic plaques may crack and ooze a clear or bloody discharge. (1)

Pustular psoriasis is a rare form of the disease that causes purulent, blister-like rashes.


Plaque psoriasis (psoriasis vulgaris) is the most common form of psoriasis that occurs on the skin.

Psoriasis often appears on the skin as red, itchy and scaly patches that often appear on the elbows, scalp and scalp, but also all over the body.


Joint and nail psoriasis

Psoriasis symptoms start either at the same time or years after the skin symptoms. The joints are stiff and painful and swollen. Psoriasis of the joints is usually diagnosed by a rheumatologist, and unfortunately it cannot be completely cured because it is a disease that permanently damages the joints. It is possible to alleviate the symptoms and slow down their progression. (1) CBD oil may help with joint challenges and you can read about it more here .

Nail psoriasis always occurs together with joint symptoms, causing clear changes in the appearance of the nail. The nail starts to bulge, thicken and even detach from the nail bed. (1)


Psoriasis treatment

Psoriasis is a disease that may be impossible to cure completely, but there are several ways to alleviate its symptoms.

Mild skin symptoms may be eased by psoriasis creams, scalp care shampoos and lifestyle changes. De-stressing and calming the nervous system, fine-tuning your diet and at least drastically reducing the use of intoxicants may bring significant relief. (1,2) Sometimes it is recommended that baking soda be applied to the skin, especially on areas with rashes, but there are no guarantees that it will be treatable.

For severe skin symptoms, you should always consult a dermatologist to ensure the best treatment. In the most severe cases, the treatment is both cream and internally used drugs, often used to control inflammation. (1,2)

There is always a reason behind all diseases. A triggering factor for psoriasis may not be found, but environmental factors at least worsen the symptoms (1,2). Unhealthy lifestyles such as heavy alcohol use, smoking, a diet that is too fatty and poor in nutrients and a stressful lifestyle increase symptoms, according to both research and experience, and therefore it is important to pay attention to them in the treatment of psoriasis. Especially with diet, it can be challenging to find out what causes symptoms and what doesn’t, but generally, according to experience, avoiding gluten, spicy foods, fast food and alcohol may reduce them significantly. (2)

Often psoriasis symptoms are seasonal and their quality and severity can vary. According to experience, summer, i.e. probably the sun, clearly reduces the symptoms and may even heal the skin completely. Some people with psoriasis spend a few weeks in the winter in the heat of the south, so that the sun breaks the long cold period, during which the skin is covered under clothes. (1)


Foods to avoid

There are no actual foods to avoid associated with this disease, but some foods may worsen the symptoms. Strong spices, coffee, alcohol, gluten and very fatty foods are the most commonly mentioned food substances that may worsen symptoms in conversations. How foods affect people is very individual. Others are more sensitive.


Psoriasis or atopic dermatitis?

Psoriasis and atopic dermatitis both cause severe symptoms on the skin, but they are different diseases. Psoriasis is an immune-mediated inflammatory disease, while atopy is caused by allergies. Red spots are typical for psoriasis, while in atopy the skin is red, scaly and itchy all over. Generally, atopy is a disease of children, and psoriasis occurs among parents, young people and people over middle age.

Associated diseases of psoriasis

Psoriasis is also associated with other diseases, but whether they are caused by psoriasis or the other way around is not entirely certain. Diseases related to psoriasis are very much lifestyle diseases, from which you might think that the reasons behind the symptoms of psoriasis are largely the same as those associated with it, even if the disease itself breaks out for some other reason. Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity and anxiety/depression are typical, as are, of course, joint challenges. Both associated diseases and the symptoms of psoriasis are mainly caused by unhealthy lifestyles such as heavy alcohol consumption, smoking, too fatty and limited diet, stress and a lifestyle with too little exercise. (1,2)


The endocannabinoid system and psoriasis

All functions of the body are monitored by the endocannabinoid system. It is found in all people and almost all animals and its task is to take care of the body’s balance. The endocannabinoid system consists of endogenous or endocannabinoids, their corresponding receptors CB1 and CB2, and their disintegrating enzymes. Endocannabinoids are not stored, but are produced locally as needed.

The endocannabinoid system is also strongly involved in skin-related activities. Its dysregulation has been found to be involved in various skin challenges, such as psoriasis and atopy (3).

In connection with psoriasis, increased activity of both cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 has been observed on the skin and especially in the area of ​​psoriatic plaques. The abundant presence of receptors most likely negates the endocannabinoid system’s attempt to bring the skin back into balance. (4)


Psoriasis and CBD

Phytocannabinoids are cannabinoids naturally occurring in hemp, of which more than 100 different types have been identified. Cannabinoids have been studied extensively for decades and have been found to have numerous properties that may improve well-being.

The skin is the largest human organ and one of its main tasks is to protect the body from external harm. Skin diseases are basically the result of skin cell stress and inflammation, for which CBD may be a great help (5). Cannabinoids are fascinating because when they get into the body, they can affect where care is most needed. When applied to the skin, CBD is well absorbed and quickly reaches both the bloodstream and the treated area.


You can try CBD oil to treat psoriasis. CBD creams can also help.

CBD oils and creams can help with the symptoms of psoriasis, as CBD has antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory, itching and cell death effects.


Cannabidiol (CBD)


Cannabidiol or CBD is a widely studied cannabinoid. It has been found to have a versatile area of ​​influence, which in addition to psoriasis includes e.g. also stress, depression and anxiety. Properties related to psoriasis that ease its symptoms with CBD oil could be its immunomodulating, antibacterial and antioxidant effects, as well as anti-inflammatory, anti-itch and anti-cell death effects. (4,5,6)

You can read more about the effect of cannabidiol (CBD) on stress here and more about the effect on depression here. You can read about the effect of CBD on the skin and rashes more here and about CBD cosmetics here. Inflammation also has its own article and that can be found here .


Cannabigerol (CBG)


CBG or cannabigerol is also a cannabinoid found in hemp, which has properties that affect well-being. CBG has been found in studies to promote skin health and reduce inflammation. (6,7)




Psoriasis, which occurs deeper than the surface of the skin, is a chronic, complex disease whose effects extend to the quality of life, mood and health. It affects the daily life of millions of people and it can be challenging to live with because it is perhaps impossible to cure. In addition to a healthy lifestyle, its symptoms can also be alleviated by cannabinoids such as CBD and CBG, and future research on the topic will increase the understanding of how cannabinoids and the utilization of the endocannabinoid system could help in the treatment of psoriasis.



  1. Psoriasis Association. Information about psoriasis. Referenced 10/17/2023.
  2. Tarnanen K., Rantanen T., Rantalaiho V., Sipilä R. and Psoriasis Association. 2022. Duodecim. Psoriasis (skin and joint psoriasis) control with regular treatment. . Referenced 10/17/2023.
  3. Baswan S., Klosner A., ​​Glynn K., Rajgopal A., Makil K., Yim S., and Stern N.. 2020. Therapeutic Potential of Cannabidiol (CBD) for Skin Health and Disorders. . Referred on 10/17/2023 .
  4. Biro T., Toth B., Hasko G. and Pache P.. 2009. The endocannabinoid system of the skin in health and disease: novel perspectives and therapeutic opportunities. Referenced 10/17/2023.
  5. Makhakhe L.. 2022. Topical cannabidiol (CBD) in skin pathology – A comprehensive review and prospects for new therapeutic opportunities. Referenced 10/17/2023.
  6. Wronski A., Jarocka-Karpowicz I., Stasiewicz A. and Skrzydlewska E.. 2023. Phytocannabinoids in the Pharmacotherapy of Psoriasis. Referenced 10/17/2023.
  7. Perez E., Fernandez J., Fitzgerald C., Rouzard K., Tamura M., and Savile C.. 2022. In Vitro and Clinical Evaluation of Cannabigerol (CBG) Produced via Yeast Biosynthesis: A Cannabinoid with a Broad Range of Anti -Inflammatory and Skin Health-Boosting Properties. Referenced 10/17/2023.
Synthetic cannabinoids

Synthetic cannabinoids

Synthetic cannabinoids are mostly made entirely or partially chemically and their use involves serious health risks. Common synthetic cannabinoids include e.g. HHC, JWH, dronabinol and nabilone. This article discusses the topic of what synthetic cannabinoids are and what their most common effects, side effects, risks and legislation are.


Synthetic cannabis


Synthetic cannabis is a term that more specifically refers to synthetically produced cannabinoids, i.e. chemical compounds designed to mimic the natural cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant. The vast majority of synthetic cannabinoids have been developed in a laboratory and are often dangerous and can cause serious side effects.

The study of cannabinoids has increased in recent years, and especially drugs based on the metabolic reactions of cannabinoids have been central in the experiments. Synthetic cannabinoids are one of the most important groups of drugs that researchers have used in drug development. Synthetic cannabinoids have been used in clinical trials, e.g. for the reason that they enable precise dosing and control in relation to the metabolism of cannabinoids. However, this does not mean that synthetic cannabinoids are better alternatives for humans than natural ones.

In the early 2000s, synthetic cannabinoids became popular conversion drugs in the world, which are sold illegally and in some places also legally. The products entered the market e.g. under the brand names “K2” and “Spice”. Their popularity was largely based on legality and the fact that they cannot be detected or searched for with traditional drug tests. According to research, the effects of synthetic cannabis can be up to 2-100 times stronger than the intoxicating THC found naturally in the cannabis plant. (1)

Human experiences and clinical trials have proven that some synthetic cannabinoids have pain-relieving properties, as well as spasms, inflammation and cancer growth inhibition (1). However, you shouldn’t get too excited about the positive effects alone, because synthetic cannabis causes life-threatening situations at worst (4).


The disadvantages of synthetic cannabinoids


The use of synthetic cannabinoids, also known as conversion drugs, can be associated with great risks and it has been scientifically proven that they cause adverse effects on humans. Adverse effects include e.g. anxiety, nausea, shortness of breath, cognitive impairment, psychosis, difficulty breathing, suicidal ideation, chest pain, high blood pressure, and acute renal failure. Synthetic substances may also have harmful long-term effects, of which more will be known as research progresses. (1)

Synthetic cannabinoids can be so-called full agonists, i.e. they can attach to the body’s cannabinoid receptors completely, causing very strong and at worst life-threatening effects. On the other hand, natural cannabinoids only partially attach to the receptors and are therefore safer alternatives.

Although there are many different types of synthetic cannabinoids, in this article we will focus mainly on the three that are common and are known as HHC, JWH and dronabinol.


Synthetic cannabinoids such as JWH, HHC and dronabinol.

Synthetic cannabinoids, called transformation drugs, are sold in many forms, legally and illegally.



HHC ( Hexahydrocannabinol i ) is a form of the synthetic cannabinoid, which is a derivative of the intoxicating THC found naturally in the cannabis plantderivative of . It is not a completely new thing, as the American chemist Roger Adams synthesized HHC for the first time already in the 1940s. However, its commercialization only happened decades later. (2)

The reason why HHC products have been introduced to the market lies probably in the fact that entrepreneurs in the field have wanted to make money with legal “cannabis products”, which are not prohibited by the UN Narcotics Convention. Each country would have to either ban HHC as a narcotic or regulate it in some other way. (2)

The effect of HHC has been described as similar to THC, producing psychoactive effects, allowing the user to experience strong euphoria, i.e. a feeling of well-being and relaxation. Like THC, HHC also increases appetite. According to experience, the effect of HHC is thought to be a little milder than THC, but in the comparison it is important to note that THC is very rarely used directly in its isolated form. In practice, THC is one of the natural cannabinoids that act in the cannabis plant, some of which are, on the contrary, antipsychotic and therefore balance and even reverse the effects of THC. The plant’s natural amount of THC also varies greatly between different varieties, and the cultivation method also plays a role in the formation of concentrations. For this reason, comparing the effects of HHC and THC depends on many different factors.

The legality of HHC varies by country and it is legally available in at least many European countries and the United States. Although the popularity of HHC has spread widely to several different countries, e.g. Finland and Estonia are countries where HHC is classified as a prohibited substance, and its use is not as popular as in several other countries. In Sweden, HHC is legal, at least for now. There are many types of HHC products on the market, and it is added to, for example, sweets, e-cigarette liquids, industrial hemp blooms and many other familiar consumer products. (2)

The disadvantages and uncertainty of HHC are also increased by the fact that the products do not necessarily have any kind of quality control, in which case unwanted harmful chemicals may be found in the final product. HHC can also be chemically produced from non-intoxicating hemp and for that reason it can also be called a semi-synthetic cannabinoid. (2)




JWH (JWH-018 and JWH -073) are classified as my synthetic cannabinoids, which are designed to mimic the natural cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant. Its use can cause several side effects, such as nausea, dizziness and drowsiness. It can also cause other serious health problems, such as stomach upsets and cerebrovascular disorders.




Dronabinol (dronabinol) is a synthetic THC, or tetrahydrocannabinol, which was approved by the FDA in 1985 for the treatment of HIV and AIDS-induced anorexia and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients unresponsive to conventional antiemetics. (3) This synthetic version of THC is better known by its trade names Marinol, Syndros, Reduvo and Adversa .

The most common side effects of dropanol are nausea, vomiting. dizziness, stomach pain, drowsiness, paranoia and abnormal thoughts. (3)

The use of dronabinol can also cause cognitive changes and even cause mental or physical disability. In addition, it can cause seizures in those who are prone to such. Dronabinol can be dangerous for people with heart disease and cause neurodynamic instability related to blood flow in the body. Symptoms may include fainting, too fast heart rate, sudden drop or rise in blood pressure. (3)


Cannabis pyscosis

Synthetic cannabinoids can also cause more sensitive so-called cannabis psychosis, which can be accompanied by intense anxiety, fear and suicidal thoughts in addition to sensory disturbances. Synthetic cannabis can be up to 100 times stronger than natural cannabis, and its risks to mental health are also significantly greater. (1)


Synthetic cannabis can be life-threatening


The use of synthetic cannabinoids has increased in recent years, gaining attention not only in medical research but also in illicit use. Cases are known around the world where synthetic cannabinoids have even caused deaths. For this reason, among others, many countries have started to ban the use and production of synthetic cannabinoids. (4)


HHC and JWH are common synthetic cannabinoids.

Synthetic cannabinoids are sold as tempting candies and in many other edible forms.


Can synthetic cannabis show up in the blood?


A user of natural cannabis may end up in a situation where, due to use, they have to undergo drug tests and be excluded from working life, even if they never use cannabis during working hours. A positive drug test may also prevent e.g. access to therapy or different treatments.

How long does synthetic cannabis last in urine or blood? Currently, synthetic cannabinoids are not tested in blood or urine at all. It is known that hin fear of screening, some cannabis users switch to synthetic cannabinoids, as they are currently not tested in blood or urine at all. (1)


Reflections on the effects of the prohibition law on conversion drugs


The cannabis prohibition law is certainly part of the reason why synthetic cannabinoids have become more common in the illegal market as well. Synthetic cannabinoids are usually significantly cheaper and many times stronger alternatives to natural cannabis. In addition, their use is not looked for in drug screenings, which makes them the only option for many due to the fear of being caught. For the same reason, also in traffic, for example, many people may drive heavily intoxicated by synthetic drugs without any fear of punishment for drunk driving.

By reforming and regulating the Cannabis Act, one could presumably also reduce the problems caused by synthetic cannabinoids. Interest in synthetic substances might decrease if legal and natural cannabis were more easily, cheaply and safely available with proper quality control. At the moment, in countries where cannabis is illegal, its street market is completely wild and buyers often do not know exactly what or what strength of product they have purchased.

Regulation could also affect the strength and characteristics of the products on the market. Roughly summarized, the more antipsychotic and sedative CBD ( cannabidiol ) cannabis contains, the less adverse effects and health risks of the intoxicating THC . CBD seems to cancel out and balance the effects of THC. Often, illegal growers aim for a high THC content, ignoring CBD, which can cause psychological problems. In the case of legal products, an upper limit for the amount of THC could be decided, for example, and at the same time care should be taken that the balancing CBD content would be high enough.




Synthetic cannabinoids are chemical compounds whose use can cause serious side effects, so they should only be used in medical research. It is important that people understand the potential side effects of synthetic cannabinoids so that they can avoid using them for illegal purposes.

The most common synthetic cannabinoids are Dronabinol, JWH and Hexahydrocannabinol (HHC). Unlike natural plant-derived cannabinoids, synthetic cannabinoids can be full agonists and bind to the body’s receptors completely, whereas natural ones only partially bind, being safer alternatives. Synthetic cannabis does not show up in a blood or urine test, because currently the tests do not screen them at all. Regulation of legal cannabis could potentially reduce the attractiveness and health hazards of synthetic substances.




  1. Castaneto MS et al. 2014. Pubmed. Synthetic cannabinoids: epidemiology, pharmacodynamics, and clinical implications. . Referenced 10/10/2023
  2. Leppänen M.. YLE. 2023. A new “legal cloud” spreads in Europe – Finland banned the sale. . Referenced 10/10/2023
  3. O’Donnell B. et al. 2022. National Library of Medicine. Dronabinol. Referenced 10/10/2023.
  4. Roy EA 2018. The Guardian. Synthetic cannabis deaths spike in New Zealand, igniting legalization debate. Referenced 10/10/2023
Recreational use of cannabis is allowed in Europe

Recreational use of cannabis is allowed in Europe

This summer there has been good hemp news from Europe, as Luxembourg legalized THC cultivation, use and possession of cannabis containing cannabis for private use with certain restrictions. Until now, the cultivation of CBD-containing plants, as well as the sale and use of CBD products, has been allowed, but with the reform of the law, at home, hidden from view, you can grow four plants containing THC and possess 3 grams of flowering for recreational or medicinal use. (1,2)

Germany follows

Likewise, a bill was passed in Germany , which, when it enters into force, will make the German cannabis law the most permissive in Europe. The German law reform still needs to be refined and adapted to different states, but the plans are that German citizens over the age of 18 who belong to the cannabis club would be allowed to both grow and possess THC-containing cannabis. A maximum of three plants could be grown at a time, and the purchase limit is planned to be 25
grams per day, with a maximum of 50 g per month for those over 21 and a maximum of 30 g per month for those under 21. (3)

Germany legalizes the use of cannabis.

With the law reform, a maximum of three plants can be grown in Germany at a time and a maximum of 25 grams of cannabis can be purchased per day.


The legalization wave in Europe started in Malta


The wave of legalization in Europe was first started by Malta in 2021, where the recreational use of cannabis is allowed for adults, limiting its use to seven (7) grams and four home-grown plants. (4)

The amendment to the law was voted on in Parliament in 2021, where the law was approved by a vote of 36-27. Owen Bonnici, also known as the “equality minister” who pushed the bill, says that Malta is trying to reduce the harms related to the use of cannabis with permissive legislation. The use of cannabis will continue to be prohibited in public places, and if cannabis is used in front of children, fines of 300-500 euros will follow. (4)


The purpose of the law reform is to reduce harm


The legal reforms aim to reduce the harms of cannabis and organized crime, as has happened in many countries after legalization. Also in many other countries, such as Finland , there has recently been a strong debate and new legal initiatives for the legalization of cannabis. The future will show which of the European countries will be next.




  1. Information from the Luxembourg Ministry of Justice. Referenced 10/3/2023
  2. RTL today. 2023. Luxembourg legalizes the cultivation and consumption of cannabis at home. Referenced 10/3/2023
  3. Sky news. 2023. Germany approves Landmark bill to liberalize cannabis use and sale. Referenced 10/3/2023.
  4. Reuters. 2021. Malta becomes the first European nation to approve cannabis for personal use. Referenced 10/6/2023.
CBD and Menopause

CBD and Menopause

Menopause is a natural and inevitable stage in a woman’s life, which usually begins in middle age. It brings with it many physical and emotional changes, as well as symptoms that may increase the challenge in everyday life. One interesting option related to the relief of menopause symptoms is cannabidiol, i.e CBD. In this article, we will explore how CBD can help with menopause symptoms, especially fatigue relief, and share our experiences with its use.


Menopause symptoms and their impact on life


Menopause, also known as menopause, is the period when a woman’s periods and regular bleeding stop, and ovarian function and fertility decline. This natural biological change is associated with many physical and psychological symptoms that can significantly affect the quality of life of an aging woman.

Typically, menopause symptoms include:

Hot flashes: Sudden flashes of heat and sweating can be very uncomfortable.

Insomnia: Many women suffer from insomnia, difficulty falling asleep and sleep disturbances during menopause.

Fatigue: Constant tiredness and exhaustion can affect the ability to function on a daily basis.

Memory and concentration problems: Many women experience brain fog

Mood swings: Hormonal changes can cause mood swings, anxiety and depression.

Changes in sex life: Hormonal changes can affect vaginal dryness and sexual desire.

Bone and joint problems: Menopause can increase the risk of osteoporosis.

In addition to these, other common symptoms are abdominal swelling, lower abdominal pain and nausea. (1)

CBD in the treatment of menopause symptoms


CBD, i.e. cannabidiol, is one cannabinoid found in the hemp plant (Cannabis sativa L.). CBD is not a psychoactive substance like THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) and therefore does not cause a narcotic effect. Instead, CBD has many potential therapeutic effects that may be useful in the treatment of menopausal symptoms.

Although the effect of CBD directly on menopause has not been studied yet, the symptoms associated with it can often be treated with the help of CBD. For example, according to a research review conducted in 2020, CBD can help e.g. to reduce pain , insomnia and inflammation of the body (2). In addition to these, it has been shown to have positive effects on other menopause-related symptoms, which will be explained in more detail in the following paragraphs.


Fatigue relief


Fatigue is one of the most common menopausal symptoms that can significantly affect daily life. CBD can have relaxing and stress-relieving effects that can help you better cope with the challenges of fatigue (3). Although research on CBD’s effects on fatigue is still in its infancy, many users have reported improved sleep quality and reduced fatigue with CBD.

CBD affects e.g. to the production of adenosine, which is a natural hormone in the body that affects the state of alertness. Normally, adenosine levels would rise in the evenings, causing a feeling of fatigue.

Joint and muscle pain


CBD and other substances found in hemp can also help with osteoporosis in trust. CBD may help e.g. in the strengthening of bones, the formation of new bones and the healing process of a broken bone. (4)

In addition, the prevention of bone loss can be influenced by e.g. by exercising and eating enough nutritious food. It is therefore advisable to add minerals such as calcium and magnesium that act as bone building materials to the diet. Other minerals, trace elements and vitamins can also be helpful, such as vitamin D, copper and vitamin K2. Avoiding smoking is also considered good. (5)




Research shows that cannabinoids such as CBD and CBD-A can significantly relieve nausea. Cannabinoids help prevent nausea, e.g. by affecting the function of CB1 and 5-HT receptors. (6)

CBD increases the concentration of anandamide in the brain, which in turn affects the activity of its disintegrating molecule, producing antiemetic, i.e. nausea-reducing, effects. In addition to relieving nausea, CBD has an anti-vomiting effect. In comparison, both are found to be effective, of which CBD-A has been found to be somewhat more effective. (7)


Common symptoms of menopause include e.g. fatigue and hot flashes. Does CBD help?

Symptoms such as insomnia, fatigue and hot flashes are typically experienced during menopause.


    Other menopausal symptoms

    The effects of CBD on other menopausal symptoms, such as hot flashes, mood swings, and decreased sexual desire, are still being studied and require further research. However, some users have reported positive experiences in alleviating these symptoms with CBD. It is important to note that each person is unique and CBD can work in different ways for different people.


    Experiences of using CBD during menopause


    One of the best ways to learn about the effects of CBD on menopause symptoms is to listen to those who have already tried it. Many women have shared their own experiences of using CBD during menopause on various forums and discussion groups. Experiences vary greatly, with some finding great relief from symptoms, while others have not noticed a significant effect. The experiences are influenced by the individual characteristics of the user and the quality, strength and dosage of the CBD product used.

    It is important to remember that CBD is not a panacea and its effects on menopause symptoms may vary from person to person. Before you start using CBD, it is recommended to talk to your doctor, especially if you are taking other medications or have underlying medical conditions.


    Other natural products and menopause


    There are several other natural products that are recommended for treating menopause symptoms. For example, for sweating and hot flashes, sage can be taken internally as a herbal tea or extract. Swelling can be helped by herbs such as red clover, white clover, nettle, birch leaves, goldenrod, wort, St. John’s wort, honeysuckle and dandelion. You can try relieving depression and irritability with horsetail, oat sprouts and lemon balm. Osteoporosis and weakening of the bones are avoided by taking care of the well-being of the kidneys, e.g. by eating nettles and field bark in the form of green powder or purées. (Raipala-Cormier, 2019, p.124-125)

    In addition to natural products, personal attitude can also affect the intensity of symptoms. Menopause should not be seen as the end of femininity and life, but rather as a deeper change. (Raipala-Cormier, 2019, p.124)




    Menopause is a period associated with middle age, when usually a woman’s hormonal activity changes and menstruation stops. Menopause is associated with certain symptoms that can be challenging and significantly affect the quality of life. CBD is one option that many are considering for symptom relief. Although research on the effects of CBD on menopause symptoms is still in its early stages, many users have found it to be a useful addition to their menopause treatment. Studies support that CBD is helpful, e.g. insomnia, mood, pain and joint problems.

    As always, it is important to talk to your doctor before starting a new treatment, and to closely monitor the development of symptoms. Menopause is a unique experience, and each woman needs an individual treatment plan that best suits her needs. CBD may be one tool for managing menopause, but it is not a solution to all symptoms. In addition to CBD, you can try various natural products such as herbs for the treatment and prevention of menopause-related symptoms.

    More articles closely related to the topic can be found in e.g. CBD and PMS symptoms and CBD and menstruation .



    1. Tiitinen A. 2022. Duodecim. Menopause. Referenced 09/20/2023.
    2. DA Argueta et al. 2020. Front Pharmacol. A Balanced Approach for Cannabidiol Use in Chronic Pain. Referenced 09/20/2023.
    3. Shannon S., Lewis N., Lee H., and Hughes S.. 2019. Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: A Large Case Series. . Referenced 09/20/2023.
    4. Idris AI. 2010. Cannabinoid Receptors as Targets for Treatment of Osteoporosis: A Tale of Two Therapies. . Referred to 2.1.202
    5. Rheumatism Association. Osteoporosis. . Referenced 01/02/2023.
    6. Taylor B, Mueller M and Sauls RS. 2021. Cannaboinoid Antiemetic Therapy. . Referred on 08/01/2022.
    7. Rock EM and Parker L.. 2016. Frontiers. Cannabinoids As Potential Treatment for Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting. Referred to on 30/09/2022.
    8. Raipala-Cormier V. 2019. Frantsila Luonno’s home pharmacy. WSOY.
    9. Hamppumaa 2024. CBD and osteoporosis. Referenced 09/20/2023.
    CBN, CBG and CBD differences

    CBN, CBG and CBD differences

    What are CBN and CBG? How are they different from CBD? In this article you will find information about the differences and properties of these cannabinoids.


    What is CBN and CBG?


    CBN and CBG are cannabinoids, i.e. chemical compounds found in hemp plants.

    CBN (cannabinol) is one of the main cannabinoids in cannabis, also known more commonly as the “sleep cannabinoid”. It is formed from THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) as a result of oxidation when cannabis is exposed to air or light for a long period of time. CBN is also believed to have sedative and sleep-promoting properties. Based on research, CBN is also antibacterial and can help reduce inflammation and improve appetite. (1)

    CBN is also the first cannabinoid ever isolated from hemp, isolated by American chemist Roger Adams in the 1940s. (2)

    CBG (cannabigerol) on the other hand, there are cannabinoids that appear first in hemp. First comes CBGA, which forms compounds including CBG, THC, CBD and other cannabinoids are later synthesized. (3)

    CBG has a versatile action profile and has been associated with several potential therapeutic properties, such as anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, as well as antibacterial properties . CBG is not a psychoactive compound, i.e. it does not cause a narcotic effect. (4) In addition, studies show that CBG has effects that reduce tumors and cancer cells (5).

