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cbd and osteoporosis

cbd and osteoporosis

All animals and people in the world are supported by some kind of backbone. In people who belong to vertebrates, that skeleton is a skeleton made of bones, which lives and transforms throughout life. Osteoporosis, i.e. bone loss, is about weakened bone material and in this article we will learn about bone loss, the endocannabinoid system in the bones and how CBD affects the condition of the bones!

What is osteoporosis?


Bones consist of and are made up of minerals. Osteoporosis refers to a lack of minerals in the bones, which causes bone weakening.

The skeleton is built during pregnancy and develops into its final form approx. by the age of six. Bones are alive, because old bone material is constantly being broken down as new is formed. This process slows down around the age of 30, and new bone is not formed as fast as old bone is broken down. So the bone material also becomes brittle naturally. (1,2)

Osteoporosis mostly affects the older population, especially women. Sometimes osteoporosis is also diagnosed in men and younger people and in general it is very common worldwide. According to estimates, approx. 18% of the world’s population suffers from osteoporosis, some without knowing it.

Hereditary factors affect the probability of developing osteoporosis, but in addition to them, e.g. smoking, lack of calcium and other minerals, underweight, lack of exercise, and some diseases or medications may contribute to the development of osteoporosis. (1,2)

Osteoporosis symptoms


The symptoms of osteoporosis usually only become apparent when a bone breaks, either due to bone loss or an accident. The bone has become weak and can no longer withstand blows as before. In other respects, there are no tangible or visible symptoms associated with osteoporosis.


Prevention of bone loss


Bone loss is partly a result of lifestyle, but it is also due to both hereditary factors and aging. Bone loss can be prevented by investing in nutrient-dense food, exercising enough and avoiding smoking. Especially from minerals that build bones, such as calcium and magnesium, and it is good to take care of their absorption, but bones are also affected by numerous other minerals, vitamins and trace elements such as vitamin K2, vitamin D and copper. (2)

Osteoporosis is significantly more common in women than in men, and this is thought to be due to monthly pregnancies and breastfeeding. A woman’s body and mineral reserves are put to the test because of the monthly bleeding and the building materials needed to grow a baby and child. It is especially important for women to take care of a varied diet throughout life. (1,2)

Bone loss can also be prevented and treated with the help of supplements. All vitamins, minerals and trace elements are important for bones and it is even advisable to take them from a jar, as long as you don’t try to replace a varied diet with them.




Various drugs are used to treat osteoporosis, the purpose of which is e.g. harden the bone, increase the amount of thyroid hormone or affect the activity of the cells that form in the bones. The medicines are very strong and are dosed once a day, once a year or per event, depending on the medicine. No medicine intended for the treatment of bone loss does not heal or restore the bone, but artificially keeps the bone intact and strong. (2,3)

leg bones with bone loss caused by osteoporosis.

Bone loss is also a result of aging, but its progression can be affected by a diet that maintains bone health.


Natural treatment


In the treatment of osteoporosis, prevention is important. The onset of osteoporosis can be influenced by lifestyle, but even after diagnosis, diet and exercise have a big impact on general well-being.


Foods to avoid in osteoporosis


The actual foods to avoid are not associated with osteoporosis, rather the urge to eat plenty of certain foods. In terms of the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis, it is particularly important to enjoy mineral-rich foods and ensure good absorption of nutrients.


The endocannabinoid system in osteoporosis


The endocannabinoid system is a system that monitors and balances all processes in the body, which is especially responsible for functions essential for survival, such as energy storage and sleep. The endocannabinoid system is also an essential part of bone function and it works in all parts of the bone, from the core to the active part of the bone.

The endocannabinoid system consists of three parts, the body’s endogenous endocannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors and their disintegrating molecules. There are several endocannabinoids and the best known of them, anandamide and 2-AG, have been detected in the bone in large amounts of both. They are present both in the bone marrow and in the active parts of the bone (3,4).

Two receptors in the body are classified as cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2 receptors. In addition to these receptors, TRPV1 and GPR55 receptors are present in bone cells, participating in bone metabolism, e.g. participating in bone cell activity and bone mass regulation. CB1 and CB2 receptors are present to prevent bone loss. (3,4)

CBD for osteoporosis


CBD or cannabidiol is a compound called cannabinoid found in hemp. It and its effects have been studied for decades and, based on observations, it has numerous properties that affect health. Hemp has been used medicinally for thousands of years, especially in Eastern medicine. Slowly, in practice, the active ingredient of nature, which has been found to work, also receives scientific support.

CBD together with other active ingredients of hemp may also be good for supporting osteoporosis treatment. Of course, it is of primary importance to take care of e.g. exercise and diet, but CBD may have effects e.g. for bone strengthening, new bone formation and healing of broken bone. (5,6)



Osteoporosis is a bone fragility disease that especially affects the older female population, which can be prevented and also cured. Diet and exercise play a special role in the creation and prevention of bone loss, but CBD may also have a positive effect on bones and their healing.



  1. Bone Association. What is osteoporosis? Referenced 01/02/2023.
  2. Rheumatism Association. Osteoporosis. Referenced 01/02/2023.
  3. Rossi F., Tortora C., Punzo F., Bellini G., Argenziano M., Di Paola A., Torella M. and Perrotta S.. 2019. The Endocannabinoid/Endovanilloid System in Bone: From Osteoporosis to Osteosarcoma. Referenced 01/02/2023
  4. Aymen I.. 2010. Cannabinoid Receptors as Targets for Treatment of Osteoporosis: A Tale of Two Therapies. Referenced 01/02/2023
  5. Ehrenkranz J. and Levine MA. 2019. Bones and Joints: The Effects of Cannabinoids on the Skeleton. Referenced 01/02/2023
  6. Idris AI. 2010. Cannabinoid Receptors as Targets for Treatment of Osteoporosis: A Tale of Two Therapies. Referenced 01/02/2023
CBD and cannabis in pet care

CBD and cannabis in pet care

CBD and cannabis in pet care. This is a translated article, the original can be read from here .

Veterinary medicine has advanced significantly in recent years and thanks to the availability of more effective drugs, many pets are living longer than years before. With age, however, problems arise, such as rheumatism or other pain and inflammation conditions. The negative side effects of commonly used painkillers can damage the immune system , bowel functions, and kidneys and liver. In addition to these consequences, painkillers do not always work as we would like – both in humans and animals, the effectiveness varies from individual to individual. CBD and cannabis in the treatment of pets are becoming more common at a fast pace.

Of all the uses of cannabis in human and veterinary medicine, pain relief is the best documented. Studies have shown cannabis to be a significant pain reliever in various diseases. THC and CBD extracts have been shown in studies to give people relief from both cancer and nerve pain .

Studies evaluating the effectiveness of cannabis in the treatment of arthritis in dogs have been completed. A recent Cornell University study showed a decrease in pain levels in dogs with rheumatism in a test group that received CBD, compared to a placebo group. Pain levels decreased without negative side effects.

Many veterinarians and pet owners have seen firsthand the positive effects of medicinal cannabis in the treatment of arthritis and pain conditions. The research only confirms what many have found in practice.


Alternatives to CBD products for pets

Animal CBD products are usually liquid oil, tablets, capsules or in the form of treats. Liquids are better because the dosage can be precisely controlled, and because CBD is better absorbed through the tissues of the mouth than through the digestive tract.

Vaporized or smoked cannabis should never be used to medicate pets. This can damage the pet’s lungs and lead to a harmful overdose.

On the same principle, edible cannabis products intended for human consumption should not be given to pets. They are difficult to dose accurately and may contain ingredients that are toxic to animals (such as raisins, chocolate, etc.).