    CBG was first identified in 1964 by Raphael Mechoulam and Yehil Gaon. (6)

    Both compounds, CBN and CBG, have received increasing attention in cannabis research due to their potential therapeutic benefits. However, it is important to note that studies on the effects and application of these compounds are still in progress and more information is needed


    How do CBN and CBG differ from CBD?


    CBN, CBG, and CBD are all cannabinoids found in the hemp plant, but they have slightly different chemical structures and effects. A few differences between these compounds are highlighted below:

    CBD or cannabidiol does not cause an intoxicating or psychoactive effect. It does not alter consciousness or cause a feeling of euphoria. Also, CBG is not a psychoactive compound, and it does not cause a narcotic effect at all.

    CBN is formed when THC breaks down over time with oxygen, heat and time. The CBN content of hemp increases as the THC breaks down and disappears. Because CBN is formed as a result of the oxidation of THC, it has been found to have mild psychoactive properties. Together with CBD, however, the psychoactivity is reduced to non-existent, as CBD has antipsychotic effects. Many CBN products also contain CBD. (1)

    CBG (cannabigerol) in its acid form (CBG-A) is the first cannabinoid from which other cannabinoids are also formed.


    Therapeutic properties of cannabinoids


    CBD, CBN, and CBG have various potential therapeutic properties. The effects may also vary depending on individual characteristics and health status. The cannabinoids in question work to the internal cannabinoid system either directly or indirectly.

    CBD is known to have properties such as anti-inflammatory, pain-relieving, anxiety-reducing and spasm-reducing. (7)

    CBN is believed to have particularly sedative and sleep-promoting properties.

    CBG acts through CB1 and CB2 receptors and has been found to have antibacterial, appetite improving, pain and inflammation relieving, and antioxidant effects. CBG is also believed to have mood-enhancing effects, as it increases the amount of serotonin in the body. (8)

    According to recent studies, CBG has been found to have positive effects on certain diseases such as cancer, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), bacterial infections and Huntington’s disease. (9, 10, 11)


    Cannabinoids in hemp. Image of an article about the differences between CBN, CBG and CBD.

    Hemp field in the flowering phase.


    Cannabinoid concentrations in hemp


    Cannabinoids such as CBN, CBG and CBD occur naturally in hemp in varying amounts. The amounts vary greatly in different varieties. The growing season, environment and other conditions can also affect the concentrations formed in the plant. More than 120 different cannabinoids have already been identified in hemp, and it is known that cannabinoids work together better than individually (see Entourage effect ).

    CBD is generally more abundant in hemp plants than CBN or CBG. CBN, on the other hand, is formed as a result of the oxidation of THC over time, so it is usually less present in young plants. CBG is the main cannabinoid in the early development phase of cannabis, the presence of which decreases significantly towards the end of the growing season.

    There are many varieties of hemp with different cannabinoid profiles. Nowadays, varieties are also being bred that can contain a certain amount of a particular cannabinoid, being very different from the averages in terms of their cannabinoid profile compared to other common hemp varieties.


    What are cannabinoid acids such as CBGA, CBNA and CBDA?


    The cannabinoids found in hemp are always initially in acid form, such as CBGA (cannabigerolic acid) and CBDA (cannabidiol acid). The letter A after the name of the cannabinoid refers to its acid form (Acid).




    CBGA (cannabigerolic acid) and CBNA (cannabinolic acid) are acid forms of cannabinoids that occur in hemp before they are converted to active compounds such as CBG and CBN through acid decarboxylation or oxidation.

    CBGA is the acid form of CBG, the first cannabinoid formed in hemp. CBGA is usually present in the cannabis plant in large amounts in the early growth phase, before the plant produces any other cannabinoids. CBGA is converted to other cannabinoids, such as CBDA (cannabidiol acid) or to THCA (tetrahydrocannabinolic acid), over time, through oxidation or carboxylation reactions.




    CBNA, on the other hand, is the acid form of cannabinol acid that is present in the cannabis plant before it is converted into the active compound, CBN. CBNA is formed from the THCA of the cannabis variety as a result of oxidation. When THCA is exposed to air or light over time, it oxidizes and turns into CBNA. This process can occur when the plant is stored for a long time or poorly stored in non-airtight packaging.

    CBNA and CBGA act as precursors from which other active cannabinoids such as CBG and CBN are formed, which are known to affect the body in many different ways.




    CBDA is a precursor to CBD and according to research it is a powerful antioxidant. CBD has versatile effects, the most significant of which are e.g. the following:

    • Anti-nausea (12)
    • Anti-inflammatory (12)
    • Pain reliever (12)
    • Cancer prevention (13)

    In addition to these, CBDA has antimicrobial, antiproliferative, and antibacterial properties.




    CBD, CBN and CBG are the most well-known cannabinoids, which are found especially in the leaves and flowers of hemp plants. These cannabinoids have a balancing effect on the body’s endocannabinoid system, and although they resemble each other, each of them has its own special properties. All cannabinoids are first formed from CBGA, which is the precursor or acid form of cannabigerol (CBG).

    Cannabinoids have versatile effects that vary individually depending on the characteristics and health status of the user. According to research, different cannabinoids are more effective together than individually, and this combined effect is also called the Entourage effect.

    It is important to note that the information presented in this article is based on general observations and research results. Research into the effects of cannabinoids is still ongoing, and their full potential and all the possibilities of its use are not yet completely clear, because it is a very versatile and unique plant.




    1. L Bianco. 2018. GB Sciences Inc. Exploring the Lesser Cannabinoids – The Happy Accident of CBN. . Referred on 07/13/2023
    2. R. Pertwee. 2006. Cannabinoid Pharmacology: the first 66 years. Br. J Pharmacol. Referenced 07/14/2023
    3. Tahir M. et al. 2021. The biosynthesis of the cannabinoids. Journal of Cannabis Research . . Referenced 07/14/2023
    4. RG. Pertwee. 2010. British Journal of Pharmacology. Evidence that the plant cannabinoid cannabigerol is a highly potent a2-adrenoceptor agonist and moderately potent 5HT1A receptor antagonist. Referenced 07/14/2023
    5. F. Borrelli ym. 2014. Carcinogenesis. Colon Carcinogenesis is inhibited by the TRPM8 antagonist cannabigerol, a Cannabis-derived non-psychotropic cannabinoid . . Referenced 07/14/2023
    6. Gaoni, Y., & Mechoulam, R. 1964. Isolation, Structure, and Partial Synthesis of an Active Constituent of Hashish. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 86(8), 1646–1647 . . Referred on 07/13/2023.
    7. EB Russo. Cannabidiol (CBD) claims and misconceptions. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. . Referred on 07/13/2023.
    8. M. Lee. 2012. The Discovery of the Endocannabinoid System. The Prop 215 Era. Referred on 07/13/2023.
    9. S. Valdeolivas etc. 2015. Neurotherapeutics. Neuroprotective properties of cannabigerol in Huntington’s disease: studies in R6/2 mice and 3-nitropropionate-lesioned mice . . Referred on 07/13/2023
    10. F. Borrelli ym. 2013. Biochem Pharmacol. Beneficial effect of the non-psychotropic plant cannabinoid cannabigerol on experimental inflammatory bowel disease . . Referenced 07/14/2023
    11. A. Maya ym. 2020. Science Daily. Researchers uncover hidden antibiotic potential of cannabis. . Referenced 07/14/2023
    12. D. Butterfield. Cannabidiolic Acid (CBD -A): The Raw Cannabinoid That Fights Inflammation. . 2017. referenced 07/14/2023
    13. S. Takeda Ym. Cannabidiolic acid (CBD -A) mediated selective down-regulation of c-fos in highly aggressive breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells: possible involvement of its down-regulation in the abrogation of aggressiveness. . 2017. Referenced 07/14/2023
    CBD and pancreatitis

    CBD and pancreatitis

    Acute inflammation of the pancreas, i.e. pancreatitis, is a very unpleasant disease, which is typical among those who drink a lot of alcohol. In this article, we will get to know pancreatitis, the endocannabinoid system in the pancreas and the possible effect of CBD to support the treatment of pancreatitis.


    Functions of the pancreas


    The pancreas is a gland located in the digestive system, whose main tasks are the secretion of hormones and the secretion of digestive enzymes into the digestive tract.

    The pancreas is located behind the stomach in the small intestine and is roughly pear-shaped. (1)


    What is pancreatitis?


    Pancreatitis is caused by pancreatic fluid that has leaked into the tissues due to too early activated digestive enzymes. It is easily detected through a urine or blood sample and is almost always a situation requiring hospital treatment. (1,2)

    The most common cause of pancreatitis is alcohol. There are also other reasons for it, such as gallstones, but almost all cases are caused by long-term excessive alcohol use. Being overweight and smoking also increase the risk of developing pancreatitis. (1,2)

    Pancreatitis affects approx. 5,000 Finns every year and 2-3% of them die from complications caused by it. (1,2)


    Mild pancreatitis


    Mild pancreatitis refers to pancreatitis occurring for the first time, which usually heals on its own within a few weeks. Even mild pancreatitis should be taken seriously, because it recurs very easily if the lifestyle that led to it is not changed. (1)


    Chronic pancreatitis

    Chronic pancreatitis refers to pancreatic failure resulting from heavy alcohol consumption, which is the result of repeated pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis also causes most of the time diabetes, as the ability of the pancreas to produce insulin decreases. (1)

    Symptoms of pancreatitis


    The symptom of pancreatitis is a belt-like, severe, abdominal pain that occurs in the upper abdomen and sometimes also radiates to the back. Symptoms also include nausea, vomiting and fever. Symptoms may worsen during the day and ease again at night. (1,2)

    A man jogging on the beach at sunset.

    Heavy alcohol consumption can be difficult to stop, but the positive health effects it brings are worth the effort.




    A healthy lifestyle is the only way to prevent pancreatitis, as it is caused by alcohol and gallstones. If the change in lifestyle is challenging for one reason or another, you should make some kind of plan for yourself, with the help of which, for example, you can monitor your own alcohol consumption and try to reduce it. If necessary, you should also ask for at least emotional support from loved ones, such as friends and family members.



    Stress alone is not the cause of pancreatitis, so avoiding it is not really a way to prevent it. Stress in itself is hard on the body and it weakens e.g. resistance and optimal functioning of the body.

    Effect of diet


    In itself, the diet does not affect the development of pancreatitis, but it may even prevent it through detours. Pancreatitis caused by gallstones can be avoided by changing the lifestyle that causes gallstones. Gallstones are caused by e.g. overweight and overweight can be controlled with sufficient exercise and a healthy diet.

    Avoiding certain foods during and after pancreatitis may make you feel better, because due to inflammation and recovery, some foods may not be digested properly. You should avoid high-fiber food, pay attention to the amount and quality of fat, and avoid foods that are generally difficult to digest, such as cabbage, beans, etc. reduce eating. You should monitor how you feel and reduce the foods that clearly cause symptoms. (3)



    Alcohol is the biggest risk factor for pancreatitis and its moderate use is a prerequisite to avoid inflammation. Almost without exception, anyone who has consumed alcohol regularly and for a long time will experience at least mild pancreatitis. The strength of the alcohol has little to do with it, as pancreatitis can occur as a result of heavy consumption of both strong liquors and milder beers.


    Care and home care


    If the pancreatitis is caused by gallstones, the treatment is a quick operation that reopens the blocked bile duct.

    The treatment of pancreatitis caused by alcohol is hydration and drug therapy, but the most important thing is to immediately stop or at least drastically reduce the use of alcohol, because pancreatitis recurs very easily. The more mild pancreatitis is behind, the more susceptible it becomes chronic and eventually causes failure, which is even a fatal disease. The pancreas may also become gangrenous, the removal of which requires surgery. (1,2)

    The endocannabinoid system and the pancreas


    Endocannabinoid system acting throughout the body monitors that all body processes are working properly. The system in question is found in all humans and almost all animal species, and its task is to act as the so-called as a back gate that guides the body’s functioning towards balance.

    The endocannabinoid system consists of three parts; endocannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors and enzymes that break them down.

    Among the body’s cannabinoid receptors, the CB1 receptor is mainly found in the brain and is responsible for e.g. from the release of various neurotransmitters. CB2 receptors are found in the pancreas and it has its own important functions there.

    Endocannabinoids also affect the body through other receptors, and in functions related to the pancreas, it seems that the TRPV receptor family of receptors and GPR receptors are also involved in the functions. (4)

    Of the endocannabinoids, both anandamide and 2-AGhas been observed in the pancreas. They seem to regulate e.g. insulin production. (4)


    CBD oil and pancreatitis


    According to some studies, cannabis use may contribute to acute pancreatitis, but CBDhas been found to have a mitigating effect on it. (5,6)

    CBD does not necessarily cure or treat pancreatitis, but it may have an alleviating effect on the associated symptoms. CBD oil may have an anti-inflammatory effect and may relieve pain. CBD has been detected to increase appetite and relieve intestinal diseases, thus it may also ease symptoms related to eating. CBD also has potential anti-nausea effects.

    Due to these properties, CBD can also be suitable for relieving symptoms caused by pancreatitis in dogs.


    Canine pancreatitis


    Pancreatitis also occurs in dogs, but understandably it is not caused by excessive alcohol consumption. There are two types of pancreatitis in dogs, acute and chronic.

    Symptoms of acute pancreatitis are sudden onset symptoms which include e.g. vomiting, diarrhea, dehydration, abdominal pain, fever and fatigue. The symptoms can be very strong.

    The symptoms associated with chronic pancreatitis are similar, but mild and almost imperceptible. Sometimes it can also be completely asymptomatic. (7)

    Canine pancreatitis can be caused by many reasons, but typically it is caused by excess weight, fatty food, medications, or physical injury, such as a blow to the stomach. It is treated with painkillers and hydration. Healing depends on the intensity of the symptoms and the individual situation. (7)

    Pancreatitis is more common in certain dog breeds and these include e.g. terriers, cocker spaniels and miniature schnauzers. (7)




    Pancreatitis is an unpleasant disease, mainly caused by excessive alcohol consumption, which may even lead to death. The only way to prevent its onset is to use alcohol in moderation and after mild pancreatitis to stop using it completely. CBD oil may be helpful in relieving the symptoms of pancreatitis, although it cannot cure it by itself.




    1. 2022. Terveykylä.fi. Pancreatitis.ävatsa/haimatälätä. Referenced 13/03/2023.
    2. P. Mustajoki. 2020. Duodecim Health Library. Pancreatitis. . Referenced 13/03/2023. 2022. Terveykylä.fi. Pancreatitis.ävatsa/haimatälätä. Referenced 13/03/2023.
    3. Tays. 2019. Diet of a pancreatic patient. Referenced 13/03/2023.
    4. Cortes-Justo E., Ramirez-Garfias S. and Flores-Vilches A.. 2023. The function of the endocannabinoid system in the pancreatic islet and its implications on metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Referenced 13/03/2023.
    5. Sly M, Clark K, Karaghossian G, Narang VK, Gill M and Ragland AS. 2021. Cannabis-Induced Pancreatitis in a Young Adult Male. Referenced 13/03/2023.
    6. Jaiswal V. et al. 2022. Acute pancreatitis as a rare adverse event among cannabis users: A systematic review. Referenced 13/03/2023.
    7. Hilasvuori S. 2021. Own animal clinic. Canine pancreatitis. Referenced 13/03/2023.
    cbd and osteoporosis

    cbd and osteoporosis

    All animals and people in the world are supported by some kind of backbone. In people who belong to vertebrates, that skeleton is a skeleton made of bones, which lives and transforms throughout life. Osteoporosis, i.e. bone loss, is about weakened bone material and in this article we will learn about bone loss, the endocannabinoid system in the bones and how CBD affects the condition of the bones!

    What is osteoporosis?


    Bones consist of and are made up of minerals. Osteoporosis refers to a lack of minerals in the bones, which causes bone weakening.

    The skeleton is built during pregnancy and develops into its final form approx. by the age of six. Bones are alive, because old bone material is constantly being broken down as new is formed. This process slows down around the age of 30, and new bone is not formed as fast as old bone is broken down. So the bone material also becomes brittle naturally. (1,2)

    Osteoporosis mostly affects the older population, especially women. Sometimes osteoporosis is also diagnosed in men and younger people and in general it is very common worldwide. According to estimates, approx. 18% of the world’s population suffers from osteoporosis, some without knowing it.

    Hereditary factors affect the probability of developing osteoporosis, but in addition to them, e.g. smoking, lack of calcium and other minerals, underweight, lack of exercise, and some diseases or medications may contribute to the development of osteoporosis. (1,2)

    Osteoporosis symptoms


    The symptoms of osteoporosis usually only become apparent when a bone breaks, either due to bone loss or an accident. The bone has become weak and can no longer withstand blows as before. In other respects, there are no tangible or visible symptoms associated with osteoporosis.


    Prevention of bone loss


    Bone loss is partly a result of lifestyle, but it is also due to both hereditary factors and aging. Bone loss can be prevented by investing in nutrient-dense food, exercising enough and avoiding smoking. Especially from minerals that build bones, such as calcium and magnesium, and it is good to take care of their absorption, but bones are also affected by numerous other minerals, vitamins and trace elements such as vitamin K2, vitamin D and copper. (2)

    Osteoporosis is significantly more common in women than in men, and this is thought to be due to monthly pregnancies and breastfeeding. A woman’s body and mineral reserves are put to the test because of the monthly bleeding and the building materials needed to grow a baby and child. It is especially important for women to take care of a varied diet throughout life. (1,2)

    Bone loss can also be prevented and treated with the help of supplements. All vitamins, minerals and trace elements are important for bones and it is even advisable to take them from a jar, as long as you don’t try to replace a varied diet with them.




    Various drugs are used to treat osteoporosis, the purpose of which is e.g. harden the bone, increase the amount of thyroid hormone or affect the activity of the cells that form in the bones. The medicines are very strong and are dosed once a day, once a year or per event, depending on the medicine. No medicine intended for the treatment of bone loss does not heal or restore the bone, but artificially keeps the bone intact and strong. (2,3)

    leg bones with bone loss caused by osteoporosis.

    Bone loss is also a result of aging, but its progression can be affected by a diet that maintains bone health.


    Natural treatment


    In the treatment of osteoporosis, prevention is important. The onset of osteoporosis can be influenced by lifestyle, but even after diagnosis, diet and exercise have a big impact on general well-being.


    Foods to avoid in osteoporosis


    The actual foods to avoid are not associated with osteoporosis, rather the urge to eat plenty of certain foods. In terms of the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis, it is particularly important to enjoy mineral-rich foods and ensure good absorption of nutrients.


    The endocannabinoid system in osteoporosis


    The endocannabinoid system is a system that monitors and balances all processes in the body, which is especially responsible for functions essential for survival, such as energy storage and sleep. The endocannabinoid system is also an essential part of bone function and it works in all parts of the bone, from the core to the active part of the bone.

    The endocannabinoid system consists of three parts, the body’s endogenous endocannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors and their disintegrating molecules. There are several endocannabinoids and the best known of them, anandamide and 2-AG, have been detected in the bone in large amounts of both. They are present both in the bone marrow and in the active parts of the bone (3,4).

    Two receptors in the body are classified as cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2 receptors. In addition to these receptors, TRPV1 and GPR55 receptors are present in bone cells, participating in bone metabolism, e.g. participating in bone cell activity and bone mass regulation. CB1 and CB2 receptors are present to prevent bone loss. (3,4)

    CBD for osteoporosis


    CBD or cannabidiol is a compound called cannabinoid found in hemp. It and its effects have been studied for decades and, based on observations, it has numerous properties that affect health. Hemp has been used medicinally for thousands of years, especially in Eastern medicine. Slowly, in practice, the active ingredient of nature, which has been found to work, also receives scientific support.

    CBD together with other active ingredients of hemp may also be good for supporting osteoporosis treatment. Of course, it is of primary importance to take care of e.g. exercise and diet, but CBD may have effects e.g. for bone strengthening, new bone formation and healing of broken bone. (5,6)



    Osteoporosis is a bone fragility disease that especially affects the older female population, which can be prevented and also cured. Diet and exercise play a special role in the creation and prevention of bone loss, but CBD may also have a positive effect on bones and their healing.



    1. Bone Association. What is osteoporosis? Referenced 01/02/2023.
    2. Rheumatism Association. Osteoporosis. Referenced 01/02/2023.
    3. Rossi F., Tortora C., Punzo F., Bellini G., Argenziano M., Di Paola A., Torella M. and Perrotta S.. 2019. The Endocannabinoid/Endovanilloid System in Bone: From Osteoporosis to Osteosarcoma. Referenced 01/02/2023
    4. Aymen I.. 2010. Cannabinoid Receptors as Targets for Treatment of Osteoporosis: A Tale of Two Therapies. Referenced 01/02/2023
    5. Ehrenkranz J. and Levine MA. 2019. Bones and Joints: The Effects of Cannabinoids on the Skeleton. Referenced 01/02/2023
    6. Idris AI. 2010. Cannabinoid Receptors as Targets for Treatment of Osteoporosis: A Tale of Two Therapies. Referenced 01/02/2023
    CBD and cannabis in pet care

    CBD and cannabis in pet care

    CBD and cannabis in pet care. This is a translated article, the original can be read from here .

    Veterinary medicine has advanced significantly in recent years and thanks to the availability of more effective drugs, many pets are living longer than years before. With age, however, problems arise, such as rheumatism or other pain and inflammation conditions. The negative side effects of commonly used painkillers can damage the immune system , bowel functions, and kidneys and liver. In addition to these consequences, painkillers do not always work as we would like – both in humans and animals, the effectiveness varies from individual to individual. CBD and cannabis in the treatment of pets are becoming more common at a fast pace.

    Of all the uses of cannabis in human and veterinary medicine, pain relief is the best documented. Studies have shown cannabis to be a significant pain reliever in various diseases. THC and CBD extracts have been shown in studies to give people relief from both cancer and nerve pain .

    Studies evaluating the effectiveness of cannabis in the treatment of arthritis in dogs have been completed. A recent Cornell University study showed a decrease in pain levels in dogs with rheumatism in a test group that received CBD, compared to a placebo group. Pain levels decreased without negative side effects.

    Many veterinarians and pet owners have seen firsthand the positive effects of medicinal cannabis in the treatment of arthritis and pain conditions. The research only confirms what many have found in practice.


    Alternatives to CBD products for pets

    Animal CBD products are usually liquid oil, tablets, capsules or in the form of treats. Liquids are better because the dosage can be precisely controlled, and because CBD is better absorbed through the tissues of the mouth than through the digestive tract.

    Vaporized or smoked cannabis should never be used to medicate pets. This can damage the pet’s lungs and lead to a harmful overdose.

    On the same principle, edible cannabis products intended for human consumption should not be given to pets. They are difficult to dose accurately and may contain ingredients that are toxic to animals (such as raisins, chocolate, etc.).

    On the other hand, almost all natural CBD products are also directly suitable for domestic animals, as long as there is nothing extra in the product, such as e.g. preservatives and additives. In other words, CBD oil can also be used at home, as long as you remember that just two drops of 2% CBD oil can get you a suitable dosage of approx. For a 10 kg pet. For smaller pets, even less can be enough.

    How to choose the right medicine?


    CBD and cannabis can be a good option for treating pets. When considering cannabis as a medical option for treating pain or inflammation, it is important to understand how the different components of a cannabis product can affect your pet. The following important factors should be kept in mind :


    The Entourage Effect: The overall synergistic benefit of cannabis is related to the amount and ratio of cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids. These factors influence the degree of biological activity and the extent of the product’s effects.

    Finding the right ratio of THC and CBD, as well as the dosage, are critical to success.

    Take into account parallel medications and possible drug interactions .

    Always talk to your veterinarian before starting a new drug or nutritional supplement to treat your pet’s illness.

    The THC:CBD ratio varies from a very high ratio such as 20:1, to a balanced ratio of 1:1 and 1:2.


    Dosage guide

    Deciding which product or ratio to use for your pet’s pain and inflammation depends on the severity and origin of the pain. Below is a guide to choosing ratios to use for treating pain and inflammation in animals.


    High CBD
    4:1 – 20:1 / CBD:THC (little or no THC )
    Mild to moderate pain such as arthritis and back pain

    A balanced relationship

    1:1 CBD/THC
    Moderate pain such as arthritis and back pain.

    High THC ratios

    4:1 to 20:1 THC/CBD
    Severe pain, such as cancer pain, nerve pain, and advanced arthritis.

    When using cannabis as a medicine for pets, it must be remembered that significant side effects are unacceptable. The goal of cannabis treatment for pets is to relieve symptoms without other side effects. Pets’ normal behavior patterns should be unchanged after treatment.

    The following are instructions for dosing THC and CBD for cats and dogs. Always talk to your veterinarian before starting to treat your pet’s illness with cannabis-based medicines.

    Dosage of THC

    THC is always a limiting factor in dosing .

    0.2 to 0.6 mg of THC per 5 kg of body weight , twice a day.
    Start with a small amount and slowly increase the dosage every 4-7 days.
    Higher dosages may be possible/necessary on a case-by-case basis.
    Keep a close eye on whether the pet shows any loss of balance or attention. Reduce the dose or stop the medication immediately if you notice significant side effects.


    Dosage of CBD

    0.5 to 5 mg of CBD per 5 kg of body weight , twice a day.
    Start with a small amount and slowly increase the dosage every 4 to 7 days.
    Often small doses are effective. Higher doses of CBD may be beneficial in certain conditions.


    Medicinal cannabis can be of great benefit to animals in pain. The safe and effective use of cannabis requires an understanding of the milligram amounts of THC and CBD (or other cannabinoids ), the ratio of cannabinoids, and the appropriate dosing of the drug for animals.

    Nothing is more important than your pet’s safety. So when it comes to the content or dosage of cannabis medicines, don’t leave anything to guesswork or make assumptions on your own.

    The author of the original article, Gary Richter, one of the authors of, is an Oakland-based veterinarian. You can read more about his work in the article CBD for pets .

    You can read more about suitable dosing for animals here .

    You can find the best CBD products in Finland in Hamppumaa’s online store .


    Noora Peltola, hemp partner

    Agrologist AMK, natural product developer & permaculture designer

    CBD and Lyme disease

    CBD and Lyme disease

    Borreliosis is an inflammatory disease caused by a bacterium spread by ticks, which in the worst case may become chronic and restrict movement. This article explains in more detail what borreliosis is, how the functioning of the endocannabinoid system can be seen behind it, and whether CBD could be of help in supporting the treatment of its symptoms.


    What is Lyme disease?

    Borreliosis, or Lyme disease, is a globally known disease caused by bacteria, which in some cases may also become chronic. Lyme disease is the result of the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, which lives in small mammals, such as wild rodents, and is carried and spread around by ticks and taiga ticks. Rarely, but sometimes, borreliosis can be contracted from the bite of a tick or tick. (1)

    Lyme disease gets its name from the small town called Lyme in North America, where the first cases of borreliosis were detected in the 1970s. Today, borreliosis is found all over the world, and in Finland it is most common in the Åland region, where a third of all domestic borreliosis cases are detected. According to estimates, you get a tick bite every year in Finland. 500,000 people, of which approx. 6,000 get Lyme disease. However, only approx. 50-80% of them get symptoms. (1)

    Symptoms of borreliosis or Lyme disease


    For borreliosis to be possible, the rule of thumb is that the tick should be attached to the person for at least 24 hours. Another condition for getting infected is that the tick carries the Borrelia burgdorferi bacterium. The probability of borreliosis infection is very small, but still possible.

    The most obvious symptom of borreliosis is a large, red rash-like area that develops around the tick or stinger injection site, the center of which often turns white. This red area is not actually painful, swollen or itchy, etc., and its appearance is not always a sign of borreliosis. If the rash continues to spread after several days, it is almost a sure sign of infection. However, in all cases of borreliosis, a red spot does not appear, so you should not just wait for it, but honestly observe your own condition a few weeks after the tick bite.

    The most common symptoms, in addition to the red spot, are flu-like symptoms such as headache , fever, fatigue and muscle aches .

    A red ring-shaped rash on a person's leg.

    A red spot is a clear symptom of borreliosis, but it doesn’t always happen, but it’s good to watch for other symptoms after the bite.



    Chronic borreliosis, or prolonged Lyme disease


    In the absence of a red spot or if it quickly heals on its own, borreliosis may go unnoticed, in which case it also goes untreated at that moment. In untreated borreliosis, the bacterium spreads from the tick bite to other parts of the body, causing inflammation, for which antibiotics usually used in treatment may no longer be effective. Untreated borreliosis usually progresses to a more serious infection than the initial symptom of a red ring on the skin. The most common infections caused by chronic Lyme disease are e.g. arthritis, meningitis, nerve root infection or facial nerve palsy, but these are not actually symptoms of Lyme disease, but part of its acute disease picture. (1,2)

    The most common symptoms of chronic borreliosis are pain in the joints, flu-like symptoms, and the aforementioned infections. If left untreated, the bacterium that causes borreliosis can even progress to the central nervous system, and this can be avoided by starting treatment early enough. (1,2)


    Tick bite and borreliosis prevention


    There are actually no preventive measures, but you can try to avoid tick bites. The best ways to do this are to protect the body with clothes, an effective check for ticks after going outside, especially in risk areas, and various herbal preparations that can be used to try to repel ticks and prevent them from getting attached.

    Taking care of the body’s resistance is of paramount importance in the prevention of all diseases, and it may also help against diseases and parasites spread by ticks.

    It is said that ticks do not like the smell of garlic(3) or St. John’s wort, and one way to prevent ticks from getting infected is to eat garlic or rub fresh St. John’s wort on trouser legs, shoes and ankles. There are also other different natural preparations based on herbs on the market that can be used to repel ticks, either directly on the skin or applied to clothes.


    Treatment of borreliosis


    A tick bite usually heals itself, but if the borrelia bacterium enters the body and causes symptoms, it is treated with strong antibiotics. Antibiotic treatment in the rash phase can prevent borreliosis from becoming chronic.

    Lyme disease is often challenging to diagnose, especially if there is reason to suspect it outside of the typical tick season. Antibodies only develop in the blood within a few weeks, and by then the rash is often already gone.

    Prolonged borreliosis, i.e. chronic Lyme disease, is treated either with a strong and long course of antibiotics or intravenously administered antibiotics. Treatment practices in Finland differ slightly from the way other countries treat borreliosis and chronic borreliosis. It is common for people suffering from borreliosis to travel to, for example, Germany, which has its own hospital dedicated to the treatment of borreliosis.

    The endocannabinoid system in Lyme disease


    The endocannabinoid system , which takes care of the balance of the entire body, makes sure that everything works and happens in the body as it should. The endocannabinoid system is not actually involved in the origin of Lyme disease or its course, but as in almost all diseases, changes have been noticed in the functioning of the endocannabinoid system compared to a healthy system.


    CBD oil for Lyme disease?


    Hemp contains numerous compounds, most notably cannabidiol (CBD), have been extensively studied and the positive effects on many diseases are undeniable in light of these. The relief of borreliosis symptoms with the help of CBD oil has only been studied a little, if at all, and the observations based on its therapeutic effect are mainly based on user experiences.

    CBD or any other compound found in hemp does not cure Lyme disease or remove the bacteria that causes it from the body, but it may help alleviate the symptoms. CBD might relieves inflammation and affects various pains such as muscle pain (4,5). CBD oil is also protective of the nervous system and thus could potentially be good in the treatment of chronic borreliosis as well.

    A book has been written about the use of CBD in the treatment of lyme disease, which you can buy for yourself in paper or e-version here Expert Guide on Using CBD Oil to Prevent and Cure LYME Disease. The book is written by American Ph.D Daniel Ross.

    There is also a book on the effect of cannabis, i.e. hemp containing THC, on Lyme disease, which can be purchased either in paper or e-version here Cannabis for Lyme Disease & Related Conditions: Scientific Basis and Anecdotal Evidence for Medicinal Use eBook : White, Shelley, McIntyre, Julie: Kindle Store .

    A dog is lying on the grass with a human hand with a tick in front of it.

    Although borreliosis is rare in animals, it is still possible. CBD oil may also ease the pet’s borreliosis symptoms.



    Lyme disease, ticks and CBD in animals


    Ticks are a very common problem especially for cats and dogs in the summer, because they walk with their noses stuck in the grass almost all the time. Lyme disease can also be transmitted from ticks to animals, but this is very rare, especially when compared to the fact that animals may have several ticks attached to them after just one run. There are specific preparations for animals to repel ticks, from collars to herbal preparations, and you should check their suitability and functionality for your own animal species from your veterinarian. For example, a homemade peppermint alcohol product intended for dogs is not suitable for cats. The recipe for this preparation find here .

    CBD oil is mostly suitable for animals for the same ailments as for humans, and it may therefore be worth trying to use CBD oil also for the treatment of animal borreliosis and to alleviate the symptoms. You should always visit a veterinarian if you suspect that your pet is infected with borreliosis.




    Borreliosis is a very unpleasant disease, especially when it develops, which fortunately can be cured with strong antibiotics at the latest. It’s easy to notice a tick attached, but sometimes the tick has time to detach before you notice the bite. A red, rash-like spot often appears at the bite site, but this does not automatically mean Lyme disease. Ticks also infect pets and they can also get borreliosis, although it is much rarer. CBD oil may have positive effects on borreliosis and its symptoms, but there has been very little research into this.




    1. Lumio J. 2021. Duodecim terveyskirjasto. Borreliosis (Lyme disease). Referred on 23/01/2023
    2. Lumio J. 2021. Duodecim terveyskirjasto. Prolonged and chronic Lyme disease. Referred on 23/01/2023.
    3. Siippainen A. 2020. Helsinki news. MT: This basic spice in every home repels ticks effectively – don’t give it to the dog . Referred on 5/19/2023
    4. Lorena C. et al. 2021. The anti-inflammatory effects of cannabidiol and cannabigerol alone, and in combination. Referred on 03/03/2023
    5. Mlost, J. et al. 2020. Polish Academy of Sciences.. Cannabidiol for Pain Treatment: Focus on Pharmacology and Mechanism of Action Referred on 03/03/2023
    CBD and herniated disc

    CBD and herniated disc

    A herniated disc is undoubtedly one of the most common causes of back pain. It is very common in working-age people and also largely due to work-related reasons such as sedentary work or strain. CBD is a cannabinoid obtained from hemp, whose positive effect has also been noticed in the treatment of neuropathic back pain. In this article, we will explore whether CBD oil could be helpful in alleviating the symptoms of a herniated disc.


    What is a disc bulge / herniated disc?


    Intervertebral discs are like small pillows that are located between the vertebrae of the spine, cushioning the load on the spine. Their purpose is to keep the vertebrae separate from each other and they consist of two parts; of a gelatinous interior and a solid outer shell with nerve fiber endings. (1)

    Disc bulging is caused by degeneration of the disc. It is also a natural wear and tear associated with aging, which is not necessarily associated with greater pain. Promoted by stress or sitting, the degeneration often affects only one or a few discs, allowing the core of the disc to enter the spinal canal. The disc presses on the spinal nerve or causes local irritation, from which pain arises. (2)


    Symptoms of a herniated disc


    A herniated disc usually causes sudden pain, even if it has developed slowly. The actual pain point is in the lumbar spine, but the pain often radiates below the knee as well. Symptoms also include numbness, tingling and muscle weakness. (2,3)

    Sometimes the bulge gets so big that it requires immediate surgical treatment. In this case, in addition to pain, the symptoms include challenges in holding stool and urine and significant muscle weakness in the leg. (2,3)

    Bulging disc treatment


    A herniated disc is treated with the help of painkillers, physiotherapy, rest, focus on ergonomics and light movement. Usually, the symptoms subside within a couple of months, but if they continue or worsen, it is necessary to talk to the doctor and reevaluate the treatment. A herniated disc is also treated with surgery, but it is only considered if the above-mentioned methods do not help. (3)


    How to treat a bulging / herniated disc at home?


    The aim is to focus the treatment of disc herniation at home and on taking ergonomics into account in everyday life. Usually, the bulge is treated with home remedies and physiotherapy, but approx. 15% of all cases require surgery. (2,3)

    Usually, the physiotherapist gives instructions for movement and light stretching, but a good general guideline can be to take a regular, leisurely walk. Special attention must be paid to ergonomics when the hernia occurs acutely, but also afterwards, in order to avoid recurrence of the hernia. (2,3)


    the woman works ergonomically.

    A bulging disc often heals on its own, but sometimes the treatment is surgery. CBD oil may help with symptoms.




    The degeneration of the diaphragm cannot actually be prevented, but its progress can be influenced by ergonomics and good lifestyles. Most of the time, a bulging disc in working-age people is caused by either sitting or one-sided strain, so it is important to pay attention to work-related ergonomics. It is even more important that these ergonomic instructions are actually followed, because often they are known, but not used. (2,3)

    The condition of the intervertebral discs can be maintained with gentle movement, diet and not smoking (2). Sports where there is tackling or where the movement is always similar like in golf, there are higher risks of sudden and slowly developing disc herniation.

    The symptoms of a herniated disc radiate to the leg


    A herniated disc usually radiates to the leg, below the knee, and it is one of the clearest signs by which the causes of back pain can be identified as a herniated disc. You don’t always have this feeling of radiation in your leg, but it is very common.

    Does the herniated disc reflect in the neck?


    A herniated disc manifesting in the lumbar spine does not actually affect the neck, but various pain conditions also occur in the neck area, some of which are associated with degeneration of the discs. These diseases are rather classified as diseases of the cervical spine, but they have the same type of symptoms and root causes. Usually, hernias in the back do not actually radiate to the neck, but there is also degeneration in the cervical spine and its disc pads, which causes pain. The discs in the cervical spine also naturally degenerate as a result of aging, which can cause stiffness in the neck and sometimes even a tilt of the head. (4)


    How does CBD oil affect the symptoms of a herniated disc?


    CBD is an anti-inflammatory cannabinoid whose therapeutic effects are widely studied and recognized. It is a gentle, safe and effective supplement to support the treatment of many diseases, but its effect on disc herniation has only been studied a little, and the mechanism of action is not yet known. However, it has been noticed that somehow it has an effect and the topic would definitely be worth further research. The mechanisms of action have mostly been estimated and are related to CBD’s anti-inflammatory effects, slowing down the absorption of the endocannabinoid anandamide, and CBD’s muscle-relaxing properties in general. (5)

    Chronic back pain in particular is often accompanied by anxiety and depression due to pain conditions that make life difficult. CBD has been studied to have a positive effect on both of these. CBD also affects the quality of sleep, which often suffers due to symptoms caused by herniated discs and back pain. Read more On the effect of CBD oil on insomnia .


    Back pain relief with CBD oil?


    The effect of CBD on back pain has not yet been studied very extensively, but because back pain is often caused by neuropathic or nerve pain and inflammation, in the light of user experiences and research, CBD oil is potentially good for relieving back pain. (5)

    In summary


    Disc herniation and the effect of CBD oil on it have been studied very little. However, we do know that CBD is cannabinoid , which has a lot of properties that have a positive effect on health, some of which could also be well suited for the symptoms related to the bulging of the diaphragm.



    1. Structure and function of the back. Spinal canal. Referred on 10/22/2022.
    2. Saarelma O.. 2022. Health Library Duodecim. Sciatica, herniated disc, bulging disc. Referred on 10/22/2022
    3. Symptoms and treatment of a bulging disc. Mehiläinen. Referred on 10/22/2022.
    4. Saarelma O.. Health Library Duodecim. Diseases of the cervical spine. Referred on 10/22/2022
    5. Silveira JW, Issy AC, Castania VA, Salmon CEG, Noguiera-Barbosa MH, Guimaraes F., Defino HLA and Del Bel E.. 2014. Protective Effects of Cannabidiol on Lesion-Induced Intervertebral Disc Degeneration. Referred on 10/22/2022
    CBD, kidney failure and nephritis

    CBD, kidney failure and nephritis

    The kidneys are an important body cleansing organ, whose smooth functioning is an absolute prerequisite for optimal health. Kidney-related diseases are rapidly becoming more common, side by side with type 2 diabetes. In this article, we will learn about kidney failure, kidney inflammation, the endocannabinoid system behind the kidneys, and whether CBD oil could be helpful in supporting the treatment of kidney diseases.


    Functions of the kidneys


    Normally, a person has two kidneys, located below the ribs, on either side of the spine. Kidneys have several important functions in terms of life. They both clean the blood and body fluids of waste materials, but also regulate the body’s acid-base, fluid and salt balance. (1)

    Kidney-related diseases are rapidly becoming more common and are found in men almost twice as often as in women. Kidney diseases are often accompanied by other diseases as well.


    Kidney deficiency


    In kidney failure, the blood is not cleaned properly, and fluids do not circulate in the body quickly enough. Impairment progresses individually depending on the cause of the impairment.

    Impairment is determined by the plasma creatinine concentration (P-crea), which is affected by the ability of the kidneys to filter blood. The calculated renal filtration rate, GFR, classifies the severity of the impairment, and if it is less than 15 ml/min, it is already worth considering dialysis treatment. Readings below 60 ml/min indicate that the kidneys are working poorly. (2)

    Creatinine is a metabolic product of muscles, and its elevated amount in the blood indicates a weakened ability of the kidneys to filter the blood. Of course, there are other reasons for an elevated creatinine concentration, e.g. dehydration or obstructions in the secretion of urine, and it does not always indicate that the kidneys are functioning poorly. (1,2)

    As you get older, the GFR value naturally decreases, and kidney failure is most common among the older population. The most common causes of impaired function are type 2 diabetes, aging and diseases related to vascular health.


    Sudden (acute) kidney failure


    Sometimes dehydration, i.e. profuse vomiting/diarrhea or profuse bleeding, infection, surgery, etc. may cause sudden, short-term kidney failure. Most of the time, the condition goes away on its own with the removal of the cause, such as adequate hydration.




    Kidney failure causes almost no symptoms until the need for dialysis treatment is already close. At that time the symptoms are e.g. itchy skin, nausea, loss of appetite and weight loss.

    Mild kidney failure is often discovered by accident in connection with other research or, for example, an occupational health check-up, because it can be seen in a normal comprehensive blood count as an increase in the value of P-crea and P-urea. (1,2)




    The best way to treat the kidneys is to prevent their failure. Of course, it is not always possible, because the impairment can develop suddenly, e.g. as a result of severe diarrhea, but good, health-supporting lifestyles also contribute to kidney health. Exercise, diet, moderate alcohol consumption and not smoking are the best ways to prevent kidney-related diseases. Moderate use of anti-inflammatory drugs during life can also promote the well-being of the kidneys. (3)

    In mild cases, kidney failure is treated with diet, lifestyle changes and medication, but if the situation is already long-standing and the failure is severe, the treatment is dialysis, i.e. treatment that replaces kidney function or a kidney transplant.


    Kidney-friendly food on the table.

    It is possible to influence the health of the kidneys with a healthy lifestyle, such as diet.




    Diet plays a significant role in the treatment of kidney failure, as it is also often largely the cause of its onset. A diet that supports the kidneys is low in salt, contains moderately good, high-quality fats and a wide variety of foods such as vegetables, fruits, meat and eggs. (3)

    Especially in the case of advanced insufficiency, attention should be paid to excessive potassium and phosphorus, because their excessive intake and the inability of the kidneys to take care of the salt balance is a bad combination from a health point of view. (3)


    Renal failure in cats and dogs


    Cats and dogs also have kidney failure, which is mostly acute kidney damage. Clear symptoms include e.g. copious drinking and urination, as well as fatigue and vomiting. Sudden kidney damage is often caused by poisoning or lack of oxygen in the kidneys, which are the result of unsuitable food or e.g. from drying out the body.

    When acute kidney damage occurs in pets, it is important to get treatment quickly, because the situation progresses quickly. It is estimated that up to half of the deaths of cats and dogs are caused by acute kidney injury. (4,5)


    Kidney infection


    Kidney infections are rare and they occur when bacteria that cause inflammation enter the kidneys. More commonly, kidney-related infections are known both as urinary tract infection, which does not always progress to the kidneys, and as mole fever, which is always accompanied by inflammation in the kidneys and their impaired function. Inflammation of the glomeruli, or glomerulonephritis, is caused by streptococcal bacteria, but is very rare, whereas TIN, or inflammation of the kidney tissue and interstitial tissue as well. (6)

    Symptoms and treatment


    Symptoms include red-brown urine, burning when urinating, pain on both sides of the lower back, nausea and fatigue. Of course, nausea and fatigue alone are not a sign of kidney-related inflammation, but they also need some other typical symptom. (6)

    Kidney infections are always treated based on the cause, usually with medication.


    Effect of alcohol on the kidneys


    Abundant use of alcohol can damage the kidneys, as alcohol interferes with e.g. maintaining the body’s salt balance. The use of alcohol itself has numerous properties that negatively affect health, and several of these eventually also affect the health of the kidneys.

    More information about the effects of alcohol on health, as well as the use of CBD together with alcohol can be found here .

    The endocannabinoid system and the kidney


    The endocannabinoid system is a system that has a balancing effect on the background of all body systems. The system in question is found in all humans and animals, and its operating principle is the same for all. The endocannabinoid system includes endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-AG , their corresponding receptors CB1 and CB2 and the enzymes that break them down, mainly FAAH and MAGL enzymes.

    Since the endocannabinoid system affects the background of almost all functions of the body, its components are everywhere in the body, including the kidneys and the background of their functions.

    Anandamide affects the kidneys at least in maintaining the body’s salt balance, and 2-AG seems to be involved in at least repairing kidney-related damage. (7,8)

    Changes in cannabinoid receptor levels have been observed in connection with kidney diseases, and depending on the disease, they are either low or high compared to a healthy person. Both receptors are found in the kidneys and have several important functions. (7,8)


    CBD (cannabidiol) is a compound found in the hemp plant that, according to research, has effects on health. CBD has been observed good e.g. to reduce inflammation, sleep quality to equalize, restless legs to soothe, cardiovascular health impressive, for pain relief and to reduce nausea . CBD has other good properties, but these effects could be helpful in supporting the treatment of kidney-related diseases. (9)




    The kidneys are an important organ whose tasks include, for example, maintenance of fluid balance. Sometimes the deficiency can be difficult to notice, as the symptoms may be quite imperceptible. CBD oil has properties that may alleviate symptoms of kidney failure and inflammation.





    1. Kidney and Liver Association. Kidney deficiency. Referenced 03/07/2023.
    2. Saha H.. 2019. Duodecim health library. Kidney failure (uremia). Referenced 03/07/2023
    3. Nylund P.. 2018. The best treatment for kidney failure is effective prevention. Referenced 03/07/2023.
    4. Sympathetic expert vets. Sympatti oy. Referenced 03/07/2023.
    5. Gordin E., Viitanen S. and Spillmann T.. 2018. Sic!. Acute kidney damage in cats and dogs must be detected early and treatment started quickly.ähö-on-todettava-varhain-ja-hoito-aloitettava-nopeasti . Referenced 03/07/2023.
    6. Jalanko H.. 2021. Duodecim health library. Referenced 03/07/2023.
    7. Chua JT, Argueta DA, DiPatrizio NV, Kovesdy CP, Vaziri ND, Kalantar-Zadeh K. and Moradi H.. Endocannabinoid System and the Kidneys: From Renal Physiology to Injury and Disease. Referenced 03/07/2023
    8. Ho C., Martinusen D. and Lo C.. 2019. A Review of Cannabis in Chronic Kidney Disease Symptom Management. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.sagov/pmc/articles/PMC6388458/. Referenced 03/07/2023.
    9. Park F., Potukuchi PK, Moradi H. and Kovesdy CP. 2017. Cannabinoids and the kidney: effects in health and disease. Referenced 03/07/2023.
    CBD and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

    CBD and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

    Strange situations, whether they happened or didn’t happen, run through my mind, and in addition, the lock on the front door must be checked at least a hundred times before leaving. Does it sound familiar? Everyone has mild symptoms, but sometimes it may be an obsessive-compulsive disorder, i.e. OCD. OCD is not serious, but is in any case a state of mind classified as a psychological disorder. In this article, we take a deeper look at OCD, see what the endocannabinoid system has to do with it, and consider whether CBD could help with obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

    What is Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)?


    Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a psychiatric disorder based on compulsive thoughts and action patterns. It is estimated that around 1-3% of Finns suffer from obsessive-compulsive symptoms, but the diagnosis is rarer than that. The disorder is not dangerous, but its symptoms can be so strong that it controls a person’s life and thoughts. (1)

    The disorder usually starts already in childhood, but it also appears together with other psychiatric diseases, such as depression and anxiety. The risk of obsessive-compulsive symptoms during pregnancy and breastfeeding has been found to increase approximately twice compared to normal. The actual peaks for the onset of symptoms are in adolescence and young adulthood. (1,2)

    All people have compulsive thoughts, feelings and behaviors in some situations, but the symptoms are classified as a disorder when they affect life in a dominant way.


    Factors behind the outbreak


    It is not known exactly what causes obsessive-compulsive symptoms, but it is suspected that e.g. inflammation of the body, oxidative stress and a disorder related to the glutamatergic pathway, which is behind almost all psychological illnesses. (1,2,3)


    Obsessions rule life


    Obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms are related to either compulsive thoughts or compulsive actions and are often unrealistic and excessive.

    Compulsive thoughts include, for example, fears of contamination and contracting diseases, paranoia and suspicion. The thoughts are mostly distressing and negative. (1,2) Compulsions are often neurotic ways of controlling these thoughts.

    A person suffering from compulsive symptoms may wash their hands so much for fear of disease that the skin breaks or clean so neurotically that all places are shiny, and even that is not enough. The symptom picture is also related to the need for symmetry, in which case everything must be in a certain order and everything must be perfectly in its place all the time (1,2).

    The person suffering from the symptoms often realizes that the way he acts or thinks is no longer normal, but is still unable to change his habits without help.

    The OCD test


    There are several different tests that you can use to examine your compulsions before going to the doctor. OCD test of the mental health center can be found here .

    In addition, the website of Mielenterveystalo also has a self-care program for those suffering from mild and moderate symptoms and Welcome to the self-care program for obsessive-compulsive symptoms | .

    A person suffering from OCD washing their hands.

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a mild mental illness, the symptoms of which may be alleviated by e.g. with therapy and CBD oil.



    Obsessive compulsive disorder treatment and medications


    In general, therapy and drug therapy or their combination are used as treatment, but neuromodulation treatments are also used. (2) Cognitive-behavioral therapy, which is primarily used as a treatment, is not so effective that it is necessary to develop other ways to relieve symptoms or eliminate them completely.

    The endocannabinoid system and OCD


    The endocannabinoid system is an observer of all body functions, whose task is to balance vital functions. The endocannabinoid system is found in all humans and all animals, except crustaceans, and has numerous different functions throughout the body.

    The endocannabinoid system consists of endocannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors and enzymes that break them down.

    In the background of obsessive-compulsive disorder, it has been observed, for example, increased endocannabinoid levels in the brain, which is where the symptoms start. (4) Of course, this does not mean that the endocannabinoid system is the cause of the onset of diseases, but that somewhere in the body there is a place where endocannabinoids and their corresponding receptors are needed more. You can read more about the lack of endocannabinoids and its effect on the onset of diseases in the article endocannabinoid deficiency state .


    CBD oil in a dropper bottle for OCD compulsions.

    Research on the benefits of CBD specifically for the treatment of OCD symptoms is just beginning, but based on the early results, it seems that cannabinoids such as CBD would also have positive effects on alleviating obsessive-compulsive disorder.




    CBD is a compound found in the hemp plant, which, according to studies, has numerous effects on the functions of the human and animal bodies. In addition to being neuroprotective, antioxidant and oxidative stress-relieving, according to studies, it has been found to be a good support alongside the treatment of many psychiatric diseases. (4)

    Only a few studies have been conducted on the use of cannabinoids for the treatment of OCD, but already based on them, it is possible to say that cannabinoids probably have positive effects in alleviating obsessive-compulsive disorder. (3,4)

    GSK-3β is an enzyme whose imbalanced activity affects the background of several neurological diseases. It regulates e.g. cell membrane, inflammatory pathways and neuron polarities and affects the occurrence of oxidative stress. According to researches CBD reduces the activity of the GSK-3β enzyme, as well as controlling the release of serotonin and relieving anxiety and psychotic symptoms. (3)

    CBD oil according to studies and user experiences, it is well tolerated, effective and safe to use to alleviate the symptoms of many different diseases. It has numerous properties that may have a positive effect, e.g. insomnia and anxiety and it has been found to alleviate e.g. symptoms of post-traumatic stress and stress .



    Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a mild mental illness that nevertheless has a sensitive life-dominating effect. Symptoms include being neurotic about things like washing your hands. It is possible to get rid of obsessive-compulsive disorder with, for example, therapy.



    1. The working group established by Duodecim of the Finnish Medical Association and the Finnish Psychiatric Association. Duodecim treatment. Referred on 20/02/2023
    2. Obsessive-compulsive disorder. Referred on 20/02/2023
    3. Kayser RR, Haney M, Raskin M, Arout C, and Simpson HB. 2020. Acute Effects of Cannabinoids on Symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Human Laboratory Study. Referred on 20/02/2023
    4. Vallee A., Lecarpentier Y. and Vallee JN.. 2021. Molecular psychiatry. Possible actions of cannabidiol in obsessive-compulsive disorder by targeting the WNT/β-catenin pathway. Referred on 20/02/2023.
    CBD and Bipolar Disorder

    CBD and Bipolar Disorder

    Bipolar disorder, or bipolar disorder, is a mental health illness for which everyone carries predisposing genes. The disease is challenging and often difficult to treat, but it can also be alleviated with lifestyle and possibly with the help of CBD oil. This article will introduce you to bipolar disorder, the endocannabinoid system behind it, and how CBD could be helpful in treating it.


    What is bipolar disorder?


    Bipolar disorder, (manic-depressive), also called bipolar disorder, is a mental health disorder characterized by alternating periods of depression and mania. The mood varies between manic and depressed, and in between there may be long periods called the recovery phase, when the symptoms hardly appear. (1,2,3,4)

    About 1-2% of Finnish adults suffer from bipolar disorder and it is equally common in both women and men. The first disease episode usually occurs in young adulthood, between the ages of 15 and 35. The frequency and number of episodes during life varies between sufferers. Sometimes the onset of periods of illness goes in synchrony with the seasons, other times they are the result of more challenging phases of life. For others, the disease is also easier to predict in advance, as the seasons may follow each other cyclically; after depression, mania, then again depression and mania. In between these, there may be a recovery phase, when the mood is typical for the person. (1,2,3,4)

    Bipolar disorder is divided into two types. People with type 1 have mania, while people with type 2 only have hypomania. Type 1 in particular includes an increased risk of e.g. divorces, suicide and disability. (1,2,3,4)


    Causes of illness

    Bipolar disorder is strongly hereditary, but environmental factors probably also predispose to it. Heritability is approx. 10-15 %. (3)

    All people carry some predisposing genes, and depending on the circumstances, the disease will break out or not.

    According to a recently completed study, the disease is caused by a disruption of the internal clock, which is caused by low-level inflammation in the body, activation of the immune system, and chronic stress. In addition to MJ Rantala, associate professor of evolutionary psychology at the University of Turku, the group that carried out the research includes S. Luoto, J. Borraz-Leon and I. Krams. According to the study, the reduced need for sleep was thought to be a symptom, but now it is thought to be the cause of the onset of mania. Disruption of the internal clock and thus the deterioration of sleep quality and decrease in quantity most obviously triggers mania, because sleep affects chronic stress and the level of inflammation in the nervous system. (5)




    The symptoms of the disease vary between seasons as well as between sufferers, and the symptoms can be anything in intensity. A strong change in mood from one extreme to the other is typical, seasonally. The symptoms of bipolar disorder therefore include episodes of depression and mania that are clearly separated from each other.

    It would be good to know how to recognize your own initial symptoms, so that the management of the disease is as successful as possible. Usually, the onset of mania is accompanied by increased energy and a decreased need for sleep, an increase in sexual desire and a generally more active approach to life.


    Depressed woman sitting on the floor.

    Depression is the other side of bipolar disorder and CBD oil may help with that.




    The symptoms of the depressive phase are not much different from ordinary depression, when a person is very tired, uninterested and unwilling. During the depression period, even the most important and dearest things are not necessarily of interest, but up to 18 hours of the day are spent sensitively on the bottom of the bed. It is typical that a period of depression follows mania, and in this case depression may also be accompanied by shame and regret for the things that happened during the mania. The depressive phase of bipolar disorder may be associated with a little more depression than usual, e.g. psychotic symptoms, weight gain and slowing down of thoughts and movement. (1,2,3,4)

    The depressive phase usually lasts at least a week, but can last even months.



    There are two different types of mania. Mania is a faster gear in the life of a bipolar disorder sufferer and then there is enough energy to share with others. The symptoms include a loss of control over one’s own actions, when everything seems to be successful and exciting, one cannot sleep for more than a few hours, and especially one cannot rest on one’s laurels. It’s great to do all kinds of things when you finally have enough power. Talkativeness increases, self-esteem rises and the person may become a “freak for grandeur” who spends money recklessly. During mania, a person is sexually hyperexcited. (1,2,3,4)

    Hypomania is clearly milder than mania, but they still have the same elements. During hypomania, a person does not become psychotic, but the mania phase is mainly seen as increased energy, increased self-esteem and a decrease in the need for sleep.

    Manic phases usually last from a week to months.


    Mixed episode


    If the symptoms change rapidly, even within one day, from depression to mania and back again, it is called a mixed episode. A mixed episode can be particularly stressful for those closest to you, as unpredictable behavior can bring challenges to everyday life and social situations.




    Psychological illnesses are often associated with strong shame, which is why a person is not always willing to admit all the symptoms he has. Depending also on the phase that the person is going through, he may be completely unable to judge that it is e.g. manic episode.

    In order to diagnose bipolar disorder, the review often requires a little longer, as the diagnosis requires at least two manic/depressive episodes. In Finland, the time from the first episode of illness to diagnosis is approx. 8 years (5).


    Treatment and medication


    There is no medicine that can cure or stop mania or depression, but bipolar disorder is treated in such a way that the disease remains as symptom-free as possible and the mood is stable. The most important task of drug treatment is to prevent episodes from recurring, as they also worsen and intensify the symptoms of the next episode.

    Commonly used drugs include e.g. antipsychotic medication, drugs that affect sleep, mood stabilizers, and lithium and valproate, which are used to try to stabilize mood during a mixed episode or mania. During the depressive period, the medication differs from the treatment of ordinary depression, as mood stabilizers and antipsychotics are used instead of antidepressants. (3,4)

    Medication can be difficult, as only a few commit to regular use of the medication. Often, the drug is stopped independently just at the onset of mania or depression and sometimes also in the middle of the recovery phase, thinking that the medication is no longer needed.

    The best way to treat and manage the disease is to acknowledge its existence and the fluctuating episodes it causes. Recognizing the symptoms and reacting to them is of paramount importance even in those moments when symptoms do not occur. Lifestyle greatly affects the onset and maintenance of the disease. Regular routines, a nutrient-rich diet without additives, not intoxicating and minimizing coffee consumption are very important aspects in managing symptoms, as well as taking care of the best possible sleep quality. (3,4)

    Various therapies also play a significant role in managing the disease. Such are e.g. individual psychotherapy, and couple and family therapy.

    Natural treatment

    There are several factors behind the onset of bipolar disorder and disruption of vital functions. Good life management is important for treating bipolar disorder. The drugs used in treatment often cause strong side effects, so during the recovery phase it is especially important to take care of the basics so that both mind and body are ready to receive another episode of depression/mania. (3,4,5)

    The background of the onset of the disease is therefore a disruption of the internal clock, stress, inflammation of the body and probably also accumulations of heavy metals in the brain. A diet that cleanses the body and relieves inflammation and following it with a competent nutritionist could be significant in terms of treating the disease.

    Also, stopping the use of substances, observing regularity in life through routines and adding exercise to everyday life could be effective ways to relieve stress, inflammation and help the internal clock stay on schedule. (3,4,5)

    An image depicting bipolar disorder, with a man walking on a tightrope.

    Bipolar disorder, which is caused by the imbalance of the internal clock, is also a disease that affects loved ones, as it causes instability in the sufferer’s life.

    Experiences and tests


    There is a lot of material and different tests on the Internet if you want to examine your own or a loved one’s symptoms. You should always talk to a professional about symptoms and suspicions about getting sick, but you can map out the situation first at home, e.g. with this test Mood Disorder Questionnaire MDQ .

    The bipolar disorder guide has a lot of information for both the sufferer and their loved ones and can be found here 2. Do I have bipolar disorder? – Bipolar guide.

    Experiences, support and peer support are offered by e.g. association Bipolar and you can find them here Bipolar .


    Close ones


    Bipolar disorder can be heavy and challenging for loved ones as well. Especially for the family, children and spouse of the person suffering from strong symptoms, both long periods of depression and also long periods of mania can be difficult times, and the situation may not get any easier even during the recovery phase. Often loved ones notice the onset of mania/depression faster than the symptoms, and during the recovery phase, the loved one may unnecessarily get annoyed with their spouse by misinterpreting their behavior. Overreaction and fear of the situation turning in the direction of depression/mania easily causes arguments and the relationship is put to the test because of this. (4)

    Mania may take the patient to a closed ward, and during depression the spouse may not be able to do anything about it together. Accepting and putting up with this demands an extreme amount from the spouse, and families are often offered e.g. relationship therapy, in which the experience of both is heard. (4)

    The matter is challenging to the extent that the sufferer needs enormous support, understanding and love, especially from the spouse and loved ones. The variability of situations can become burdensome for the family over the years, especially if the disease is still untreated and without a diagnosis and mood-balancing medication. A spouse’s illness may also cause shame, so getting help for both yourself and the sick person can be unnecessarily delayed. (4)


    The endocannabinoid system in bipolar disorder


    Purpose of the endocannabinoid system is to balance all processes in the body. The system found in almost all living species is responsible for the needs that are necessary for life, such as e.g. appetite, sleep and relaxation and is therefore of course also part of the onset, maintenance and possibly recovery of bipolar disorder.

    The endocannabinoid system includes endogenous cannabinoids, their corresponding two receptors and the enzymes that break them down.

    Both pro-inflammatory cytokines and the endocannabinoid anandamide a clear increase in levels has been observed in those who are going through at least another episode of the disease. Also, an increase in other, lesser known, endocannabinoids in those who have both schizophrenia and substance abuse problems in addition to bipolar disorder. (6)

    Another of the most well-known cannabinoids, 2-AG is at a clearly lower than normal level in those suffering from mental health challenges. (6)

    The CB2 receptor has a strong influence on the immune response, and its activation could be significant in the treatment of bipolar disorder, which is partially caused by inflammation in the body. (7)


    CBD adjusts the internal clock


    Disturbances of the internal clock, low-grade inflammation of the body and stress are common features of bipolar disorder. A compound found in hemp, According to studies, cannabidiol or CBD has an effect on the internal clock , relieves inflammation , and also relieves stress . cannabinoid. CBD is not intoxicating, does not cause addiction and has been found to be effective even after long-term use.

    According to research, harnessing cannabinoids for mental health treatment is challenging to the extent that they affect everyone in slightly different ways. However, CBD may also have therapeutic effects on mental health challenges and may also be useful in supporting the treatment of bipolar disorder.

    CBD acts mainly through non-cannabinoid receptors, but it also has an effect that activates the cannabinoid system. (8)

    The intoxicating cannabinoid, THC(tetrahydrocannabinol), the use of hemp is not recommended for people with bipolar disorder, as THC may e.g. trigger mania. (7)




    Bipolar disorder is a difficult-to-diagnose mental illness that causes challenging symptoms that range from deep depression to high-energy mania. Lifestyle has a great impact in terms of disease prevention and treatment, but often alongside them different mood-balancing drugs are needed. CBD oil may relieve symptoms during both depressive and manic periods, but also affect future periods of illness, as CBD in general has been found to have effects that may alleviate the causes associated with bipolar disorder.




    1. Bipolar disorder. Referenced 2/22/2023
    2. Central Association of Mental Health. Bipolar disorder. Referenced 2/22/2023.
    3. A working group set up by the Duodecim of the Finnish Medical Society, the Finnish Psychiatric Association and the Finnish Youth Psychiatric Association. Duodecim On-site treatment. Bipolar disorder. Referenced 2/22/2023.
    4. Bipo guide. Referenced 2/22/2023.
    5. University of Turku. Media release. The researchers found out the mechanism of origin of bipolar disorder. Referenced 2/22/2023.
    6. Garani R., Watts J. and Mizrahi R.. 2020. Endocannabinoid System in Psychotic and Mood Disorders, a review of human studies. Referenced 2/22/2023.
    7. Arjmand S., Behzadi M., Kohlmeier KA, Mazheri S., Sabahi A. and Shabani M.. 2019. Cambridge university press. Bipolar disorder and the endocannabinoid system. %5BauthorTerms% 5D=Shokouh%20Arjmand&eventCode=SE-AU. Referenced 2/22/2023
    8. Campos AC, Moreira FA, Gomes FV, Del Bel EA and Guimarez FS. 2020. Multiple mechanisms involved in the large-spectrum Therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in Psychiatric disorders. Referenced 2/22/2023.
    CBD and fatigue

    CBD and fatigue

    Fatigue is very common and everyone will experience it at some point in their lives. Constant fatigue can be caused by many different reasons and the background also affects it endocannabinoid system. In this article, we’ll explore fatigue and whether CBD oil could help manage the symptoms!

    The human body is a subtle entity, which on the one hand is durable and stable, but on the other hand reacts very sensitively to various environmental factors. Fatigue is an expression of various experiences related to the general state of alertness. There can be many reasons behind fatigue and CBD oil can help with some of them.


    Causes of fatigue


    Fatigue can be caused by a bad night’s sleep, stress, medication or a stressful life situation. Menstruation, iron deficiency anemia, menopause, depression and allergies cause fatigue, as does, for example, watching over a baby. Fatigue is the first or side symptom of some diseases. (1)

    In general, fatigue is caused by lifestyles that can be influenced by yourself. Sufficiently long night sleep, stress relief, diet and exercise are basic things that can increase your own endurance (1). CBD oil according to studies, has an effect on insomnia. It improves the sleep cycle and makes it easier to both fall asleep and wake up. It has also been found to deepen sleep.


    iron-rich foods on the table.

    One of the most significant factors causing fatigue is iron deficiency anemia and low iron stores in the body, i.e. ferritin.


    Iron deficiency anemia


    Today, iron deficiency anemia is a very common body imbalance condition, especially among women, which causes severe fatigue and weakness. Iron deficiency can be difficult to detect, because the hemoglobin concentration in the blood can be within the reference values, but the levels of storage iron, i.e. ferritin (ferritin and P-TfR), are very low.

    It is thought that almost all women suffer from low ferritin and its effects should be taken seriously. The challenge is the poor absorption of iron consumed as a supplement and the fact that what works for one person may not work for another. Iron stocks also seem to decrease quickly again, even if they could be temporarily raised to a safe level.

    Iron deficiency is basically a disturbance in the production of red blood cells, and its background is often a lack of trace and mineral substances that build red blood cells. To produce red blood cells, e.g. copper, iron and several B group vitamins. In order to get the iron values permanently in order, it is good to consider the diet as a whole. In the beginning, especially if the storage iron is very low, it can be good to take some well-absorbed iron product, which can often be found in health food stores, and with the energy you get from it, you start thinking about your own overall situation and why the iron is not absorbed. (2)

    There are a huge number of different views on the causes of iron deficiency. Some think it’s a vegetarian diet and others think it’s eating meat and eggs. One believes that heavy menstruation is the reason, and the other blames everything on their own beliefs. However, the truth is that there are certainly many reasons and the problem is transgenerational. You can find different perspectives on the subject by searching huge amounts on the internet, and to improve the situation, it is possible to try all kinds of things, from iron preparations to iron infusion to diet correction. (2)

    Doctor Ilona Ritola maintains the INFO – Raudanpūte – website, which has a lot of information related to the topic.

    There are different types of iron products. What is absorbed by one person is not necessarily absorbed by others, and the form in which the iron is usually affects how challenging the preparation in question is for the stomach. The absorption of iron is promoted by e.g. Vitamin C, and it should not be taken together with dairy products.

    Symptoms of fatigue


    The symptoms of fatigue are quite clear. In the morning, it would be impossible to get out of bed, and the day does not seem to start. In addition, for example, going to work can feel overwhelming and the ability to concentrate can be non-existent. Taking care of everyday things is therefore more burdensome than usual, and the thought of the sofa and curling up under a blanket is always on my mind. Fatigue can appear at any time of the day, depending on the cause, and it cannot necessarily be corrected by rest. Prolonged fatigue can also be a symptom of an illness.

    In fatigue symptoms related to hormonal imbalance, fatigue often strikes in the afternoon!


    Constant fatigue and weakness


    It is good to find out the cause of constant fatigue, because when it becomes chronic, fatigue may turn into exhaustion and recovery can be a long process. Long-lasting fatigue that does not resolve with lifestyle changes, such as paying attention to sleep quality, can also be a sign of illness.

    The feeling of weakness may be related to iron deficiency anemia or some other disease. Exhaustion also causes weakness. Powerlessness is a symptom that strongly affects life, because it is both a mental and a physical feeling at the same time. The legs may not carry and even a small everyday adversity may seem like an insurmountable challenge.


    Treatment of fatigue


    The treatment of fatigue depends entirely on the cause of the fatigue. Prolonged fatigue or fatigue occurring as a symptom of an illness and its treatment should be agreed with a doctor, but fatigue caused by your own choices can be corrected with demanding but simple methods. It is good to make changes to your diet in a healthier direction, especially if you feel tired immediately after eating. The feeling that comes from eating is light, but full, satisfied and energetic. Fatigue is caused by digestion that takes too much energy, which can be caused by the simplest combination of bad ingredients.

    Stress can be relieved in many ways. The forest, sauna, moments where you don’t demand anything from yourself, good food and calming the nervous system are proven to be good ways to calm the mind. You can read more here On the effect of CBD oil on stress .

    Good lifestyles are a prerequisite for a vibrant life. The body copes better with everyday challenges when the foundation is in good condition. Good or even moderate physical condition, high-quality nutrition, a balanced mind contribute to coping, and fatigue is often caused by deficiencies in the basic things of life.


    Mental fatigue


    Exhaustion is sometimes called mental fatigue, and on a general level it often means tiredness related to everyday things. The rhythm of life can be really burdensome and between work, home and free time and slowly causes exhaustion. Exhaustion is challenging to notice, let alone admit to yourself, and that’s why it often has time to progress too far, in which case the situation requires a long rest and calming down of life before the strength returns to normal.


    tired woman sleeping in a hammock.

    Fatigue is caused by many reasons and it is good to treat them seriously, because fatigue usually has a deeper meaning.


    Does CBD oil help with fatigue?


    Often in studies about CBD and also according to user experiences, especially high doses of CBD oil may cause fatigue. That’s true, but possibly adjustable by what time of day you take CBD and what kind of dose.

    CBD affects adenosine, which is one of the hormones that cause fatigue. Adenosine levels naturally rise in the evening and cause a feeling of fatigue. (3,4)

    The use of the CBD oil the effect on fatigue is individual. Some people get tired after just one drop of CBD oil, while others take it even in the morning without any tiring effect on the level of alertness. In particular, cannabinoid acids such as CBD-A and CBG-A may raise the mood and, with it, also the state of alertness.

    CBD oil may be helpful for sleep-related challenges and thus also have an effect on the general state of alertness.




    Fatigue is a common and natural feeling that can be affected by many health-promoting life choices. Fatigue that cannot be cured by easy means should be investigated in more detail, because sometimes the underlying cause is illness, exhaustion or a lack of vitamins.




    1. Saarelma O.. 2022. Health Library Duodecim. Fatigue. Referred on 3/17/2023.
    2. Carlo-Melkas N.. 2018. Pharmacy. Iron deficiency behind many problems. Referred on 3/17/2023.
    3. Grinspoon P.. 2021. Cannabidiol : what we know and what we don’t. Referred on 3/17/2023.
    4. Shannon S., Lewis N., Lee H., and Hughes S.. 2019. Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: A Large Case Series. Referred on 3/17/2023.
    CBD and Huntington’s disease

    CBD and Huntington’s disease

    Huntington’s disease is a rare but all the more unfortunate disease that occurs mostly among the white population. In this article, we’ll look at Huntington’s disease, the endocannabinoid system behind it, and whether CBD could help alleviate its symptoms.

    What is Huntington’s disease?


    Huntington’s disease (Huntington’s disease) is a disease occurring in the central nervous system that strongly affects functions related to memory, behavior and body movement. Huntington’s disease is quite rare and is estimated to affect 4-10/100,000 people in Finland. Huntington’s disease is mainly a disease of the white population and it occurs most in Europeans, but also in North America and Canada the prevalence is almost at the European level. (1,2)

    Huntington’s disease is caused by an error in the HTT gene, which causes degeneration of the central nervous system. (1,2)

    Symptoms of Huntington’s disease


    Symptoms usually only start at an older age. Most often in 30-year-olds at the earliest, but usually only in those who have crossed the 50-year-old threshold. The symptoms are clear changes in behavior, compulsive movements, dementia and psychological symptoms such as anxiety, social challenges and sadness. The symptoms usually start with movement called chorea, weight loss and sleep difficulties, and slowly progress to other typical symptoms. (2) The symptoms are manifold and vary greatly between patients.

    Sometimes the symptom is also psychotic symptoms such as paranoia and visual and auditory hallucinations. (2)

    Prevention, diagnosis and treatment


    The hereditary but rare Huntington’s disease is caused by an error in the protein called huntingtin, which encodes the HTT gene. It is estimated that about half of those who carry the genetic defect eventually become ill, and the timing of the onset of the disease largely depends on how much longer than normal the CAG repeat period is in the huntingtin chromosome. The reason why not everyone gets sick or why the disease breaks out in some people is not yet known. (1,2,3)

    Getting a diagnosis is often slowed down by the fact that the sufferer himself does not notice and admit the symptoms, but making a diagnosis is quite easy based on the symptoms.

    There is no cure or treatment for Huntington’s disease. Specially developed drugs are used to treat symptoms such as compulsive movements and mood, but the drugs are often poorly tolerated and quite ineffective. Usually the patient dies no later than 20 years after the diagnosis, but if the disease has already been diagnosed at an older age, it has hardly appeared alongside the usual symptoms of old age. (1,2)


    The endocannabinoid system and huntington


    The endocannabinoid system is found in almost all humans and animals. The purpose of this system is to be in the background of vital functions, monitoring and balancing processes so that the body functions as optimally as possible. Sometimes, for some reason, a malfunction occurs in the system and the system starts to operate either with over- or under-production. Dysfunction of the endocannabinoid system is at the root of many diseases, but it is not the actual culprit for the onset of diseases.

    Two receptors belonging to the endocannabinoid system have been recognized, the CB1 and CB2 receptors. During Huntington’s disease, CB1 receptors are clearly reduced, while CB2 levels seem to be normal compared to a healthy person. The levels of CB1 receptors are directly proportional to the CAG repeats, but nevertheless, decreased CB1 receptor levels are likely a consequence, not a cause, of Huntington’s disease. (3,4)

    CBD oil bottle and hemp leaves.

    Huntington’s disease symptoms are diverse and can be mitigated by e.g. CBD oil.



    Does CBD help?


    CBD is a cannabinoid found in the hemp plant, which, according to research, has numerous properties that have a positive effect on health. Oil is pressed or extracted from hemp that contains all the active ingredients of hemp, this is called full spectrum oil.

    Huntington’s disease involves the death of nerve cells and the inflammation that occurs in them. CBD has been found in studies to prevent cell death (5), to relieve inflammation and also to protect nerve cells, and thus it might slow down the progression of the disease and possibly ease its symptoms.

    CBD oil may also have other effects that may ease the symptoms of Huntington’s disease. CBD has been detected to relieve anxiety and MS disease in studies

    to restrain the body’s compulsive movements. It might have too memory-enhancing or memory-preserving properties according to research on Alzheimer’s disease.



    Huntington’s disease is a multi-symptom disease for which there is still no curative treatment. It is possible to alleviate the symptoms and slow down the progression of the disease with the help of medicines and possibly also CBD oil.


    1. Huntington Association of Finland Huntington’s disease. Referred on 27.12.2022.
    2. Sipilä OTJ, Kaasinen V., Hietala M., Päivärinta M. and Majamaa K.. 2019. Duodecim Aikakusikirja. Huntington’s disease. Referred on 27.12.2022.
    3. Pazos MR, Sagredo O. and Fernandez-Ruiz J.. 2008. Current Pharmaceutical Design. The Endocannabinoid System in Huntington’s Disease. Cited 12/27/2022.
    4. Lastres-Becker R. and Fernandez-Ruiz JJ. 2003. The endocannabinoid system and Huntington’s disease. Referred on 27.12.2022
    5. Rieder S., Chauhan A., Singh U., Nagarkatti M. and Nagarkatti P.. 2009. Cannabinoid-induced apoptosis in immune cells as a pathway to immunosuppression. Referred on 27.12.2022.
    Treatment of glaucoma with CBD

    Treatment of glaucoma with CBD

    The effect of the cannabinoid CBD on glaucoma has been studied for a long time. Eye pressure disease, even causing permanent blindness, is an unfortunate, incurable disease in humans, which fortunately progresses slowly in most cases. In this article, we will get to know glaucoma as a disease, the endocannabinoid system behind it, and also whether CBD oil could be helpful in lowering eye pressure or other factors behind the disease.

    What is glaucoma?

    Glaucoma, i.e. intraocular pressure or cataract, is a disease affecting the optic nerve, which is the most common cause behind permanent visual impairment. In Finland, it affects just under 100,000 people, and it is more common only in people over 65. However, approx. 1% of people aged 40+ have glaucoma, often without knowing it. The risk of getting sick increases with age, but the disease is also sometimes found in children and young people. (1)

    The cause of eye pressure is not known, but the eye pressure is usually elevated for a long time before the onset of the disease. The increase in pressure causes metabolic and blood circulation disturbances in the optic nerve, which eventually damages the optic nerve. Pressure on nerve fibers also affects the onset of the disease. (1)

    Glaucoma in children always has a clear cause behind it, such as eye damage or an inflammatory disease . (2)

    Glaucoma symptoms

    Glaucoma is usually asymptomatic until the disease is already too advanced to stop it. The first symptoms are observations that you cannot see properly with the other eye. As the disease progresses, vision deteriorates in areas of both eyes, sometimes faster in one than the other. Glaucoma is also associated with tube vision, i.e. a condition where the field of vision has shrunk to a small tube in the middle of the field of vision. (1)

    A sudden attack of intraocular pressure (acute angle-closure glaucoma) is accompanied by strong symptoms. The eye pressure suddenly rises dangerously high and then the symptoms are a severe headache and pain in the eye area, redness of the eye and reduced vision in the affected eye. Sometimes the seizure is not triggered by medication, but it is necessary to open the corner of the eye with the help of a laser. (1)

    The symptoms of glaucoma, i.e. eye pressure disease, are related to the weakening of vision.

    The first symptoms of glaucoma are usually a loss of vision in one eye. As the disease progresses, the vision usually deteriorates in areas of both eyes.


    Prevention of intraocular pressure

    Ocular pressure is partly hereditary and myopia may also contribute to its occurrence. There is not much that can be done to prevent it, but you can and should take the best possible care of eye health in general.

    Some factors may have an effect on the development of glaucoma. For example, activities that put pressure on the head, such as weight lifting, high blood pressure, stress and even playing fans may make it possible for the intraocular pressure to rise permanently, but these have not actually been classified as risk factors, and they do not directly lead to the onset of glaucoma.

    Glaucoma diagnosis and treatment

    Most of the time, the eye pressure is elevated if there is reason to suspect glaucoma, but this is not always the case. Eye pressures can be at a normal level and therefore just measuring the eye pressure is not enough to confirm the diagnosis. Usually, studies use a combination of several methods, which take into account intraocular pressure, visual field, nerve pressure layer and the chamber angle of the eye. (1)

    Glaucoma is treated both with eye drops that equalize the eye pressure and with drugs taken internally that affect the pressure. Keeping the pressure as low as possible is its most important treatment method. Treatment of the ventricular angle with laser and pressure surgeries are also used alongside medical treatment. (3)

    Glaucoma cannot be completely cured, but medications slow down the progression and alleviate the symptoms. Glaucoma usually progresses slowly, and in almost all cases it does not lead to complete blindness.

    Endocannabinoid system underlying glaucoma

    The endocannabinoid system balances all body functions. Its most important task is to maintain and ensure the functionality of vital functions. The endocannabinoid system consists of the body’s endogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids), their corresponding cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), and their decomposers.

    The body’s endogenous cannabinoids have numerous important functions in the eye area, and both of them have been observed in the eye area, excluding the lens (4). Endocannabinoid in glaucoma with anandamide (AEA) has a role e.g. in keeping intraocular pressure steady and low. The functions of arachidonylglycerol (2AG) in glaucoma are not yet completely clear, but they are related to anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects (4).

    Cannabinoid receptors are also found throughout the eye area. On the retina, their activation improves e.g. nerve flexibility. The background of glaucoma seems to be influenced especially by the CB1 receptor, which has been widely observed throughout the entire eye area. (5)

    Does CBD help glaucoma symptoms?

    CBD is a well-known and researched compound called cannabinoid found in hemp, which naturally has several therapeutic effects. CBD oil may not directly affect eye pressure by lowering it, but its certain properties may slow down the progression of glaucoma.

    At first it was thought that cannabinoids, both endo- and exocannabinoids, would affect the eye and intraocular pressure via the central nervous system. Studies have since shown that cannabinoids act locally through the direct mediation of receptors (5). CBD does not work through the known cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, but through other receptors in the body such as e.g. through the serotonin receptor.

    The effect of CBD is transmitted through body receptors

    Endocannabinoids respond to the endocannabinoid system’s own receptors, but they also have other receptors in the body through which they act. Listed below are a few receptors outside of the endocannabinoid system that have some role in glaucoma.

    5-HT1A, a member of the serotonin receptor family, has been found in animal experiments to be a pathway that alleviates keratitis, through which CBD can influence. (6,7)

    The GRP18 receptor is a newly identified and even suspected cannabinoid receptor, which has been widely observed e.g. in eye tissues and retina. CBD might have an eye pressure-lowering effect through the GPR18 receptor (6). GRP18 is also activated by anandamide (4).

    GPR55, assumed to be the third cannabinoid receptor, is activated by both phyto-, endo- and synthetic cannabinoids. CBD also acts through this receptor and it has been found that this connection would have an inhibitory effect on the growth of the growth cone of the eye. (6,7)

    TRPV channels are relevant channels in the CBDin the background of the effect of , both in the eyes and in the body. In the eyes, they are at least involved in the background of the anti-inflammatory properties. (6,7)

    CBD protects the nervous system and reduces inflammation

    CBD has been found to have nervous-protective and calming properties. Glaucoma is caused by nerve damage, the calming of which could reduce the strain on the optic nerve and nerve fibers (7). Antioxidative and anti-inflammatory, i.e. anti- inflammatory, effects are also behind the eye health-related healing properties.


    CBD is best absorbed through the skin


    It is often recommended to dose CBD through the skin, because it is quickly absorbed directly into the bloodstream and travels quickly throughout the body.

    In relation to eye pressure, in order to get the best results, it has been thought that CBD should be dosed locally through the skin, as the absorption is not optimal when taken orally. It seems that not enough CBD reaches the eye to easily detect a drop in eye pressure. Another challenge associated with lowering intraocular pressure with CBD is that CBD has such a short duration of action that it should be dosed practically all the time. (6,7)

    You can read more about the transdermal effect of CBD here .


    A cat suffering from glaucoma, i.e. eye pressure.

    Ocular pressure can also occur in cats, dogs and other animals.


    Glaucoma in cats and dogs

    Eye pressure also occurs in animals. Glaucoma in cats and dogs is similar to that in humans; it is accompanied by visual impairment and possible blindness. Glaucoma in animals is also treated with drugs and, in extreme cases, with surgery. Interestingly, cat glaucoma usually gets better, but dog glaucoma does not. Glaucoma in animals can be difficult to detect at first, and they have the same challenge as humans, i.e. it is often diagnosed too late. Regular eye examinations for animals are also important, so that possible diseases, including glaucoma, are noticed in time. (8,9)


    In summary

    Glaucoma is a common sight-damaging disease that unfortunately is often diagnosed only when the disease has already progressed far. It is initially asymptomatic and as a slowly progressing disease does not initially cause such a great harm to life that it would be investigated. CBD has been found to affect e.g. the properties that protect the nervous system and affect glaucoma mainly come from them and the properties that reduce inflammation.



    1. Seppänen M.. 2021. Health Library Duodecim. Eye pressure (glaucoma). Referred on 5/11/2022.
    2. Vaajanen A., Gielen F. and Tuulonen A.. 2017. Period book Duodecim. Glaucoma and alternative treatments. Referred on 5/11/2022.
    3. Rotten. M.. 2018. Period book Duodecim. Glaucoma treatment – fine art between efficacy and adverse effects. Referred on 5/11/2022.
    4. Cairns EA, Baldridge WH and Kelly MEM. 2016. Neural Plast. The Endocannabinoid System as a Therapeutic Target in Glaucoma. Referred on 5/11/2022.
    5. Tomida I., Pertwee RG and Azuara-Blanco A.. 2004. Cannabinoids and glaucoma. Referred on 5/11/2022.
    6. Aebersold A., Duff M., Sloan L. and Song ZH.. International journal of experimental cellular physiology, Biochemistry and pharmacology. Cannabidiol Signaling in the Eye and Its Potential as an Ocular Therapeutic Agent. Referred on 5/11/2022.
    7. Passani A., Posarelli C., Sframeli A., Percipalli L., Pellegrini M., Guidi G and Figus M.. 2020. Journal of medicine. Cannabinoids in Glaucoma Patients: The Never-Ending Story. Referred on 5/11/2022.
    8. Evidence. 2019. Glaucoma or eye pressure disease in dogs. Referred on 5/11/2022
    9. Bauhaus JM 2018. Hill’s Pet. Cat Eye Care: Identifying and Preventing Six Common Cat Eye Problems. Referred on 5/11/2022
    Four ways to choose the best CBD oil and CBD product

    Four ways to choose the best CBD oil and CBD product

    At fairs and presentations, the most common questions about CBD products are: Which of these would be the best CBD product for me? So it’s time to tackle the question on the blog too! We will tell you four ways to choose the best CBD oil or the best CBD product. CBD or CBDA? Read more about the difference between cannabinoids and cannabinoid acids.



    Precise and comprehensive well-being with the help of CBD



    We always start by asking about the needs of the life situation . People have different symptoms for which they seek help from CBD. The power of CBD is based to the endocannabinoid system . The choice of a CBD product is also influenced by what kind of product and composition you want.

    Some prefer CBD capsules, while others prefer it in liquid form. CBD tincture and CBD oil are the most popular of the liquid forms.


    Figure 1. CBD decarboxylation


    How is the CBD product absorbed?


    CBD products in capsule form are absorbed through the intestines, reaching the middle body area, and acting through the endocannabinoid receptors located there.

    CBD oils, CBD tinctures and suckable CBD products are absorbed through the mucous membranes of the mouth directly into the bloodstream and reach the endocannabinoid receptors in the head area quickly. Through the blood circulation, the products are effectively transported throughout the body and where it is most needed.


    Figure 2. The internal cannabinoid system and cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2.


    What are your body and mind needs?


    CBD oil is the most popular CBD product for the needs of the body and mind in crisis, as well as for a clear deficiency state of the endocannabinoid system.

    A versatile result can be achieved by the joint use of products, which may include, for example, raw extracted CBD capsules and activated CBD oil. The capsule is suitable for nourishing the body and mind in the morning, and in the evening for a nourishing sleep. This combination goes a long way!

    Mind-body messages start in the gut. The gut is ours cradle of health, which contains as much intelligence as a cat’s brain. Most of the receptors that need cannabinoids such as CBD / CBDA are located in the intestines. If you want to add well-being in the intestinal area , CBD capsules are probably the best CBD option.

    Four ways to choose the most suitable CBDA product. The endocannabinoid system.

    The internal cannabinoid system. CB1 and CB2 receptors

    What is the best way for you to remember to take CBD?


    No product is effective left in a jar. So what is the best and easiest way for you to remember to take CBD oil / CBD products?

    CBD capsules enable easy and precise dosing. Capsules sold in stores may contain fat, which improves the absorption of cannabinoids.

    Is your morning tea or smoothie the basis of your day? Then you can add CBD oil or CBD products to breakfast.

    In a mobile life situation, the product’s small size and portability are convenient. Small-sized CBD oils and CBD capsules slip easily into handbags and backpacks.

    The best way to take a CBD product regularly is to combine the consumption of the products with your daily routine – such as taking CBD oil with an evening snack or consuming it after lunch.


    Do you need a very precise dosage of CBD?


    Different bodies have different needs and sensitivities. For others, a few drops are enough and someone else feels that they need twenty drops to get the desired effects . This is influenced by e.g. the person’s size, age, metabolism and life situation. When talking about animals and children, the dosage is particularly accurate.

    Encapsulated products can be precisely dosed, as can ingestible CBD products. For animals, we recommend using CBD oil that can be easily mixed with food, for example. The dosage should start with 1-2 drops and increase as needed. Read more in the article how much CBD can be given to animals .

    Sometimes it is difficult to see the number of drops if you drop it directly into your mouth. You can refine the dosage of the tincture and CBD oil by first dropping it on a spoon or even on the back of your hand. This way you can see and count the drops. Alternatively, you can take the drops in front of a mirror, for example.

    CBD overdoses have not been reported, but with large amounts, the body’s state of alertness has been perceived to decrease.

    We hope that with these instructions you will find the right product for you !

    Four ways to choose the best CBD product

    CBD products and CBD oil for pets can be found on the internet in many different forms.

    Please note that the article tells about CBD products and their effects in general. We do not claim that the products of Hamppumaa’s online store have the health claims in question, and the article is not intended for the marketing of the products.

    CBD helps in the treatment of addictions

    CBD helps in the treatment of addictions

    According to studies, CBD oil seems like a promising product for the treatment of various addictions, or as an auxiliary substance to be used in connection with treatment. Although many believe that addiction can never be cured, it is still possible to live a life where you can feel free even after a strong period of addiction.

    There are many methods and methods available for the journey to learning to live with strong desires or dominant ways of doing things, but there is no single pill for that problem. Whether addiction can be cured or not, this article will consider how CBD oil helps in drug addiction situations in particular and how CBD oil in general could ease the symptoms of those struggling with drug addictions.


    The role of the endocannabinoid system in addiction


    Addictions are physiologically complex phenomena directed at a substance or activity that are strongly linked to dopamine, e.g. the neurotransmitter related to the regulation of pleasure and emotions to the hormone’s own neurotransmitters. There are CB1 receptors in dopamine neurons, as well as in abundance in the brain in the areas associated with e.g. reward and the creation and maintenance of addiction (1). In order to fulfill our natural needs, we are guided by rewards. We get a rush of pleasure when we fill our stomach with food or go to the bathroom, but unfortunately also from intoxicants such as alcohol and tobacco. This creates a cycle, when we start searching for that source of pleasure without realizing it. A functional change in the cell is necessary for change, i.e. addiction, to be possible. The emergence of addiction is the result of the plasticity of the brain and cells, and the endocannabinoid system is part of this plasticity. (1,2,3)


    Dopamine and the endocannabinoid system


    Dopamine activity, which appears to be affected by intoxicants, is linked to cannabinoid activity (3). The endocannabinoid system fine-tunes dopaminergic activity, and intoxicants disrupt that signaling (1,2,3). This signaling disruption between the endocannabinoid system and dopamine activity appears to be the cause of difficulty in quitting substance abuse (1). The uneven signaling of the endocannabinoid system itself contributes to irregular plasticity of the nerves, stress, negative emotional states and cravings, which in turn predispose to rewarding activities, i.e. to addictions, for example(1,3). The endocannabinoid system is a necessary factor in the adaptation of cells from recreational use to use disorder and vice versa, i.e. the endocannabinoid system is both an enabler of addiction and a necessary tool for withdrawal.

    The endocannabinoid system also plays a role in emotional learning and remembering processes. e.g. CB1 ligands have been found to both facilitate and moderate the reaction in various fear and reward situations. (4)


    CBD oil in the treatment of addictions


    Studies show that CBD oil is even a really good form of support for those struggling with addictions. The topic has been studied both with animal experiments and with volunteers, people suffering from various drug addictions. CBD responds to cannabinoid receptors, but also to other body systems such as opioid and serotonin receptors (1,3).

    Through cannabinoid receptors, CBD oil affects the areas in the brain that are responsible for e.g. about cravings and reward behavior. It has been found that CBD weakens the strengthening of reward memory for drugs (1,2,3,4,). It has been found to relieve stress related to the use of intoxicants and, in the case of many intoxicants, also to reduce drug-seeking behavior (1,2,3,4). CBD has been found to increase dopamine activity and possibly weaken the mesolimbic circuit disorder caused by drugs (2,3).


    The effect of CBD can last for months


    According to studies, the effect of the CBD preparation lasts for several days, weeks and sometimes even months after the last dose of CBD taken (2,5). tobacco, heroin, alcohol and opioid users, and good results are visible.

    CBD oil and smoking cessation


    In smokers, even a 40% reduced need to smoke was observed compared to the placebo group, if they themselves were willing to quit (3,5).


    CBD oil and alcohol addiction


    Alcoholics, on the other hand, felt that the cravings decreased and the alcohol-seeking behavior seemed to decrease. What is special is that CBD has been found to heal the liver and nervous system from damage caused by alcohol after stopping use (5).


    CBD oil in the treatment of opioid addiction


    Opioid users felt that their cravings decreased and the stress related to the use and seeking of substances was alleviated, CBD has been studied to have a weakening effect on the reward response caused by opioids (1,2,5).


    CBD oil experiences based on research


    Experiences of the benefits of CBD oil vary depending on the situation. Like anything in the treatment of addictions, CBD is not a miracle substance that just erases all symptoms; e.g. in a study of heroin-addicted mice, it was found that CBD did not appear to have an effect on the tendency to relapse into heroin use, although it was found to reduce drug-seeking behavior in mice (2). Similar results were also visible in alcoholics and smokers (1).

    “Smokers had up to a 40% reduced need to smoke compared to the placebo group, if they themselves were willing to quit. Alcoholics, on the other hand, felt that the cravings decreased and the alcohol-seeking behavior seemed to decrease.”


    CBD use is perceived as pleasant


    The common thing in the human studies seems to be that the use of CBD was clearly a pleasant experience for the user in the studies. CBD has been found to have effects on the intensity of cravings, stress, overcoming withdrawal symptoms and improving general well-being, despite the fact that the results are not clear cut or straightforward (2,3,4,). Variation in how CBD oil works for someone and with which addiction is case-by-case, but one could even say for sure that it is of some help with all substances. Researched!


    CBD oil to help with general symptoms


    Withdrawal symptoms are individual for everyone, but there are similarities. The most common symptoms are e.g. anxiety, stress, fear states, indigestion and sweating. Also, the fear of recreating one’s own identity and possible major life changes keeps a person stuck in addiction, even if it is very harmful.


    According to studies, CBD oil is gentle, safe and effective


    Numerous studies have found that CBD oil is a gentle, safe and functional product for a wide range of ailments once the appropriate dosage has been found. Although the withdrawal symptoms can be really strong and understandably difficult to tolerate, CBD oil is such a versatile product that it may help its user on many levels.

    According to research , CBD balances the nervous system and improves sleep quality. CBD oil relaxes the mind and stabilizes the heartbeat. It calms the intestines and improves appetite. CBD oil has been found to be antipsychotic and anti-nausea. Animal experiments show that CBD affects fear memory by reducing learned fear; it acutely relieves the feeling of fear and interferes with the consolidation of the fear memory (4).


    The background of addictions is often trauma


    Despite the fact that studies and articles mainly focus on treating drug addictions, CBD oil can also be well suited for treating other addictions. The background of addiction is often trauma or some other circumstance related to emotional memory, and CBD has been found to regulate the areas of the brain that affect emotions and memories. In principle, it doesn’t matter whether the object of addiction is chocolate or heroin, CBD oil works in any case precisely at the heart of the problem.



    1. Endocannabinoid signaling in reward and addiction. 2015. Hurd Y. And Parsons L. Referred on 22.10.2021.
    2. Cannabidiol for the reduction of cue-induced craving and anxiety in drug-abstinence individuals with heroin use disorder : a double-blind randomized placebo control trial. 2019. Alishayev J., Hurd Y., Kudrich K., Oprescu A., Salsitz E. and Spriggs S. Referred on 22.10.2021
    3. The endocannabinoid system and cannabidiol’s promise for the treatment of substance disorder. 2019. Chen Y., Christensen E., Solowij N., Yucell M. Referred on 22.10.2021
    4. Cannabidiol regulation of emotion and emotional memory processing: relevance for treating anxiety-related and substance abuse disorders. 2017. Bertoglio L., Guimarães F., Lee J. And Stevenson C.. Referred on 22.10.2021
    5. Role of Cannabidiol in the Therapeutic Intervention for Substance Use Disorders. 2021. Navarrete F , García-Gutiérrez M., Gasparyan A., Austrich-Olivares A and Manzanares J. 2021. Referred on 22.10.2021
    CBD cosmetics

    CBD cosmetics

    CBD cosmetics have been studied to have a positive effect on the well-being of the skin. CBD is approved for cosmetic ingredients and listed in the EU CosIng database. Cannabidiol , or CBD, is therefore approved for use as a cosmetic ingredient.

    Skin care and natural cosmetics products containing CBD are growing at a fast pace. Indeed, CBD has several official health claims. In this article you will find more information about the benefits of CBD cosmetics.


    You should take good care of your skin


    It is easy to think of the skin as just a shell that holds the human body together, but in reality it is much more. The skin is the body’s largest organ, which regenerates quickly and is also able to take care of itself very well. The skin is a living, breathing entity whose health should be taken care of! CBD products make it easier.


    Natural cosmetics


    The best way to care for the skin is to choose natural cosmetics that care for the skin and support its natural properties. Healthy skin takes care of and heals itself. The skin is a sensitive entity whose task is to protect the body, e.g. from impacts, extreme temperatures, chemicals, harmful microbes and cell damage. The skin also functions as a means of metabolism and as a producer of vitamin D. The skin is an organ whose function is easily disturbed, e.g. from stress and the effect of chemicals.

    High-quality CBD natural cosmetics that support the skin’s natural function consist of only a few ingredients, CBD oil or CBD extract and a well-absorbing carrier oil. In addition to these, other natural skin-care ingredients have also been added to some of the CBD cosmetic products.


    Endocannabinoids are also present on the skin


    The endocannabinoid system participates in the skin, e.g. for cell growth, regeneration and specialization, regeneration and formation of the skin barrier, and immunological and inflammatory processes (1). Endocannabinoids and cannabinoid receptors have been detected in different layers of the skin, except for the outermost layer. Also on the skin, the endocannabinoid system acts as a monitor and balancer between different functions.


    CBD helps with skin problems (psoriasis, eczema and acne)


    CBD is an ingredient in cosmetics that has not been researched yet, but has a very promising effect. It has been studied and used with good results for various, even challenging chronic skin conditions such as psoriasis (2), eczema (3,4) and acne (1,3). Natural cosmetics containing CBD have the same skin care benefits as CBD in general; it is soothing, balancing, nurturing and well tolerated. It is suitable for different skin types.

    On Internet discussion boards and product reviews of different manufacturers, you can find countless experiences of the positive effects of CBD on dry skin and such common skin problems as psoriasis , acne, atopic dermatitis and eczema. Many report that they quickly got great relief from CBD products.


    What is the effect of CBD cosmetics based on?


    CBD’s effect on the skin is based on the same principles as it works elsewhere in the body. CBD responds to cannabinoid receptors, which have also been found in the two lower layers of the skin. With the help of a suitable carrier oil, CBD cosmetics are slowly absorbed through the skin directly into the bloodstream, from where it travels not only to the skin but also to all the body’s CBD receptors (1). Due to its anti-inflammatory (1,3,5) and sebaceous (3) properties, using CBD in cosmetics is an excellent idea.

    In addition to phytocannabinoids , terpenes , minerals and trace elements, CBD oil also contains phytonutrients, which have been found to be of great importance when it comes to the well-being of the skin. Phytonutrients e.g. prevent infections caused by viruses and bacteria and have been found to have antioxidant effects.

    Most troublesome skin symptoms such as atopy, eczema, psoriasis and aging-related challenges are usually symptoms caused by inflammation and stress in the body and skin. CBD oil in cosmetics gets to the root cause of the problem comprehensively and locally.


    CBD is the best natural cosmetics.

    CBD oil is the best natural cosmetics for skin care.


    Absorption of CBD


    Recently, the absorption of CBD through the skin, transdermally, has been studied, and it seems that hydrophonic CBD oil would be well absorbed into the bloodstream when administered directly to the skin. The challenge is to transport the water-repellent CBD through the water barrier of the skin, and the choice of the right carrier oil plays a significant role. (1)

    In CBD cosmetics, the CBD concentrations are quite low, usually approx. 1% of the dry weight of the product, so the daily dose of CBD will hardly be fulfilled through the cosmetics on the foreign market. However, even a small amount of CBD has a positive effect on the whole body.


    The use of CBD oil on the skin and in cosmetics is also suitable for the mouth


    Using CBD oil in cosmetics is easy. You add a few drops as is to the skin and apply, or mix 1:100 with other cosmetics. Note that you only need a very small amount, because the water-repellent CBD needs to get through the skin’s water barrier.

    You shouldn’t put anything on your skin that you wouldn’t put in your mouth, so CBD oil that is labeled as non-toxic can usually also be put in your mouth, so you get the good effects of CBD oil internally.


    Final canet


    CBD cosmetics, when studied even with small samples, are quite promising and perhaps a revolutionizing product group for skin care in the future. In Europe, the manufacture, sale and use of CBD cosmetics is permitted. High-quality CBD-containing natural cosmetics have already been used and studied enough around the world that it can be said to be a gently effective skin care product for even difficult skin conditions .




    1. Therapeutic Potential of Cannabidiol (CBD) for Skin Health and Disorders. 2020. Baswan S., Klosner A., Glynn K., Rajgopal A., Malik K., Yim S., Stern N.. . Referred on 26/01/2022
    2. National Psoriasis Foundation. 2021. Referred on 26/01/2022
    3. Cannabidiol exerts sebostatic and anti-inflammatory effects on human sebocytes. 2014. Olah A., Toth B., Borbiro I., Sugawara K., Szöllösi A., Czifra G., Pal B., Ambrus L., Kloepper J., Camera E., Ludovici M., Picardo M., Voets T., Zouboulis C., Paus R., Biro T.. Referred on 26/01/2022
    4. Cannabidiol is an effective helper compound in combination with bacitracin to kill Gram-positive bacteria. 2020. Wassmann C., Hojrup P., Kudsk J.. Referred on 26/01/2022
    5. A Therapeutic effect of cbd-enriched ointment in inflammatory skin diseases and cutaneous scars. 2019. Referred on 26/01/2022
    The effect of CBD on the well-being of the intestines

    The effect of CBD on the well-being of the intestines

    The article examines the effect of CBD on intestinal well-being from a scientific point of view. In addition, we will familiarize ourselves with the importance of the intestines for the body’s balance and general well-being.

    In Western countries, the view that our gut is our second brain has gradually gained ground. They are strangely somewhat similar in their folded appearance, and today it is also known that our intestines produce and contain a lot of neurotransmitters in our nervous system.

    Western culture, especially in recent decades, has focused more and more on the development of the brain located in our head and less on the well-being of our intestines; intestinal problems are more and more common nowadays.

    Inflammatory bowel disease prevalence rates in Finland are among the highest in the world, according to the patient organization IBD and Other Intestinal Diseases Association (1). Intestinal problems can be unpleasant and at worst disabling. CBD provides new perspectives to alleviate these challenges.

    Research shows that taking care of your gut is one of the most important parts of achieving optimal health and well-being. Recent breakthroughs point to links between gut bacteria and diseases as diverse as fibromyalgia and depression. We can expect more scientific revelations about CBD and digestive health. Next, let’s look at what is known at this point:


    Digestive tract, a wider than understood entity


    As a child, I remember hearing to my surprise that our digestion begins in the mouth. In fact, our nervous system prepares for food already with the help of smells and visual sensations, but the digestive tract starts in our mouth and ends in our rectum.

    The digestion of food in our mouth works with the help of the enzymes in our saliva and our chewing, these prepare the food for ever finer processing. The food’s journey continues in our stomach to be digested more literally, after which it moves to our intestines to be processed. Our digestive tract could also be called a kind of food separation channel, because we don’t take in everything that we put in our mouth. This is where the different tasks of our intestines come into play.


    Gut-associated lymphoid tissue: a lesser-known factor


    GALT ( gut-associated lymphoid tissue) is part of the mucosa-related lymphatic tissue that functions in our immune system to protect the body from attacks in the gut. There are a lot of immune cells in the intestine, especially in the GALT. The importance of this lymphatic tissue is still very little mentioned in the discussion about intestinal function, and it is a part of the lymphatic circulation important for our metabolism and immunity, which is otherwise little known.

    Since the surface of the mucous membrane has a physiological function in the absorption of food, it is thin and acts as a permeable barrier to the internal parts of the body. Likewise, its fragility and permeability create vulnerability to infection, and in fact, the vast majority of pathogens that enter the human body use this route. The importance of GALT in the body’s defense is based on its large plasma cell population, which is the producer of antibodies and whose number exceeds the number of plasma cells in the spleen, lymph nodes and bone marrow combined. GALT accounts for approximately 70 percent of the mass of the immune system, and impaired function can significantly affect the strength of the entire immune system.

    The lymphatic tissue associated with the intestine is located throughout the intestine, and its surface area is approximately 260-300 m². To increase the surface area for absorption, the intestinal mucosa consists of finger-shaped protrusions. The crypts at the base of the intestinal glands continuously produce several antibacterial substances, including lysozyme, and are believed to be involved in fighting infections. GALT also includes e.g. small intestinal Peyer’s patches, isolated lymph node follicles found throughout the intestine and in the human appendix. The immunological function of GALT is primarily predictive and avoids inflammation. GALT regulates our gut microbiota. (2)


    The gut microbiome: a vital entity


    Our digestive system gives us the nutrients and energy we need to live. After all, we eat every day unless we are fasting, but the connection between the digestive system and overall health goes beyond what is immediately obvious. Intriguingly, our gut bacteria may play a key role in our well-being.

    There are over 10 trillion bacterial cells in the human digestive tract, consisting of hundreds of bacterial species, most of which are involved in your digestion. The totality of intestinal microbes is called the intestinal microbiome. A healthy gut microbiome consists of a healthy balance of microbes. The immune system regulates your microbiome.

    Disturbances in the normal development of the microbiome can predispose to, for example, the development of allergies (3), and in a Finnish study published on January 31-22, its imbalance is also linked to the development of metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes (4). In addition, a healthy gut microbiome can reduce the risk of diseases such as celiac disease and inflammatory diseases such as IBS, Crohn’s disease and arthritis, and a connection has also been seen in the case of fibromyalgia (5) and depression (6) with gut microbes.

    These connections suggest that there is a link between gut bacteria and various bodily functions outside the digestive tract. Although the extent and nature of these connections are still being studied, part of the explanation may lie in the immune system. A professor of medicine at Johns Hopkins discovered that colon cancer may be the result of an interaction between the immune system, gut microbiota, and cells lining the colon (7). Studies have also shown a connection between pulmonary tuberculosis, the immune response and a reduced number of certain intestinal bacteria.

    Although these phenomena are still being studied, one thing is clear: taking care of your digestive health is an important way to support your immune system (and vice versa).

    The human intestine.

    CBD has a positive effect on intestinal well-being.

    CBD and gut health


    Our endocannabinoid system, or ECS maintains our body’s homeostasis, i.e. balance, but especially in relation to our topic, it regulates the immune response, motility of the digestive tract and appetite. Cannabinoid receptors are found on cells throughout the digestive system. This also includes the enteric nervous system, which has been called the second brain of the gut.

    There is evidence that ECS dysregulation may play a role in poor gut health. Studies have found that endocannabinoid levels are altered in patients with intestinal disorders such as IBS, celiac disease, and colon cancer.

    CBD is an exogenous cannabinoid or phytocannabinoid – endocannabinoids are produced internally, while CBD originates from outside the body. Both can affect the ECS and its many interconnected systems. By interacting with the ECS, CBD could help promote proper gut health by regulating lymphatic function and the microbiome. Here are some of its possible effects:


    CBD and inflammatory conditions


    Many diseases and disorders affecting the digestive tract are inflammatory in nature. The exact causes of conditions resembling ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, and IBS, such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, and IBS, are unknown. However, according to experts, malfunctions of the immune system can play a role. The body turns against itself by attacking the intestinal cells as if they were foreign invaders, leading to inflammation. Intestinal inflammatory conditions can also cause heartburn and skin challenges.

    Studies have highlighted the potential of CBD as a regulator of the immune system. It has been shown to reduce inflammation and intestinal damage during both chronic and acute inflammation. It acts through several mechanisms, especially affecting the immune system and interfering with the axis between the immune system and the enteric nervous system.


    Obesity and feeling full


    Although many people don’t think of obesity as a result of digestive disorders, your ability to maintain your weight and control your appetite may depend more on gut health than you think. Evidence suggests that the bacterial makeup of your gut has a direct impact on how your body burns calories, absorbs nutrients, and increases your appetite.

    In order to control weight and appetite, intestinal bacteria break down previously undigested carbohydrates (polysaccharides) into short-chain fatty acids. When fat cells detect short-chain fatty acids, they release a hormone called leptin, which tells the brain that you are full. If an unhealthy gut biome prevents the release of short-chain fatty acids, you want to keep eating. Your sense of satisfaction from a meal depends on which bacteria win the battle.

    Research shows that cannabinoid receptors are directly involved in the regulation of eating, caloric consumption, hormone secretion and fat storage. Stimulation of certain ECS receptors has been shown to reduce food intake and increase fat metabolism. Supporting the functions of the endocannabinoid system could help you feel satisfied with less food while supporting healthy digestive processes (8).


    The exciting future of CBD and gut function


    The endocannabinoid system and the gut microbiome have both been the focus of recent cutting-edge research. The lymphatic tissue related to the intestine must also be taken into account. Fascinating connections have been found between all of these, and have been found to relate to the connection between gut health and wider well-being. Researchers have observed altered levels of endocannabinoids and certain gut bacteria in patients with various ailments.

    Through its interactions with the ECS, CBD may play a role in mediating this complex relationship. Although the research is still preliminary, it is a promising phytonutrient that relieves inflammation and promotes healthy digestion in countless ways. It may even promote a healthy balance of bacteria in the gut microbiome. This is good news for indigestion sufferers and others. With new breakthroughs on the horizon, the future looks even brighter.


    Finally, a couple of additional mentions: the raw form of CBD, CBD-A, can be a better option especially for stomach challenges, especially for nausea challenges, e.g. due to its anti-inflammatory properties. There is also support for the intestines in food: as one example, fermented products, such as sauerkraut, are good for the intestines and thus also for the mind, as here Dr. Andrew Huberman’s interesting podcast tells .




    1. Haapa-aho, O., Suvanto, U. 2020. In Finland, the prevalence of intestinal diseases is among the highest in the world – going to work is possible with individual arrangements. IBD and other intestinal diseases association.
    2. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
    3. Jungles, K., et al. 2021. The Infant Microbiome and Its Impact on Development of Food Allergy. Pubmed.
    4. Ruuskanen, M., et al. 2022. Gut Microbiome Composition Is Predictive of Incident Type 2 Diabetes in a Population Cohort of 5,572 Finnish Adults. Diabetes Care.
    5. Catharine Paddock. 2019. People with fibromyalgia have different gut bacteria. Medical News Today.
    6. Elizabeth Pennisi. 2019. Evidence mounts that gut bacteria can influence mood, prevent depression. Science.
    7. Fields, H. 2015. The Gut: Where Bacteria and the Immune System Meet. Johns Hopkins Medicine.
    8. Rossi, F. et al. 2018. Role of Cannabinoids in Obesity. Int J Mol Sci.
    9. How Might CBD Help With Gut Health And Digestion? 2019. Cibdol.
    MS disease, symptoms and the effect of CBD on them

    MS disease, symptoms and the effect of CBD on them

    MS-disease is associated with various nervous symptoms, which can differ a lot compared to other diagnosed patients. The different symptoms of MS are united by their systematic progression and the fact that the symptoms strongly dominate life and affect the body’s mobility. Over the years, CBD oil has been found to have many positive effects on inflammation, mood, muscle flexibility, etc. and in this article we consider whether it could CBD oil can also help alleviate the symptoms associated with MS.


    Hemp has been known for thousands of years


    The hemp plant has been used in human history for a long time. In addition to the fact that it has been a useful crop in cultivation for approx. 10,000 years old, its medicinal properties have been known for thousands of years. The various compounds in hemp, such as cannabinoids (e.g. CBD ), have versatile effects but are very gentle, effective and safe to use. Today, hemp and the active ingredients it contains have been studied and their benefits have also been scientifically proven. MS is the only neurological disease for which the possibility of treatment with cannabinoids has been studied so intensively and extensively.

    A man with MS sits on the floor and stretches.

    Symptoms of MS include spasticity, which can make it difficult to work and move.


    MS affects mobility

    Multiple sclerosis, more commonly known as MS, is a neurodegenerative disorder that has a debilitating effect on the ability to exercise and function. MS is the most common disease related to the central nervous system in young adults, and its fundamental cause has not been clarified despite numerous studies. It is thought that multiple sclerosis is the sum of many factors. It has been suggested that the background of its outbreak would be not only hereditary factors but also environmental factors. Herpes viruses, epstein-barr virus and toxins spread in the environment such as plant protection agents may play a significant role in the development of MS (1). Likewise, disruption of the endocannabinoid system and cannabinoid deficiency (5).

    The key factors in multiple sclerosis are the inflammatory reaction and demyelination of the brain and spinal cord. Basically, it is a malfunction of the immune system. (1)



    Myelin is a soft, fatty substance whose purpose is to form an electrically insulating membrane around the neuron’s efferent branch. Electrical impulses sent by nerve cells travel faster when the myelin membrane is intact, and this is a basic requirement for normal nervous system function. The myelin membrane controls the flow of information between different parts of the brain, and in its absence, nerve impulses are exposed to disturbances. This situation, where the myelin membrane is damaged, or even completely absent, is called demyelination.


    The endocannabinoid system in immune defense


    The endocannabinoid system normal functioning is a significant part of the functioning of the immune defense. It has been found that the activity of the endocannabinoid system and the prevalence of CB1 and CB2 receptors are directly related to the functioning of the immune system and the inflammatory response. (2).

    The endocannabinoid system affects the immune response in many different ways


    The purpose of the system itself is to balance all bodily functions, but with the endocannabinoid system and endocannabinoids have other roles as well. Cannabinoids have been found in e.g. affecting the function and number of different cells. They have been found to regulate the cell cycle and regulate the function of immune cells (3). Cannabinoids inhibit the production of inflammatory cytokines and they inhibit the presentation and transport of antigens to inflamed tissues (2, 6).

    Evidence has also been obtained that cannabinoids protect the nervous system by reducing the amount of stimulating amino acids, and therefore cannabinoids, or actually their lack, could be a significant factor in the development and development of inflammatory diseases (2, 3).

    MS can be treated without drugs.

    Symptoms of MS can be eased with CBD oil.


    Medical treatment of MS is supported by drug-free treatment


    In the treatment of multiple sclerosis, drug-free treatment is considered equally important alongside drug therapy. Drug-free treatment includes nutrition, sleep, exercise, rest and supporting mental well-being. Most of the time, the symptoms associated with MS are experienced as strongly dominating life. Drug treatment in combination with drug-free treatment usually slows down the progression of the disease and relieves the symptoms, but despite that, many need more nurturing elements in life. (4)

    Just like the symptoms of MS, the functioning of the endocannabinoid system is also balanced and normalized with drug-free treatment methods!


    CBD oil could be part of a drug-free treatment


    CBD oil does not cause strong side effects or addiction and it has been found to work just as effectively even if it has been used for a long time. Most drugs that affect the central nervous system are highly addictive or cause life-threatening side effects. This was a big reason why the use of cannabis in the treatment of MS has been studied so extensively; is the desire and need to find light, natural remedies for people suffering from severe symptoms. CBD has also been found to improve appetite and relieve nausea, which could be helpful in alleviating the side effects caused by medications.


    The versatile effects of CBD in support of MS


    The use of the CBD oil verification of the effect in humans mainly focuses on the good experiences of both the patients themselves and their caregivers and relatives. Although CBD oil is perceived to be helpful for various symptoms, the relief may not be visible in pictures or experiments. Instead, studies conducted on mice show such changes in the tissues that possibly explain the effect of CBD on the symptoms of MS. For example, a study published in 2015 clearly showed that CBD, the mice treated with CBD showed significantly fewer symptoms of T-cell-related autoimmune disease than the corresponding group of mice that did not receive CBD. CBD appeared to slow disease progression through axonal damage and immune cell activation and permeability (3).

    CBD oil’s antioxidant, neuroprotective and immune cell effects are most important for the complex pathology of MS. CBG has also been found in studies to have pain-reducing effects.

    CBD oil for inflammatory reaction


    When studying MS, we have reached the inflammatory mediators that play a central role in the development and progression of MS. There are several of these and CBD has been found to affect each of them (3). CBDhas anti-inflammatory effects through A2AR activation and can be seen e.g. by activating intracellular anti-inflammatory pathways (4). CBD is also an effective inhibitor of various functions of microglial cells. By suppressing these cells, CBD is able to prevent inflammatory processes in the central nervous system (4).

    Training for muscle spasticity in a patient with MS.

    The spasticity or muscle stiffness of MS can be treated with the help of CBD oil.


    Spasticity, muscle spasms, mobility and pain. What is the effect of CBD oil on them?


    The effect of CBD oil on MS and spasticity in particular is interesting. Patients and their caregivers experience a clear relief of spasticity, mobility and mood, but the results are not visible by external standards. Studies have also reported a reduction and alleviation of pain associated with movement. (3, 4, 5). Bladder control has been eased, as well as the strength and number of muscle spasms (6).

    You can find more information on the subject in the article pain and CBD oil .


    CBD oil can ease other symptoms of MS


    In addition to the aforementioned physical symptoms, there are a number of other symptoms associated with MS. Anxiety and depression, which are familiar to many and may also bother you at night. CBD has for anxiety related features that facilitate it. Anxiety itself is the body’s reaction to stress and is a natural feeling in itself, but when it becomes chronic, it does more harm than good. CBD relieves anxiety, e.g. by alleviating conditioned fear and long-term stress and by reducing the manifestation of the “fight-flight” reaction.

    CBD oil has been found to stabilize sleep, improving the quality of sleep and making it easier to fall asleep and wake up. According to user experiences, it is one of the most significant benefits of CBD from the perspective of both patients and relatives.


    MS is a worldwide disease that occurs in young adults, for which curative medical treatment has not yet been invented. While waiting for that, there are a number of drugs and drug-free treatments that can be used to control the progression of the disease and alleviate the symptoms caused by it. CBD has been surprisingly extensively studied in the treatment of multiple sclerosis, and although it is challenging to observe the results by external means in humans, clear benefits can be seen in studies conducted on mice. The user experiences speak for themselves, and cannabis has been a popular support form of treatment among MS patients since the 1990s.



    1. MS disease now – site. Cited 4/27/2002
    2. Clinical Use of Cannabinoids for Symptom Control in Multiple Sclerosis. 2015. Notcutt W.. . Referred on 27/04/2022.
    3. Cannabidiol inhibits pathogenic T cells, decreases spinal microglial activation and ameliorates multiple sclerosis-like disease in C57BL/6 mice. 2011. Kozela E., Lev N., Kaushansky N., Eilam R., Rimmerman N., Levy R., Ben-Nun A., Juknat A, Vogel Z.. https: //www.ncbi.nlm.nih .gov/pmc/articles/PMC3165959/#b52 . Referred on 27/04/2022.
    4. Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Experimental Models of Neurological Disease. 2020. Silvestro S., Schepici G., Bramanti P., Mazzon E.. Referred on 27/04/2022.
    5. Cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 Receptors and Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Are Specific Markers of Plaque Cell Subtypes in Human Multiple Sclerosis. 2007. Benito C, Romero J, Tolón R, Clemente D, Docagne F, Hillard CJ, Guaza C, Romero J.. Referred on 27/04/2022
    6. Perspectives on Cannabis-Based Therapy of Multiple Sclerosis: A Mini-Review. 2020. Mecha M., Carrilo-Salinas F., Feliu A., Mestre L., Guaza C.. Referred on 27/04/2022
    Parkinson’s disease and CBD

    Parkinson’s disease and CBD

    Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disease that generally occurs in the older population. Studies show that it is the second most common disease Alzheimer’s disease after. Although the disease has been studied for more than 200 years after James Parkinson first discovered it in 1817, the root causes of Parkinson’s disease are still under investigation in Finland as well. However, it is known that there are connections and risk factors related to both the heredity of the disease and the environment. The motor abilities of the person suffering from the disease begin to weaken gradually, making it difficult to move and eventually speak, in addition, the muscles begin to stiffen, and tremors and muscle tremors can also occur as symptoms. The article presents Parkinson’s disease in more detail, and how multi-prone CBD affects its various causes and symptoms.


    Symptoms of Parkinson’s disease


    There are four primary motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease:

    • resting tremor
    • typical muscle stiffness or spasticity
    • slowing of movements, i.e. bradykinesia
    • postural instability (balance disorders)

    These start slowly over months and years. Symptoms are almost always first in the limbs of one side, until over time they become bilateral. Doctors mainly diagnose Parkinson’s disease by finding two or more of these symptoms, but not every symptom needs to be present to consider a diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease. In fact, younger people may only notice one or two of these motor symptoms, especially in the early stages of the disease.

    The slow, rhythmic tremor typical of Parkinson’s disease usually begins at rest in one arm or leg and eventually affects both sides of the body and can also spread to the face. Stiffness of the limbs or body is also called spasticity. Stiffness, especially in the early stages of the disease, may be mistakenly associated with e.g. arthritis. Muscle stiffness manifests itself as slowness, for example, in bending the arm, and when the other person assists with the bending, there is resistance in the movement.

    Slowing down of movements can be seen, for example, as difficulty getting up from a chair, starting to walk is also sluggish and the steps are short. In addition to the general slowness of movements, there is typically a reduced or mask-like expression (hypomimia), a decrease in the frequency of blinking the eyes, and problems with fine motor coordination. Postural instability is more common in the later stages of the disease and includes the inability to maintain a stable upright position. Balance disorders in Parkinson’s disease are associated with a tendency to fall, especially backwards; in fact, even a light nudge can cause a person with Parkinson’s to take steps backwards or even fall. (1) (2)

    For the tremors associated with Parkinson’s disease, many people have received great help from CBD. This the article includes a video of Larry’s intense rest tremors disappearing instantly with CBD.


    Visual disturbances


    Parkinson’s disease is characterized by the loss of dopamine-producing cells in the substantia nigra of the brain. Because of this, in addition to movement-related difficulties, visual disturbances are common, as a decrease in dopamine can affect the visual cortex. Parkinson’s can therefore weaken the mobility of the eyes just like the limbs. People with Parkinson’s disease can experience many types of visual disturbances.

    The changes in the structure of the eye associated with Parkinson’s disease are mainly limited to the effects on the retina, which is affected by the reduction of dopamine in the same way as the nucleus. Color vision, especially the ability to distinguish between different shades, can be impaired due to the loss of dopaminergic receptors in the retina. Symptoms may also include dry eyes and the inability to control eye movements and blinking. (3)


    Psychiatric symptoms


    On a mental level, symptoms such as apathy, depression and anxiety can occur with Parkinson’s disease. It is not clear whether the psychological symptoms are a response to the increasing losses caused by the neurodegenerative disorder, or whether depression and anxiety share the same neurodegenerative causes as the motor components of the disease.

    Both can be true. Given that dementia occurs in many later stages of the disease, it seems likely that affective symptoms in the earlier stages of the disease are causally related.

    Cognitive and affective symptoms can be mild or severe. About 50 percent of Parkinson’s patients have anxiety. About a third have depression, and about 50 percent have different types of hallucinations. Milder hallucinations are common. The more serious hallucinations, on the other hand, seem to be a central disturbing part of the mental symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. However, it is not clear whether the psychotic symptoms are caused by the disease or the sleep disturbances caused by it. (4)


    A woman with Parkinson's disease is sitting and holding a trembling hand. Tremors and tremors have been successfully reduced with the help of CBD.

    The main symptoms of Parkinson’s disease are muscle stiffness, rest tremor and slowing of movements.


    Stages of Parkinson’s disease


    The course of the disease is very individual, but the first symptoms can be non-motor, these symptoms include mood disorders, cognitive disorders, sleep disorders , blood pressure fluctuations, constipation, urinary frequency, pain symptoms , etc.

    Advanced Parkinson’s disease usually makes a person unable to live independently. This means that the person has severe mobility problems and is unable to perform daily activities without assistance.

    In addition, the disease is sometimes accompanied by daytime sleepiness and severe exhaustion. Memory disorders, slowing down of thinking and depression can also occur. However, rarely does one person get all these symptoms.

    Dr. Margaret M. Hoehn, a pioneer in understanding Parkinson’s disease, discusses the Hoehn and Yahr scale, which is used around the world to classify patients in research studies. He has deliberately used the word “Parkinson” because the term applies to all forms of the disease, including Parkinson’s disease.

    The method by which the degree of severity of Parkinson’s disease is designated today using the Hoehn and Yahr scale was published in 1967. The original definition of the five levels of difficulty is as follows:


    Phase I: initial symptoms


    Symptoms on one side of the body, where functional impairment is usually minimal or absent. The patient has tremors (dyskinesia), stiffness, slowness of movements and little or poor condition in the arms and/or legs on one side of the body, sometimes also on the other side of the face. This phase of Parkinson’s disease often goes completely unnoticed. Later, after receiving the diagnosis, the patient may remember, for example, that he noticed an intermittent tremor in one hand many years before. Early stage diagnosis is currently so challenging that sometimes the disease has to develop for several years before a diagnosis can be made with certainty.


    Stage II: initial symptoms progress


    Bilateral or midline symptoms, without loss of balance. Months or years later, similar symptoms and signs appear on the opposite side of the body, or other signs appear in the “midline,” what doctors call “axial” symptoms. These may include bilateral loss of facial expression (masked face); decreased eye blinking; speech abnormalities; soft voice, monotony, loss of volume, stiffness of the trunk muscles (rigidity) that makes the patient appear clumsy or causes neck and back pain; postural disorders, general sluggishness, but still able to perform all daily activities.


    Stage III: advanced Parkinson’s disease


    The first signs of impaired balance reflexes. Loss of balance and the inability to make the rapid, automatic, involuntary movements necessary to prevent falls is one of the most worrisome and dangerous aspects of parkinsonism, and one of the most difficult to treat. Even if it is only mild, it is a criterion that distinguishes stage II from stage III. All other features of parkinsonism are evident, and there is usually no reason to doubt the diagnosis. The main factor that distinguishes stage III from stage IV is that the patient is still completely independent in all daily activities (dressing, hygiene, eating, etc.) Although he is somewhat limited, he has work opportunities depending on the workplace. A chance for a normal life.


    Stage IV: End-stage Parkinson’s disease


    Fully advanced, severely disabling disease; the patient is still able to walk and stand without assistance, but is clearly incapacitated. The patient is not able to live an independent life because he needs help with some daily activities. It is this inability to live alone that marks the transition from stage III to stage IV. If the patient is still able to live alone, no matter how difficult it is, his disease is stage III and not stage IV. However, a stage IV patient is still able to stand and walk without assistance.


    Stage V: Final stages of Parkinson’s disease


    Confinement to a bed or wheelchair, unless assistive devices are used. The patient may have the following symptoms: inability to get out of a chair or out of bed without assistance; tendency to fall when standing or turning; freezing, stumbling. Without an assistant immediately present, the patient is at risk of falling.

    Rather, this method of grading severity is a mixture that combines the patient’s symptoms, the physical symptoms observed by the doctor, and the patient’s ability to function. In some cases it is not applicable. Sometimes, for example, phase I is missed and the disease breaks out bilaterally or becomes generalized. Similarly, many patients never reach stage V. Patients should not fearfully conclude that when their balance becomes unstable, they should immediately begin to watch for signs that they will soon become dependent on others.

    Despite these drawbacks, this difficulty classification method has proven to be practical for decades. The multistage classification has been particularly useful in evaluating the reported results of new treatments and in planning research projects because patients respond differently depending on the disease, the patient’s age, and other factors. A stage II patient can become almost normal with proper treatment, while a stage IV patient has residual symptoms and improvement is never as significant or dramatic.

    There are other scales for assessing the severity of parkinsonism: the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), the modified Columbia scale, the Webster scale, the Schwab and England Disability Scale, the Northwestern University Disability Scale, and numerous others, each with their own proponents and utility. (5)

    Elderly people with Parkinson's disease sit outside on a bench.

    According to researchers, a later diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease, poor results in exercise tests, dementia and psychotic symptoms are connected to a shorter life expectancy


    Prognosis of Parkinson’s disease


    Parkinson’s disease is not considered fatal, but people with Parkinson’s disease have a shorter life expectancy than the general population.

    New research provides clues as to why some patients die earlier than others. Danish researchers observed from a follow-up of 200 Parkinson’s patients that a later diagnosis, poor results in exercise tests, psychotic symptoms and dementia were associated with a shorter life expectancy. In addition, men with Parkinson’s disease were more likely to die early than women.

    To identify risk factors associated with early death, researchers at Stravanger University Hospital in Norway analyzed data from 230 Parkinson’s patients who participated in a larger study. The analysis revealed that:


    • The average time from onset of symptoms to death was 16 years.
    • The average age at death was 81 years.
    • Dementia patients were almost twice as likely to die prematurely as patients without memory problems.
    • Patients with Parkinson’s disease-related mental health symptoms were nearly 50 percent more likely to die prematurely than patients without those symptoms.
    • Men with Parkinson’s disease were about 60 percent more likely to die prematurely than women. (6)


    Alleviation and treatment of Parkinson’s disease


    Now that we know more about Parkinson’s disease, can we somehow alleviate the challenges associated with it? Unfortunately, there is no known cure for Parkinson’s disease, but some things give it relief. It is important to maintain mobility by walking as well as general beneficial exercise and suitably challenging exercise. It is also good to maintain coordination and other fine motor skills by practicing.

    It would also be good to find a diet that relieves inflammation, but this is individual for everyone. However, some anti-inflammatory herbs, such as the well-known turmeric, have been studied to alleviate the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. The same is done by some antioxidatives and e.g. dopamine boosting herbs such as Bacopa monnieri and Mucuna pruriens. (7) Mucuna contains a significant amount of levodopa (L-dopa), so its use must be coordinated with prescription levodopa. One study has shown that this herb is better than synthetic pure levodopa in the long-term treatment of Parkinson’s disease. (8) Caffeine is also known to have positive effects on Parkinson’s disease. (9) But one compound is particularly good for Parkinson’s disease, and we’ll delve into its effects below.

    The use of CBD products made from hemp has become more common among people with Parkinson’s disease. CBD is of the endocannabinoid system a functional cannabinoid. It relieves Parkinson’s symptoms, such as depression, anxiety, muscle tremors and impaired sleep.

    There is also some indication that CBD can be used to slow the progression of the disease and improve some of the underlying factors, such as neuroinflammation and dopamine regulation.


    CBD oil and CBD products for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    Parkinson’s disease is also treated with CBD. CBD can ease the symptoms of the disease such as anxiety, depression, insomnia, depression and muscle tremors. In addition, CBD may prevent further progression of the disease.


    What are the benefits of using CBD in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease?


    Cannabidiol, or CBD, has grown in popularity over time in the wellness and health world. Researchers confirm that CBD can help with various ailments, such as pain and anxiety. Next, we look at the potential benefits of using CBD in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease.

    Supports dopamine production

    CBD has been shown to improve dopamine production in at least one preclinical study (10). It works through the recently discovered GPR6 receptors located in the brain in the same area where dopamine is produced (11).

    If this new and significant discovery is found to be significant enough through future research, we can expect CBD to become the primary treatment option for Parkinson’s disease. Research still needs to be continued.


    Relieves inflammation


    Brain inflammations lead to a loss of dopamine, making this one of the main factors maintaining Parkinson’s disease (12). When CBD is used to treat brain inflammation, dopamine increases. According to research, reduced inflammation slows the progression of the disease because CBD regulates several key functions related to the inflammatory process (13). Alleviation of inflammation can also reduce general depressive symptoms.


    Improves sleep quality


    CBD is known for its mild sedative effect (14). CBD improves both the quality and quantity of sleep in many clinical studies (15). Other cannabinoids , including CBG (cannabigerol) , act like muscle relaxants, having a remedial effect on some causes of insomnia associated with Parkinson’s disease (16).


    Reduces psychotic symptoms


    Psychotic symptoms develop as Parkinson’s disease progresses. Patients experience hallucinations. Low dose CBD has been shown to reduce the occurrence of hallucinations. This greatly helps patients to manage the disease.


    Reduces muscle tremors


    CBD has been shown to reduce muscle tremors in Parkinson’s disease[17] and for other similar types of neurodegenerative disorders such as MS (multiple sclerosis) (18) and Huntington’s disease (19).


    Protects nerves


    CBD works significantly as a neuroprotective substance, i.e. it is able to prevent the death of nerve cells , which makes it a neurodegenerative disease reliever. It also acts as a powerful antioxidant. Some also believe that oxidative stress is the cause of Parkinson’s disease.


    Supports a healthy microbiome


    Theories related to the effects of the microbiome have received evidence in recent years. Research so far strongly suggests that changes in the microbiota seem to influence the emergence of neuroinflammation. (20) Also at the end of 2021, Finnish researchers have obtained samples that show that Parkinson’s disease begins with a disruption of the microbiome. (21) More about CBD and the microbiome can be found in the article The effect of CBD on intestinal well-being .


    What is the recommended dose of CBD?


    Not enough clinical studies have yet been conducted to determine the right dosage for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, but the use of CBD has been extensively studied in the treatment of another similar disease, multiple sclerosis.

    Studies of multiple sclerosis and other neurodegenerative diseases often use high doses of CBD to produce benefits. In general, it can be said that a higher dose is needed to achieve a benefit similar to the study results.

    It is recommended to start with a low dose and increase to a high dose. You can find more detailed information on the dosage of CBD From the CBD Dosing Guide .

    It is also possible to use CBD externally as a cream for muscle tension.




    There is no cure for Parkinson’s disease. Most of the treatment options available, including CBD, are intended to slow the progression of the disease and treat symptoms.

    However, CBD is an excellent option for both of these purposes; it alleviates many common side effects (including insomnia, depression, anxiety, muscle tremors) and may slow the progression of Parkinson’s disease.

    Most Parkinson’s patients take large doses of CBD for long periods of time. This is why it is recommended to switch to the strongest possible CBD products after milder CBD products.


    1. Atula. S. 2018. Duodecim. Parkinson’s disease. Referred on 10/10/2022.
    2. American Parkinson Disease Association. Common Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease
    3. American Parkinson Disease Association. Parkinson’s Effects on Vision.
    4. MacLennan, N. 2022. Psychreg. The Psychology of Parkinson’s Disease
    5. 2018. Parkinson’s Resource Organization. Five Stages of Parkinson’s.
    6. Forsaa, EB et al. 2010. Pubmed. What predicts mortality in Parkinson disease?: a prospective population-based long-term study. Forsaa, EB Neurology, Oct. 5, 2010; vol 75: pp 1270-1276.
    1. Srivastav, S. et al. 2017. Pubmed. Important medicinal herbs in Parkinson’s disease Pharmacotherapy
    2. Katzenschlager, R. et al. 2004. Pubmed. Mucuna pruriens in Parkinson’s disease: a double blind clinical and pharmacological study
    3. Ren, X. et al. 2020. Caffeine and Parkinson’s Disease: Multiple Benefits and Emerging Mechanisms
    4. Morales, P., Isawi, I., & Reggio, PH (2018). Towards a better understanding of the cannabinoid-related Orphan receptors GPR3, GPR6, and GPR12. Drug metabolism reviews, 50(1), 74-93.
    5. Laun, AS, & Song, ZH (2017). GPR3 and GPR6, novel molecular targets for cannabidiol. Biochemical and Biophysical research communications, 490(1), 17-21.
    6. Hirsch, EC, & Hunot, S. (2009). Neuroinflammation in Parkinson’s disease: a target for neuroprotection?. The Lancet Neurology, 8(4), 382-397.
    7. Baker, D., Jackson, SJ, & Pryce, G. (2007). Cannabinoid control of neuroinflammation related to multiple sclerosis. British journal of pharmacology, 152(5), 649-654.
    8. Crippa, JA, Guimarães, FS, Campos, AC, & Zuardi, AW (2018). Translational Investigation of the Therapeutic Potential of Cannabidiol (CBD): Toward a New Age. Frontiers in Immunology, 9.
    9. Russo, EB, Guy, GW, & Robson, PJ (2007, August 1). Cannabis, pain, and sleep: Lessons from Therapeutic clinical trials of sativexρ, a cannabis-based medicine. Chemistry and Biodiversity.
    10. Evans, FJ (1991). Cannabinoids: the separation of central from peripheral effects on a structural basis. Planta medica, 57(S 1), S60-S67.
    11. Kluger, B., Triolo, P., Jones, W., & Jankovic, J. (2015). The therapeutic potential of cannabinoids for movement disorders. Movement disorders, 30(3), 313-327.
    12. Malfitano, AM, Proto, MC, & Bifulco, M. (2008). Cannabinoids in the management of spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis. Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment, 4(5), 847.
    13. Dowie, MJ, Howard, ML, Nicholson, LFB, Faull, RLM, Hannan, AJ, & Glass, M. (2010). Behavioral and molecular consequences of chronic cannabinoid treatment in Huntington’s disease transgenic mice. Neuroscience, 170(1), 324-336.
    14. Keshavarzian, A. et al. al. 2020. Pubmed.
    15. 2021. Evening News. Finnish researchers believe they have found the root cause of Parkinson’s disease
    CBD and asthma

    CBD and asthma

    The most common respiratory disease, asthma, is a nasty disease that can strike people of all ages, but it is also possible to get rid of it completely.

    In this article, we get to know asthma as a disease, see how the endocannabinoid system in the respiratory system works, and consider whether CBD oil could be helpful in addition to the treatment of asthma.

    What is asthma?


    Asthma is an inflammatory disease of the lungs, which is characterized by the narrowing of the bronchial tubes, resulting in an unpleasant feeling and shortness of breath. The lung mucosa in a state of inflammation irritates the airways, causing symptoms typical of asthma. (1)

    Asthma affects almost 10% of Finns and it can strike people of all ages. It is the most common chronic respiratory disease. It is also found in animals such as cats, dogs and horses. It is possible to treat asthma without symptoms, and in children and young people it usually gets better by adulthood. (1)

    Both hereditary and environmental factors predispose to asthma. (1)


    Asthma symptoms


    Typical asthma symptoms are cough, shortness of breath, mucus secretion and wheezing. Children also experience fatigue and playful withdrawal. Usually, the symptoms vary depending on the day and time of day. It may be easier during the day compared to night and early morning, when symptoms related to breathing may arise. (1)

    Dust, animal hair, freezing air, strong smells and stress often worsen the symptoms, especially in those who also have an underlying allergy. Bad indoor air is more significant for an asthmatic in terms of worsening symptoms than outdoor pollens, air pollution, etc. Poor ventilation in the home and daycare center/school, humidity problems, dustiness, own or a family member’s smoking, various molds, etc. both cause and worsen symptoms as well as allergies and atopic dermatitis. (1,2)

    It is possible to take an asthma test online, which allows you to check your own symptoms for possible asthma. The breathing association test can be found here Asthma test | .

    Asthma attack

    Asthma is associated with sudden attacks of shortness of breath, characterized by strong coughing fits, difficulty breathing and wheezing. The seizure can be intense and cause a very scary situation where the spirit seems to run out completely. For these situations, there is a medicine that opens the airways and calms the lungs, but if the medicine does not help, you should see a doctor immediately.

    Asthma in children and young people often causes fatigue


    Asthma in a child can be challenging to identify, as the symptoms are mostly mild, and actual asthma attacks do not necessarily occur. The symptoms are a wheezing exhalation, a night cough and a decrease in general endurance, which can be seen e.g. as an increased need for sleep and being tired of games.

    Childhood asthma affects approx. 5% of Finnish children and most of the time it gets better before adulthood. (1)

    Asthma in young people is as common as asthma in children, but in addition to the diagnosis, just as many have symptoms of asthma. Asthma in young people also often improves by adulthood, and it is not an obstacle, e.g. for work or hobby activities. (1)

    Allergic asthma

    We talk about allergic asthma when there are allergies in the background that worsen or cause symptoms. Symptoms are caused by e.g. animals, street dust, pollen and other small particles in the air. Atopic skin often worsens asthma symptoms.

    Aggravation of allergic asthma symptoms is usually caused by immune cells on the surface of the inflamed bronchus, which react to external stimuli, regardless of whether these come directly into the airways or not.

    A woman in the sunset, happy because the oxygen flows.

    Asthma treatment is largely about taking care of environmental factors, diet, indoor air quality and all kinds of dust contribute to the onset of asthma.


    Treatment of asthma


    Asthma is treated with medication and self-medication with lifestyle choices. Asthma is an inflammatory disease and it is maintained not only by environmental factors but also by general lifestyles that cause inflammation in the body, such as a poor-quality diet, smoking, alcohol and too little exercise.

    Environmental factors, such as poor indoor air, are a significant cause of symptoms, and keeping the home clean of dust may alleviate the symptoms significantly. However, you should not clean too much, especially with strong chemicals, because lungs sensitive to inflammation may also react to chemicals in detergents, such as fragrances. (1,2)

    Asthma medicine


    The purpose of asthma medications is both to soothe inflammation of the bronchi and to soothe physical symptoms such as bronchial constriction and shortness of breath.

    Inhaled cortisone preparations or tablets are used as asthma medication. In most cases, you have to take an anti-inflammatory medicine taken daily and a medicine used to control the seizure, taken as needed.

    Untreated asthma

    Untreated asthma causes permanent changes in the bronchial tubes and in the worst case may even lead to death. If left untreated, asthma worsens over the years to such an extent that you probably feel like seeking treatment at some point.


    The endocannabinoid system , which balances the body and monitors everything in the background, also affects the processes that control lung function.

    The receptors CB1 and CB2 belonging to the endocannabinoid system, as well as the corresponding endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-AG , all have their own functions in the background of lung function and inflammation in the lungs.

    Cannabinoid receptors both have important functions in the lungs and related diseases. The CB1 receptor seems to be more behind normal functions, while the CB2 receptor is involved in inflammation-related functions and their prevention. (3,4)

    The endocannabinoid anadamide has been found to relax the respiratory system. It also has anti-inflammatory effects just like 2-AG. According to research, both of these endocannabinoids are strongly present in lung function and have been shown, e.g. regulating and relaxing the pulmonary arteries. (3,4)

    CBD oil for asthma symptoms?


    A compound found in hemp called cannabidiol or CBD is a molecule that has been studied for decades and, according to studies, has numerous effects on the health of both humans and animals. CBD mainly acts on other receptors in the body, such as TRPV receptors and serotonin receptors, but it also has the effect of activating the cannabinoid system’s own receptors.

    According to animal experiments, the CB1 and CB2 receptors activated by CBD have a reducing effect on bronchial inflammation and structural changes. The effect of reducing the hypersensitivity of the airways was observed, as well as the reduction of the inflammatory and relapsing processes of allergic asthma. (5,6)

    According to studies, CBD has anti-inflammatory and immunity-boosting properties effect. It also relaxes the muscles and may reduce bronchoconstriction. (5,6)

    In addition to the fact that CBD has been found in several studies, e.g. to relieve inflammation and has numerous other properties that may be helpful in relieving the symptoms and side effects of asthma. CBD might help in sleep- related challenges, stress and depression .


    Cat and dog asthma


    Asthma is also quite common in pets such as cats, dogs and horses. In cats and horses, asthma is clearly more common than in dogs, and the symptoms are all quite similar to those in humans, i.e. cough, wheezing, fatigue and breathing difficulties. (7,8)

    CBD oil has also been found to be suitable for treating animals and may have positive effects on animal asthma as well. Usually, CBD oil is dosed to animals according to their body weight.




    Asthma is a common inflammatory disease characterized by a long-lasting cough, increased mucus production in the respiratory system and a tight feeling in the chest. Asthma gets worse over time, if it is not treated, and since the treatment is largely self-medication in addition to medication, it is possible to prevent and treat it even before asthma is diagnosed.

    CBD oil is versatile, safe and, according to research, an effective reliever of inflammation, and since asthma is an inflammatory disease, it might also help reduce inflammation as a support for asthma treatment.



    1. Asthma. Referenced 2/14/2023.
    2. Salomaa ER.. 2020. Duodecim health library. Asthma. Referenced 2/14/2023.
    3. Bozkurt TE. 2019. Endocannabinoid System in the Airways. Referenced 2/14/2023.
    4. Simon A., Einem von T., Seidinger A., Matthey M., Bindila L. and Wenzel D.. 2015. Nature communications. The endocannabinoid anandamide is an airway relaxant in health and disease. Referenced 2/14/2023.
    5. Vuolo F., Abreu SC, Michels M., Xisto DG, Blanco N., Hallak JEC, Zuardi A., Crippa J., Reis C., Bahl M., Pizzichinni E., Maurici R., Rocco P., Pizzichinni MM, Dal-Pizzol F.,. 2019. Science direct. Cannabidiol reduces airway inflammation and fibrosis in experimental allergic asthma. Referenced 2/14/2023.
    6. Vuolo F., Petronilho F., Sonai B., Ritter C., Hallak J., Zuardi A., Crippa J and Dal-Pizzo F.. 2015. Mediators of inflammation. Evaluation of Serum Cytokines Levels and the Role of Cannabidiol Treatment in Animal Model of Asthma. Referenced 2/14/2023.
    7. Own animal clinic. Feline Asthma. Referenced 2/14/2023
    8. Equivet. Equine asthma. Referenced 2/14/2023.
    CBD, heart attacks and strokes

    CBD, heart attacks and strokes

    Diseases related to heart function, infarcts and various seizures are common and also cause many deaths every year. Cerebral infarctions are largely caused by the same causes as myocardial infarctions, and their effect on a person can be fatal. In this article, we will get to know brain and heart attacks, the endocannabinoid system behind them and whether CBD oil could be of any help in preventing or treating them.


    What is a heart attack?


    A heart attack is tissue necrosis caused by the blockage of a blood vessel located in the tissue. Such can occur in both the brain and the heart, and about half of the deaths of working-age people in Finland are caused by them.

    The incidence of heart attacks has clearly decreased from the 1970s to today, but they are still statistically the single largest cause of death.



    A cerebral infarction can occur for a few different reasons. It is most commonly caused by narrowing of the blood vessels and is then a medical attack caused by narrowing of the coronary artery, like a heart attack. Some of the cases are caused by a blood clot, an embolism, that originates in the heart, which sets off and ends up in a small blood vessel or a branch of the vessel, thus blocking the flow of food to the brain. A cerebral infarction can also be caused by a rupture of a cerebral artery, which causes bleeding into the brain. (1)



    Cerebral infarction usually occurs suddenly. The most obvious symptoms are unilateral dysfunction of the limbs and drooping of the oral cavity on the same side and weakness of the upper limbs. Usually the symptoms are also accompanied by numbness, muscle weakness and difficulty producing speech. Depending on the location of the cerebral infarction, visual disturbances, double vision, dizziness and confusion are also common, but cerebral infarction is not associated with pain. (1)

    Myocardial infarction , i.e. heart attack


    A heart attack, i.e. a coronary heart disease attack, is the result of a blockage in the heart’s coronary artery or the detachment of the plaque causing the blockage. A heart attack is always a serious situation requiring treatment, which in the worst case leads to cardiac arrest and death.

    A heart attack causes death to the heart tissue even in a few hours, and quick access to treatment is very important. (2,3)

    The background of a heart attack is almost always coronary artery disease, i.e. a narrowed coronary artery. The coronary artery is the most important blood vessel located in the heart and it is blocked by e.g. as a result of smoking, heavy alcohol consumption and an unhealthy diet. The stenosis develops slowly, but the moment it finally, usually suddenly, becomes blocked, it causes a heart attack. (2,3)


    Preliminary symptoms of a heart attack


    The symptom of a heart attack is almost always a sudden, severe chest pain that can radiate to the arm, back, teeth and stomach. Sometimes the symptom can also be more of a squeezing, suffocating feeling in the chest area, which causes severe shortness of breath. (2,3)

    A heart attack, more commonly known as a heart attack, is a life-threatening situation that requires immediate treatment, and it is good to know how to recognize it.

    Moving may worsen the symptoms, or at least not relieve them. Sometimes, especially for diabetics, the elderly and people with memory problems, pain may not occur at all, but the symptoms are mainly an unpleasant sensation and shortness of breath, headache and nausea. This is known as a silent myocardial infarction. (2,3)


    First aid and care


    Heart attack treatment is usually started at home or at the latest in the ambulance with anti-blocking and pain-relieving drugs. Beta blockers are used to prevent arrhythmias and lower blood pressure.

    After getting to the hospital, either a balloon dilation or a dissolution treatment is usually performed, and within a few days, a bypass operation is also performed, in which the blocked blood vessel is bypassed. (2,3)


    Causes of heart attacks?


    The underlying causes of both cerebral and myocardial infarctions are largely the same. Old age, smoking, heavy alcohol use, diabetes , obesity, high cholesterol and high blood pressure , but also hereditary factors predisposing to heart attacks have been observed.


    Recovery time from heart attacks


    Recovering from cerebral infarction and stroke can be a slow process, and depending on the extent of the infarction, it is not always possible to return to the way it was before. Rehabilitation usually starts already in the hospital with a multidisciplinary team and it may continue for years after the heart attack. Rehabilitation usually includes a change in diet in a healthier direction, physical therapy, speech therapy and end-of-life medication. (1)

    Recovery from a heart attack and related procedures is usually quick. You can usually return to light work up to a week after surgery, but it is recommended to rest and take it easy for at least a few months after the heart attack and the procedures.

    Rehabilitation and recovery time are strongly related to possible lifestyle changes, such as a healthier diet, stopping smoking and alcohol consumption, and increasing exercise. Most often, the background is high blood pressure, narrowed arteries and high cholesterol values, and paying attention to these and careful treatment is especially important. (2,3)

    man holding chest in sunset.

    CBD may have significant effects on cardiovascular health.



    Myocarditis, i.e. inflammation of the heart muscle


    Myocarditis is not actually related to heart attacks or a predisposing factor to them, but it is a fairly common inflammatory disease that CBD oil may also help with. Myocarditis is caused by a virus that moves with the bloodstream in the body, etc. which gets into the heart and causes an infection there. Acute myocarditis is the single largest cause of heart failure and sudden cardiac death in people under the age of 35. (4,5)

    Myocarditis usually gets better on its own within about a week and it is estimated that all people get it a few times during their life without noticing it. Sometimes the inflammation becomes chronic and causes heart failure. (4,5)


    The endocannabinoid system


    The endocannabinoid system is a monitoring system for all body processes. It is found in almost all humans and animal species, and its function is both to balance the functions of the body and to take care of the basic things of life such as sleep, eating, memory, relaxation and protecting the body.

    The endocannabinoid system includes endocannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors and the molecules that break them down. None of these are stored, but they are produced where needed, when needed. Several endocannabinoids are known and the most studied of them are anandamide i and 2-AG. On the other hand, only two receptors have been recognized, CB1 and CB2 receptors.

    Both endocannabinoids and cannabinoid receptors are abundant in the brain. The CB1 receptor is more common in the brain and has numerous tasks in the processes that are controlled by the brain. For example, in concussions, it has been found that CBD may protect nerves, increase blood flow to the brain, and protect against reactive oxygen species after a concussion! (6)

    The endocannabinoid system is also involved in regulating the functioning of the heart and blood circulation and their underlying functions. (7)




    Both cannabinoids have numerous functions in brain function and circulatory system, but anandamide may e.g. reduces the salt-induced increase in blood pressure via TRPV receptors and 2-AG affects the dilation of blood vessels. (8)


    CBD for heart attack?


    The active compounds found in hemp have been extensively studied for decades. One significant group of compounds found in the hemp plant is cannabinoids, of which more than a hundred different types are currently known. One of the most famous of these compounds is cannabidiol or CBD .

    CBD acts mainly through non-cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, most commonly through TRPV and serotonin receptors.

    In the brain, CBD may increase blood permeability and increase blood flow during a stroke. (9)

    CBD has been found in studies to be beneficial for the heart and circulatory system. Research shows that CBD relaxes and dilates blood vessels, protects blood vessels from damage caused by low-grade inflammation, and protects against cardiomyopathy caused by diabetes. (7,8)

    Given during and after a seizure, CBD could act as both a seizure-relieving and damage-reducing cannabinoid, but it has also been found to prevent infarction and nerve damage caused by bleeding in both cerebral and myocardial infarctions. (7,8)

    In general , CBD oil could be useful in terms of brain and heart health, because according to studies, CBD has e.g. anti-inflammatory , antioxidant, sleep quality improving and appetite balancing effects.


    Researcher holding CBD oil. CBD is used as medicine, e.g. in the treatment of myocarditis.

    According to studies, CBD oil has e.g. anti-inflammatory effect, improving sleep quality and balancing appetite.


    Compatibility between CBD and heart medications?


    CBD, has an effect on the breakdown of some medicines and thus also on the effect. The enzyme cytochrome P450 in the liver breaks down both CBD and certain drugs, which is why their combined effect may differ from the drug’s characteristic effect. Medications that are incompatible with CBD are mainly prescription medications, and among these are also a few medications for the treatment of heart, blood pressure, and blood circulation.

    Let’s talk about the so-called from the grapefruit test, if the doctor advises you to avoid eating grapefruit with some medicine, the medicine is probably not compatible with CBD either.

    In the case of heart-related challenges, there is hardly any reason to avoid using CBD unless you are using medication that may have unwanted interactions with CBD. About the compatibility of medicines you can read more here.




    Even today, the most common cause of death is heart attacks, mainly caused by lifestyle. Both heart and cerebrovascular infarcts are usually caused by narrowing of the arteries, either by a final blockage or by the detachment of the plaque that causes the narrowing. Lifestyle has a significant effect in prevention, but CBD oil may also have an effect, at least during the attack, to alleviate the attack and after the attack to reduce the damage.



    1. Atula S.. 2023. Duodecim health library. Stroke (cerebral infarction and cerebral hemorrhage). Referenced 2/6/2023.
    2. Kettunen R.. 2020. Duodecim health library. Myocardial infarction and heart attack. Referenced 2/6/2023.
    3. Hekkala AM.. 2019. Heart Association. Heart failure. Referenced 2/6/2023.
    4. Cardiol therapeutics. Acute myocarditis. Referenced 2/6/2023.
    5. Kettunen R.. 2020. Duodecim health library. Inflammation of the heart muscle (myocarditis). Referenced 2/6/2023.
    6. Singh Jyotpal and Neary JP. 2020. Neuroprotection Following Concussion: The Potential Role for Cannabidiol. Referenced 2/6/2023.
    7. Kicman A. and Toczek M.. 2020. The Effects of Cannabidiol, a Non-Intoxicating Compound of Cannabis, on the Cardiovascular System in Health and Disease. Referenced 2/6/2023
    8. Stanley C., Hind W and O’Sullivan S.. 2012. Is the cardiovascular system a Therapeutic target for cannabidiol?. %27Sullivan% 20SE %5BAuthor% 5D. Referenced 2/6/2023.
    9. Montecucco F. and Di Marzo V.. Cell press. At the heart of the matter: the endocannabinoid system in cardiovascular function and dysfunction.
    CBD and fibromyalgia symptoms

    CBD and fibromyalgia symptoms

    The term fibromyalgia comes from the words “fibro” which refers to connective tissues and “myalgia” which describes muscle pain. Fibromyalgia is a common disease related to the central nervous system and affects about five percent of people (1). This article reviews research data on whether CBD is helpful in the treatment of fibromyalgia symptoms.


    What is fibromyalgia?


    Fibromyalgia causes chronic fatigue, memory disorders, and pain in the locomotor and supporting organs, without the case being clearly associated with any inflammation, damage or injury. The symptoms are usually accompanied by low-quality sleep that is not restorative enough and leads to exhaustion. (1)

    Older and middle-aged women are most affected by fibromyalgia. Among children and young people, it occurs only rarely (2).


    Causes of Fibromyalgia


    The cause of fibromyalgia is still not completely known, but it is thought to be related to an imbalance of the autonomic nervous system and a neural pain regulation disorder (1).

    In addition, there are indications that fibromyalgia could be caused, at least in part, by anxiety and low mood caused by prolonged stress. This kind of repeated stress can be caused by many different reasons and it can be related to busyness, relationships, money worries, work, unemployment or, for example, traffic noise. (2)

    People suffering from the disease have also been noticed to have similar changes in hormone balance as people suffering from a chronic stress state. It is still unclear whether chronic stress is directly caused by fibromyalgia or by other symptoms caused by it. For some reason, the disease most often appears only after middle age. (2)

    Fibromyalgic manifestations are associated with several different factors, such as an injury, accident or infection, which can cause sensitization related to the central nervous system. At times, the local pain condition may even develop into pain sensitivity. There are usually other different diseases in the background, which makes the definition of the disease challenging. For example, the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis may closely resemble the symptoms of fibromyalgia. Other common symptoms of fibromyalgia can be psychological and social problems, as well as overactive joints. (2)

    Based on several studies, cannabinoid deficiency states in the internal cannabinoid system may be associated with the onset of fibromyalgia (3).

    Two women and a fibromyalgia test.

    Pain points are places on the body that, when pressed, produce intense pain, which usually only fibromyalgia sufferers react to.

    Fibromyalgia and pain points


    Fibromyalgia-related pain usually occurs in certain areas, in pain points, unlike e.g. in cases related to rheumatism and osteoarthritis. Pressing on certain pain points creates very strong pain conditions that usually do not occur in a healthy person. (4)

    Fibromyalgia cannot be identified with standard laboratory tests, but pain points make it easier to make a diagnosis. Even if the patient has other symptoms associated with fibromyalgia, but if he does not experience pain when pressing certain pain points, it is likely that it is not fibromyalgia. Pressing on the pain point can cause a tingling, stinging or burning sensation. Everyone suffering from fibromyalgia, so-called the pain map with points is individual. Pain is therefore definitely not experienced in all 18 pain points, but according to the definition of fibromyalgia, the patient experiences pain in at least 11 pain points. Pain points are often located around large joints and in the area of muscle attachment points, areas about the size of two euros. Pain points can be found on both sides of the body. There are 10 of them on the back and eight on the front. (4)


    Fibromyalgia symptoms


    Fibromyalgia is a disease that challenges everyday life, whose symptoms include e.g. constant muscle pain and soreness in the connective tissues, as well as a variety of psychological and neurological symptoms. In addition to these symptoms, it is common for people with fibromyalgia to sleep poorly and suffer from exhaustion, fatigue, weakness, numbness and swelling in the joints. When the body does not get the necessary rest during the night, the exhaustion continues immediately after waking up and it makes everyday life feel heavy. In particular, mental pressure may increase fatigue. Symptoms vary from case to case. (2)

    The pain associated with fibromyalgia is described as cutting, burning and stabbing. Symptoms can also include headache, and pain in the urinary organs and stomach area. Based on research, in addition to mental stress and social pressures, cold, humidity and drafts can increase symptoms. Warm air and especially sauna may relieve the pain temporarily, but there is a downside, as the pain conditions may get worse after sauna. (2)

    In deep sleep, growth hormone is secreted, which strengthens tissues. Without deep sleep, this growth hormone cannot be obtained, and therefore lower than normal levels of growth hormone have been observed in fibromyalgia patients. Disturbances in hormone secretion can increase the experience of various pain conditions. In studies where the subjects’ sleep has been disturbed, they have been found to have symptoms belonging to fibromyalgia (2). Deep sleep also plays an important role in getting the necessary rest and daily coping.


    CBD oil and fibromyalgia

    CBD and CBD oils are increasingly being used to treat the symptoms of fibromyalgia.

    Lynch and Campbell (2011) and Lynch and Ware (2015) conducted two systematic reviews of the use of cannabis/cannabinoids for chronic pain, including pain caused by fibromyalgia. The studies have been published in the years 2003–2010, and in addition to them, 11 studies have been published in the years 2011–2014. Around 2,000 participants took part in all 29 tests and their duration was several weeks. 22 out of 29 studies showed a significant analgesic or pain-reducing effect, and several also reported improvements in secondary outcomes such as sleep and spasticity. The results are remarkable and the news comforting for fibromyalgia sufferers. (5)

    Recent advances made it possible to isolate the active substances of cannabis. At the same time, it enables the production of cannabinoid products, without the unwanted psychoactive effect and the possibility of providing pain relief and alleviation of other symptoms related to fibromyalgia. Cannabis itself is also approved for use in the treatment of chronic pain conditions. (6)

    Evidence supporting cannabis in chronic pain conditions is abundant; however, in fibromyalgia they are mostly limited. There are only a handful of randomized trials, and their objectivity has been questioned. However, many retrospective studies and patient studies point to significant relief of pain, improvement of sleep and relief of related symptoms. Evidence supporting the use of cannabis in the treatment of chronic pain and especially fibromyalgia is being collected as the use of cannabis increases with current global trends. Although the current evidence is still limited, new data points to the positive effect of cannabis in the treatment of fibromyalgia symptoms. 6)

    Read more about pain and CBD oil .


    A woman and a dog on a pole walk.

    In the treatment of fibromyalgia, forms of exercise are recommended, e.g. water sports, cycling and dancing. Positive results have been obtained especially from pole walking and pilates exercises.


    Fibromyalgia treatment


    The treatment of fibromyalgia symptoms can be made easier if the disease can be diagnosed in the early stages. When the reason behind the long-lasting symptoms is known, it is easier to focus on its treatment when additional examinations are no longer needed. (2)

    The causes of the disease and the intensity of the symptoms vary in people with fibromyalgia. There is still no single and suitable form of treatment for its treatment. Psychiatric treatment is always recommended if the illness is also accompanied by depression, severe exhaustion or some other psychological symptom. (2)

    Exercise is believed to strengthen the body’s own functions related to pain relief. Recommended forms of exercise are water sports, walking, cycling, skiing and dancing. Positive results have been obtained e.g. pole walking and pilates exercises. (2)

    It is also possible for fibromyalgia sufferers to participate in a rehabilitation course, which is intended to encourage exercise, treatment and reduce the exhaustion associated with the disease together with groups. The treatment includes e.g. pampering the body which includes massage, baths and conversations. Sometimes the treatments also use cold therapy such as avto.

    Medicines in the treatment of fibromyalgia symptoms

    No actual drugs have been developed to treat fibromyalgia. Medicines that improve sleep and mood are often first tried. To minimize side effects, drug treatment is recommended to start with the lowest possible dosage. Some drugs used to treat depression (such as duloxetine and milnacipran) have been found to have effects in alleviating the symptoms of fibromyalgia. Some also get help from the more traditional paracetamol, but NSAIDs can do more harm than good. In the most severe cases of pain, drugs intended for the treatment of nerve pain such as gapapentine (Gabrion) and pregabalin (Lyrica) are used. (2)

    Although fibromyalgia cannot be completely cured yet, once a suitable medication is found, it can be alleviated, e.g. symptoms related to pain and fatigue significantly. Medicines are not helpful for everyone, however, and due to their harmful side effects, it is recommended to start a possible medication regimen with low dosages. Since the disease is not caused by inflammation, traditional anti-inflammatory drugs do not help it either. In addition, strong opioid-based painkillers usually only have side effects. (6)

    Antidepressants, nerve pain medications, and SNRIs are often prescribed to treat fibromyalgia patients. The medication aims to reduce pain, sleep difficulties and anxiety. Sometimes different medicines are used at the same time, but despite this they do not necessarily bring the necessary relief to the symptoms. Although paracetamol is commonly used in the treatment of pain, there is no evidence that it can be used to treat fibromyalgia. (6)



    10 facts about fibromyalgia

    • Fibromyalgia occurs in approximately 2-8 percent of the population.
    • There is no cure for the disease, but the symptoms can be alleviated or even disappear on their own.
    • Causes the second most long-term pain in the musculoskeletal system.
    • Chronic pain syndrome accompanied by variable pain and other symptoms.
    • The pain regulation system becomes more sensitive and changes occur in the functioning of the involuntary nervous system.
    • Medicines can mainly treat pain and exhaustion.
    • Hereditary factors affect about half of the cases.
    • Exercise, sleep quality and maintaining mental well-being are essential to the treatments.
    • The disease cannot be detected in a laboratory.
    • Fibromyalgia rarely occurs in children. ( 6)


    CBD oil, bottle and pipette.

    With the help of CBD oil, the symptoms of fibromyalgia, such as pain and insomnia , can be relieved and thus the quality of life can be improved.




    Fibromyalgia and diet


    There is no unequivocal evidence of the effect of diet in the treatment of fibromyalgia. The help received from nutrition is always case-specific. General recommendations for fibromyalgia are to pay particular attention to adequate intake of trace elements and vitamins such as vitamin D. (6)

    Other fibromyalgic patients avoid foods such as alcohol, red meat, sugar and gluten. Abstaining from certain foods eases symptoms for some and not for others. It is important for everyone to find a diet and food rhythms that suit them. Above all, it would be good to try to avoid stress related to eating, so that the body can find an optimal balance. (6)


    How to live with fibromyalgia symptoms?


    How to live with fibromyalgia symptoms? Based on experience, healthy lifestyles, regular exercise, rest and a suitable diet can make living with the disease much easier. Positive experiences have also been gained from group courses, where you can talk about your own experiences and peer support is available.

    More and more people are experiencing that CBD provides significant relief from fibromyalgia symptoms. So one recommended way is to try it CBD oils that you can order from the online store .



    1. Heikki Julkunen. 2019. Duodecim. Fibromyalgia. Referred on 03/28/2022
    2. Tom Petterson. 2021. Rheumatism Association. Fibromyalgia . Referred on 29/03/2022
    3. Russo, E. 2004. Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency (CECD): Can this Concept Explain Therapeutic Benefits of Cannabis in Migraine, Fibromyalgia, Irritable Bowel Syndrome and other Treatment-Resistant Conditions? Neuroendocrinology Letters.
    4. Fibromyalgia pain points . Referred on 10/05/2022
    5. Sonja Vučković et al. Cannabinoids and Pain: New Insights From Old Molecules. Front Pharmacol. 2018. Referred on 10/05/2022.
    6. Amnon A. Berger et al. ScienceDirect. 2020. Cannabis and cannabidiol (CBD) for the treatment of fibromyalgia. Referred on 10/05/2022
    7. Henna Laitio. 2016. Rheumatism Association. In the treatment of fibromyalgia pain syndrome, drug-free treatment methods are emphasized. Referred on 29/03/2022
    CBD oil and menstruation

    CBD oil and menstruation

    CBD oil and menstruation go well together, as the challenges associated with menstruation are almost as diverse as the effects of CBD oil. Menstruation is a cyclical system that adapts to the lunar cycle, the task of which is to both remove the old unfertilized egg from the path of a new one, and to cleanse the mind and body of old energies, waste materials and beliefs (1).

    During the last few centuries, menstruation has become for more and more people a monthly drama of suffering rather than a gentle educational event, because menstruation is accompanied by a variety of symptoms, from shame and mood swings to pain conditions that paralyze the bed (2). Almost all bleeding people suffer from various challenges related to menstruation, and a few diseases associated with menstruation have also been classified. Many types of remedies have certainly been tried over the years, but could CBD oil help with menstruation?

    The endocannabinoid system in the reproductive system

    The internal general regulator of the body, the endocannabinoid system, also extends to the uterus, ovaries and in the brain the areas responsible for the menstrual cycle and the reproductive system. The endocannabinoid system plays an important role in reproduction, and studies have shown that both cannabinoids and cannabinoid receptors have their own special functions during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. (3, 4)

    The endocannabinoid system acts as an observer in the reproductive system by balancing the activity of the cells of the organs responsible for the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. The endocannabinoid system has been shown to be involved in e.g. in follicular development, egg maturation, ovarian embryo transfer and attachment, placental formation, and the ovarian endocrine system. (3, 4) The endocannabinoid system and the HPO axis (hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axis), which is responsible for the hormones that regulate the maturation and release of the ovum, are in a complex but very significant relationship. The HPO axis is responsible for the hormonal function of menstruation, and the endocannabinoid system, on the other hand, regulates the function of the axis to balance if necessary. (4)

    Cannabinoid receptors

    CB1 and CB2 receptors are both widely present in the ovaries, follicles (the follicle where the egg matures), the corpus luteum, and the scarred corpus luteum. Both receptors are also present in the uterus, ovarian medulla and medulla. The CB2 receptor has been detected on the outermost layer of the embryonal vesicle during the first trimester of pregnancy. (3). It has been established that CB2 receptors are more widespread in the reproductive system, but also that they are not active throughout the menstrual cycle, at least with regard to the endocannabinoid anandamide. The receptors only respond to anandamide when the egg is maturing. (4)

    The cannabinoid anandamide is more abundant than other endocannabinoids in the region of the uterus and ovaries. One of the functions of anandamide in the ovaries is to participate in the antrum phase of the maturing egg. It has been shown to be involved in e.g. in follicle maturation, egg maturation and ovulation (3). Anandamide is made in the corpus luteum and the corpus luteum and is produced under hormonal control.

    A person holds CBD oil in his hand.

    CBD oil and menstruation go hand in hand.

    Can CBD oil help with periods?

    The active ingredient of CBD oil, cannabidiol, CBD, may not affect menstruation directly by making it easier, but its properties are suitable as a helper for a wide range of symptoms that accompany menstruation. CBD has been studied to relieve pain (5), improve sleep quality (6,7) and relieve anxiety (7). It has antioxidant effects and relieves the inflammatory state of the body (8). CBD oil has been found to help with various chronic pains, such as those associated with the common condition endometriosis (9,10). Supporting endometriosis with CBD oil and cannabinoids in general has been studied with somewhat good results (10,11). CBD oil has also been found increasing the amount of neurotransmitters in the body and improving their binding capacity .

    Studies have not shown that CBD has its own functions in the menstrual cycle, or that it clearly specifically helps with a certain problem associated with menstruation. In a roundabout way, it might be a real help. The side effects of menstruation often have a strong impact on life and make it difficult for many. Alleviating or even eliminating the various side effects might help us face our periods with the great appreciation and gratitude they really deserve; the menstrual cycle and menstruation are a real mirror of the internal and external state.

    Cannabinoids balance the menstrual cycle

    Since menstruation, the uterus and ovaries are ultimately under the control of endocannabinoids, a good way to support menstruation is to take care of the well-being of the entire endocannabinoid system. CBD oil is a versatile, safe and natural way to support the endocannabinoid system. The endocrine system responsible for the effortless functioning of the menstrual cycle is balanced with the help of the endocannabinoid system, and the well-being of both is supported not only by exocannabinoids, but also by healthy lifestyles.

    The menstrual cycle is counted as starting from the first day of menstruation. In a normal menstrual cycle, which does not include e.g. diagnosed disease, the symptomatology can be very broad.

    Multi-effect CBD oil supports the menstrual cycle

    By taking into account your own menstrual cycle and its sensations, you can come to terms with how your period feels and what kind of emotional states are associated with it. The versatile mechanisms of action of CBD oil almost guarantee that it is possible for everyone to find help for menstrual challenges with it, whether it is pain during menstruation, anxiety appearing before menstruation, PMS or tingling in the lower back during the ovulation phase.

    CBD oil can relieve symptoms and calm the mind so that the situation is easier to accept. Menstruation tells a lot about health and mental state, and therefore it would be important to be able to listen to what they communicate! Menstruation and the endocannabinoid system work closely together, and cannabinoids and their receptors are involved in most events of the menstrual cycle.


    The use of CBD oil to ease menstrual problems is common around the world. Others find that CBD oil is a great help for various symptoms, either alleviating them or eliminating them completely. Several good properties are associated with CBD oil, which can be of great help throughout the menstrual cycle, depending on the current symptom.

    See also the article CBD and PMS symptoms .


    1. Just the Mama blog. The Power of Blood. 2019. Referred on 14/02/2022
    2. Women’s house. Woman and hormones. 2018. Referred on 18.02.2022
    3. M. El-Talatini, A. Taylor, J. Elson, L-Brown, A. Davidson, J. Konje. 2019. Localization and function of the endocannabinoid system in the human ovary. Referred on 18.02.2022
    4. O. Walker, A. Holloway, S. Raha. 2019. The role of the endocannabinoid system in the female reproductive tissues. Referred on 18.02.2022.
    5. K. Copland. 2019. research showed pain relieving effects of CBD. Referred on 17.02.2022
    6. S Shannon, N Lewis, H Lee, S Hughes. Cannabidiol in anxiety and sleep : a large case series. .
    7. E. Blessing, M. Steenkamp, J. Manzanares, C. Marmar. Cannabidiol as a potential treatment for anxiety disorders. Referred on 10.07.2021
    8. S. Atalay, I. Jarocka-Karpowicz, E. Skrzydlewska. 2020. Antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of cannabidiol. Referred on 19.02.2022
    9. R. Huttunen. Pain and the endocannabinoid system. 2019. Referred on 13/02/2022
    10. J. Sorian, B. Alexandra, B. On Daniel, S. Seidman, D. Sorian. 2017. The clinical significance of endocannabinoids in endometriosis pain management. Referred on 18.02.2022
    11. M. Biles. 2019. CBD and cannabis for endometriosis. Referred on 10.02.2022

    CBD and weight loss

    CBD and weight loss

    Dieting is certainly one of the oldest and most consumed trends in history. People have always had soldiers, young people, advertising faces and misses as role models, whom they wanted to be like, at any cost. Although being overweight is harmful, so can dieting. CBD and weight loss have recently surfaced as a topic. In this article, we will learn about overweight and safe weight loss, the endocannabinoid system behind weight management, and whether CBD oil can help with weight loss.


    Overweight in general


    Overweight and obesity are a public health challenge, especially in Western countries, including Finland. In Finland, almost 70% of adults are overweight or obese, children approx. 30% and almost half of young people. Since the 1980s, the number of obese people has doubled and the number of children has even tripled. Every other person in Finland has waist fat. (1,2)

    Overweight and especially waist obesity contribute to the onset of many diseases, the most common of which is adult-onset diabetes. Being overweight has a negative effect on blood pressure and blood fat values and is a significant factor behind fatty liver . It also causes infertility in both women and men, and is often the cause of knee and leg joint ailments. In addition to physical symptoms, mental challenges are common in overweight people, and especially in young people, obesity can significantly affect self-esteem. (1)

    In addition to the fact that obesity is a risk for the person himself, it also creates a financial burden for society.


    Factors behind overweight


    There can be many reasons behind obesity. It is an energy-metabolic disease that can be caused by mental traumas, sometimes a constant rush, laziness in the kitchen or ignorance of what would be a healthy way to eat. As a result of many diseases, excess weight can accumulate, and sometimes medications also cause it.


    Endocannabinoid system underlying body weight


    The endocannabinoid system known as the body’s balancing system is behind everything to ensure that the body functions as balanced as possible. It is, of course, an ancient system and still functions as it was originally created in us. This system has a bad tendency to hoard energy when it is available. Of course, the system is only doing it for its goodness when it has not adapted to this abundance that we are used to, but the danger is that energy is stored at maximum power all the time, which of course also accumulates in the wrong places. For this reason alone, gaining excess weight is extremely easy for part of the population; in this regard, they have a well- and efficiently functioning endocannabinoid system.

    The endocannabinoid system not only regulates appetite, but also the function of many organs and systems focused on metabolism, such as fat cells, liver cells and the gastrointestinal tract (3,4). It is also a very significant regulator of the brain’s hypothalamus, which is largely responsible for functions important for survival, such as appetite and energy storage, body temperature and circadian rhythm (3,5).

    According to studies, the background of obesity and overweight is the overactivity of the endocannabinoid system , in this case the overproduction of the CB1 receptor (3).

    These data suggest that a high-fat diet promotes the pathological production of endocannabinoids, which may increase lipogenesis, the conversion of excess glucose into storage fat. This eventually leads to the formation of fatty tissue in the liver. (3)


    Cannabinoid receptors


    Although both cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, are found throughout the body, the CB1 receptor is more common in the brain. In the hypothalamus of the brain, CB1 receptors and endocannabinoids regulate the activity of systems focused on appetite and food intake. (5)




    The most studied endocannabinoids are anandamide and 2-AG. These are the most important endogenous cannabinoids and both of them participate in vital functions related to weight management. In animal experiments, 2-AG levels have been found to decrease during fasting and rise again immediately after eating, while anandamide levels do not seem to vary in vital functions related to eating. This suggests that 2-AG is the more active and important endocannabinoid for eating behavior and energy storage. (3,4,5)

    diary, fruit, tape measure and dumbbell to support weight loss.

    Safe and targeted weight loss always includes a good plan, a healthy diet and an appropriate amount of exercise.


    Safe weight loss

    There are guaranteed to be thousands of different weight loss methods, and everything has probably been tried, from not eating to consuming only fat. Usually the weight does fall, but only temporarily. No single diet necessarily guarantees permanent weight loss, but it is important to commit to renovating your lifestyle completely. At first it may seem scary and a lot of effort, but according to experience, a long-term plan bears fruit as increased well-being prevents returning to old habits most effectively.

    Safe weight loss is definitely based on an understanding of what you are doing. Most of the time, it’s not about losing weight alone, but a lifestyle change that starts with observing your own patterns of action. Often the goal is to lose weight quickly, but in terms of permanent results, it is not an ideal way to lose weight.

    There are various calculators on the Internet that can be used to calculate, for example, the allowed amount of calories in relation to the desired weight loss, but these should be treated with a little caution, because the calculators often set a time target for weight loss and that is not in line with safe weight loss.

    In this link, you can find one example of numerous weight loss calculators.


    Weight loss and diet

    Diet is certainly the most important element behind weight loss. Today there are a huge number of different diets and they can be very different from each other. It can seem extremely challenging to find the lifestyle that best supports you when there are so many options.

    One of the biggest mistakes you can make to lose weight is to eat too little or not at all and at the same time deny yourself everything good. It goes without saying that it doesn’t inspire you to adopt this kind of lifestyle and often the weight accumulates back before it has been properly gained or even lost.

    Depending on the situation, the surest way to lose weight permanently is to eat lightly and sufficiently, increase the amount of exercise and take care of mental well-being. Increasing vegetables, fruits and berries, reducing empty carbohydrates and stopping or minimizing consumption of refined sugars, hidden sugar and fat, as well as excessive low-quality fat have been researched as the most effective ways to lose weight permanently. It’s good to allow yourself, at least after a rough start, treats, and above all, to find ways to treat yourself that are not harmful to your health.

    A versatile diet to support weight loss.

    A healthy diet can effectively lose weight.


    CBD and weight loss


    In general, it may be thought that hemp increases the appetite, but it is not that simple. Research has shown that CBD isolates in particular reduce appetite, but according to user experiences The use of the CBD oil use balances the appetite without increasing or decreasing it. In order to utilize all the active substances of hemp, it is recommended to note that the oil is of the highest possible quality, containing all the therapeutic substances of hemp. CBD has been found to work best when it works synergistically, i.e. together with all the active substances of hemp.

    Despite its appetite-smoothing effects, CBD oil is not a weight-loss medicine. Best for weight loss support CBD could be a stress reliever, reduce depression and anxiety , and calm the body’s low-level inflammation .


    In summary


    Being overweight is a public health challenge, and the best way to deal with overweight, the constant yo-yoing of weight and the resulting health challenges is to take healthy lifestyles into account. Food rich in nutrients, exercise, good quality water and a life as stress-free as possible guarantee a good foundation for a healthy body, but also for the mind. Being overweight causes both physical and mental health challenges, and treating it with its side effects is one of the most significant expenditure items in the public health care budget.

    The endocannabinoid system is responsible for processes related to eating and also overweight. CBD oil may be helpful for dealing with various side effects such as sleep- related challenges, but the weight loss itself must be done with the help of other means such as diet and exercise!




    1. Mustajoki P.. 2022. Health Library Duodecim. Fatness. Referred on 11/16/2022.
    2. Department of Health and Welfare. Prevalence of obesity. Referred on 11/16/2022
    3. Bellocchio L., Cervino C., Pasquali R. and Pagotto U.. 2008. Journal of neuroendocrinology. The Endocannabinoid System and Energy Metabolism. . Referred on 11/16/2022
    4. Horn H., Böhme B., Dietrich L. and Koch M.. 2018. Endocannabinoids in body weight control. . Referred on 11/16/2022.
    5. Miralpeix C., Reguera AC, Fosch A., Zagmutt S., Casals N., Cota D. and Rodriguez-Rodriguez R.. 2021. Hypothalamic endocannabinoids in obesity: an old story with new challenges. . Referred on 11/16/2022.
    CBD, arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis

    CBD, arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis

    Joint diseases such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and arthritis cause various symptoms ranging from joint stiffness to inflammation and severe pain. There is no curative treatment or medicine for these diseases yet, but luckily there are some ways to alleviate the symptoms. In this article, we will get to know the two most common joint diseases and find out if CBD helps with their symptoms.


    Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, what is the difference?


    Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis are similar, but differ based on the root cause. Osteoarthritis is caused by e.g. from hard work, aging, injury and heredity, while rheumatoid arthritis is a purely inflammatory disease. In both, the joints are symptomatic, causing pain and various side symptoms.




    Osteoarthritis is the world’s most common joint disease and is largely caused by strain and injuries to the joints. The actual cause of osteoarthritis is unknown, but the symptoms are caused by cartilage breaking down faster than repair. (1)

    Osteoarthritis occurs most often in the knee, hip, fingers and back. On the back side, osteoarthritis can occur in the joints between the vertebrae. As a result of osteoarthritis, some kind of changes can occur in the bones, joint bursa and joint cartilage.


    Rheumatoid arthritis


    Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory rheumatic disease, the causes of which are largely in heredity, unilateral movement and lifestyle. Less than one percent of Finns suffer from it, and it can break out at any stage of life. Rheumatoid arthritis is usually diagnosed in older people, over 65 years old, but sometimes it also occurs in children. According to statistics, rheumatoid arthritis is more common in women than in men, as only one third of rheumatoid arthritis diagnoses are given to men. (2) Rheumatoid arthritis is most commonly found in the joints of the fingers.




    The symptoms of osteoarthritis are excruciating pain in the joints and joint stiffness, especially in the morning. The pain worsens with exertion and subsides with rest, but advanced osteoarthritis also causes pain at night, which may contribute to the development of sleep difficulties (1). with CBD oil according to studies, it has effects that improve sleep quality and balance the sleep cycle. Read more about the effect of CBD insomnia. In addition, CBD has pain-relieving properties .

    The first symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis are manifested as morning stiffness in the small joints of the body in the fingers and toes. The symptoms are usually symmetrical on both sides of the body. Common side symptoms are e.g. weight loss, fatigue, pains and fever which are partly caused by the body’s inflammatory reaction. (2)

    Treatment and prevention


    Osteoarthritis cannot be cured, but in general the condition of the joints can be taken care of preventively, e.g. by adding good quality collagen to the diet and avoiding exercise that causes strong shocks, but doing it regularly. Also, preventing the accumulation of excess weight may affect the development of osteoarthritis. (1)

    Osteoarthritis is treated at home, e.g. by losing excess weight and using cold therapy. It is a good idea to see a doctor at the latest when the painkiller no longer helps, despite the fact that there is no cure or treatment available. Osteoarthritis is mainly treated with painkillers, but a TENS device that gives electrical impulses is also used for pain relief. (1)

    Rheumatoid arthritis is treated with anti-inflammatory drugs, and the goal of the treatment is remission, i.e. a state where the disease does not progress. In Finland, rheumatoid arthritis is treated with a combination of traditional anti-rheumatic drugs and glucocorticoids, and usually at least 75% of patients achieve remission relatively soon after starting treatment. (2)

    Rheumatoid arthritis may be impossible to prevent, but its onset can be prevented by taking care of the joints through diet and light exercise. Avoiding smoking may also help!

    hand with typical rheumatoid arthritis pain points described.

    Diseases related to the joints cannot be cured, but there are a few ways to alleviate the symptoms. CBD may be especially effective in supporting the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.


    The cannabinoid system


    The endocannabinoid system monitors all processes in the body and regulates them as needed towards balance. The background of most diseases is some kind of disturbance in the functioning of this system. The endocannabinoid system is also involved in joint function.

    The endocannabinoid system includes the endogenous cannabinoids, i.e. the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-AG , their corresponding receptors CB1 and CB2, and the molecules that break down these elements.

    Both cannabinoids and their receptors are present in the joints. In diseases affecting the joints, it has been noticed that the CB2 receptor in particular is abundant, but both endocannabinoids and both receptors have been detected in increased amounts compared to healthy joints. (3)

    In the joints, endocannabinoids seem to target newly damaged joints the most, although they are also present in healthy, well-functioning joints, including those suffering from joint diseases.

    CBD to help?


    Those who practice Chinese medicine have already said thousands of years ago that hemp eliminates rheumatism. The claim as such is hardly true, but it is known that one of the most significant effects of cannabinoids is the reduction of inflammatory markers in the body.

    CBD for tissue damage caused by osteoarthritis does not necessarily help, but side symptoms such as pain, sleep difficulties and stiffness may be affected. CBD has been studied and used successfully e.g. For stiffness caused by MS , various pains and challenges related to sleep. (3,4)

    As rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory disease, its symptoms and the course of the disease with CBD oil may have effects. CBD has been studied to reduce inflammation in the body, and this effect is likely to be seen in the increased CB2 receptor levels in the joints of the rheumatism patient, which have risen both through the activation of CBD and the endocannabinoid system itself. (3,4)

    A study conducted in Canada as an anonymous survey of joint disease sufferers clearly stated that CBD had a positive effect on various symptoms. Pain was reduced by 86%, functional ability improved by 66% and sleep-related challenges eased by 66% of those who responded to the survey. Several of the respondents also reported that the need for medication decreased or even stopped completely after starting to use CBD. (4)

    The American organization focused on joint diseases, the Arthritis foundation, has collected statistical information not only on joint diseases, but also on the treatment of joint diseases with CBD. To the English site can be found here .


    CBD for pet joints?


    CBD oil also suitable for supporting animal care. The use of CBD oil related to the well-being of the joints is one of the most common ways to use CBD oil in animals, and according to user experiences and research, it has a positive effect. Improvements in mobility and general condition have been observed in dogs suffering from joint diseases In connection with the use of CBD . (5)




    Joint diseases are usually incurable and unfortunately common. The condition of the joints can be influenced by following healthy lifestyles, but they are not necessarily a guarantee that these diseases may not break out during life. The endocannabinoid system is also involved in joint function, and its parts have their own roles in the background of joint-related well-being. CBD oil may be particularly helpful for the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, but it may also have an effect on the side symptoms caused by both osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, such as stiffness and factors that disturb sleep.


    1. Pohjolainen T.. 2019. Duodecim health library. Osteoarthritis (arthrosis). Referenced 1/18/2023.
    2. Julkunen H.. 2022. Duodecim health library. Rheumatoid arthritis. Referenced 1/18/2023
    3. Barrie N and Manolis N.. 2017. The endocannabinoid system in pain and inflammation: Its relevance to rheumatic disease. %20N% 5BAuthor%5D. Referenced 1/18/2023
    4. Frane N., Stapleton E., Iturriaga C., Ganz M., Rasquinha V. and Duarte R.. 2022. Cannabidiol as a treatment for arthritis and joint pain: an exploratory cross-sectional study. %20M% 5BAuthor%5D. Referenced 1/18/2023.
    5. Ellevate science. 2018. Cisio’s PR newswire. Referenced 1/18/2023
    6. Arthritis foundation. Referenced 1/18/2023



    Pain and CBD oil

    Pain and CBD oil

    A normal person experiences physical pain in their life. Nowadays, chronic pain is also familiar to more and more people. For a long time, pain can even become a part of our identity. How to deal with pain? In the long run, it can even become an unbearable burden on our lives. Many arts have often already been tried, and especially in serious health challenges, it is important to progress in healing on many levels. But have you tried proper CBD yet? For many, the help it brings to pain challenges is undeniable. More and more people have even felt that they got their life back from their pain with the help of CBD .


    What causes the pain?


    Have you ever stopped to think about what causes pain? What exactly is pain? That brings a challenge to our consciousness. When we hurt our toe on a chair, for example, we carelessly caused a small damage to our toe, and the pain is a signal of this. If we didn’t experience pain, we wouldn’t learn to be careful of the chair. But what about a stomach ache? Of course, this can also be caused by, for example, wrong nutrition. In addition to this, we can also be in a stressed state. In recent decades, we have already learned to understand the concept of a stress stomach.

    As is well known, this same phenomenon can also occur as a headache, but for a long time, even in medical circles, we have started to notice the view that our physical and mental well-being are connected to each other more than previously thought. A late doctor from the United States has been a pioneer in the subject John E. Sarno. In her medical career, she quickly saw the connection between allergies and mental well-being. Also Dr. Sarno noticed the same connection between mental ailments and back pain. Through his mappings, we finally began to understand that this kind of pain can be located anywhere in our body.

    Dr. Sarno and many other experts have found that while pain can be a message of damage where the pain is, pain can also be experienced to avoid emotional pain.


    The role of CBD in pain management


    CBD balances our endocannabinoid system, abbreviated ECS (from endocannabinoid system). The ECS regulates all of our other eleven self-regulatory systems, so it has an effect on the one hand directly on pain, but also on possible underlying emotional states.

    CBD’s direct effect on pain


    The endocannabinoid system consists of cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 and their ligands anandamide and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), and enzymes responsible for ligand metabolism. Cannabinoid ligands can also activate other receptors in addition to cannabinoid receptors. These receptors include TRPV1, GPR18 and GPR55. The main ligand of the TRPV1 receptor (Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-1) is capsaicin (1), which creates the heat in chilies. This is why some people experience a mild hot flush when using cannabinoids. For some, the burning may be excessively intense at first, but it goes away after use.

    Traditionally, chili is known to be an effective pain reliever, although its effect only targets TRPV1 receptors. Today, awareness of CBD’s effect on pain is also spreading. Our endocannabinoid system affects pain directly and indirectly through the other receptors mentioned above. It plays a very central role in the experience of pain throughout our body. In 2020, Poland conducted a review of the pain-relieving effects of CBD in our body in a wide range of pain situations, such as nerve pain, inflammatory pain, osteoarthritis and others. The final conclusion was that CBD is a well-tolerated and safe natural compound that has shown promising pain-relieving effects in a wide range of pain challenges in clinical trials (2).

    Walking in nature, a suitable diet, a sauna combined with cold water, light exercise, adequate rest and many other things can also be helpful for pain relief.

    It is also important to understand that our endocannabinoid system is really a central part of our body’s functioning, and that part of pain relief with CBD is our body’s way of telling us that we have nourished its most important self-regulating system. We are designed to get a lot more cannabinoids from our diet than we currently do.


    The effect of CBD on the underlying factors of pain


    The aforementioned research into the underlying causes of pain has shown that emotional states can also cause physical pain. Pain seems to be the body’s mechanism to avoid these emotional states if they are too much for our consciousness to handle. However, CBD has an effect on these background factors as well, as has been studied.

    Innovare Journal of Medical Science published an article in 2020 that analyzed no less than 76 studies published in 2019 and 2020 on the effects of CBD on certain diseases such as stress , anxiety and depression . The study concluded that CBD has promising effects on these ailments, especially when it is not just CBD isolate. (3)

    In 2020, the effects of CBD have also been studied for stronger stress conditions with larger doses. The positive results have inspired further research. (4) Mental challenges can be eased by finding meaning in one’s life, spiritual exercises such as meditation, doing things that interest oneself, and for some, vigorous exercise can also be therapeutic. It may also be necessary to avoid spending a lot of time in front of screens. This article also covers the topic in terms of anxiety: CBD oil can relieve anxiety .

    A woman is holding a sore shoulder and suffering from shoulder pain.

    Pain in the shoulder area and shoulder can be relieved with CBD oil and massage.

    The use of CBD for various pain conditions


    Below you will find a list of different common pains, divided into different areas of our body:


    • Lower abdominal pain
    • Lower back pain
    • Coccyx pain
    • Pain in the sternum
    • Pain in left side


    Head and limbs:

    • Headache
    • Wisdom tooth pain
    • Foot pain
    • Pain in the soles of the feet
    • A shooting pain in the arm


    Nervous system, joints and pelvis:

    • Sciatica pain
    • Neuropathic pain (nerve pain)
    • Knee pain
    • Elbow pain
    • Coccyx pain


    The style of using CBD depends on the location of the pain. If it is, for example, general lower abdominal pain, it is most effective to take CBD orally. Pain in the lower abdomen can also be related to intestinal well-being. You can read more about it The effect of CBD on intestinal well-being .

    For many other common ailments, it can also be good to put CBD directly locally at the point of pain. CBD cream and CBD oils are best for topical use.

    A person sitting on the ground suffers from leg pain.

    Pain in the metatarsals and soles of the feet is becoming more and more common. The soles of the feet can be massaged with CBD oil. Just by massaging the soles of the feet, you can affect the pain conditions and well-being of our entire body, the soles of the feet are full of nerve endings.


    Pain in the metatarsals and soles of the feet is becoming more and more common


    The ball of the foot and the sole of the foot are also increasingly areas where pain occurs. Massaging the soles of your feet with CBD oil is especially good, as it allows the CBD to have the most relaxing effect. By massaging the soles of the feet, you can affect the pain conditions and well-being of our entire body, because it is full of nerve endings. You can read about the anatomy of the bones of the feet and the increasingly common barefootness and the advantages of barefoot shoes compared to cushioned shoes From a comprehensive article written in New York Magazine , which also tells about the history of shoes and the effect on the health of our feet (5).

    For foot care, you can find 100% natural CBD foot cream in our online store, which has been specially developed for tired feet. CBD cream warms, increases peripheral blood circulation and soothes the skin. Thanks to the natural active ingredients, the cream reduces leg swelling and tenderness, and speeds up healing from muscle injuries.


    How much CBD to use


    The amount of CBD used largely depends on the intensity of the pain and its location. The pain can be especially strong when, for example, there are symptoms of a wisdom tooth. For such acute, strong pain conditions, it can be good to spread the use of CBD to three times a day and with a larger amount than usual. A product-specific dosage recommendation is usually sufficient for normal periodic pains.

    What is a large amount? What is a small amount? What is a normal amount? Based on experience, it can be assumed that each endocannabinoid system is individual, and similarly, each hemp variety and product has a slightly different effect. Still, we can get some indication regarding usage volumes.

    It is good to start using CBD with a smaller amount at first. As simplified as possible, a rule of thumb for different usage amounts can be given with the following diagram: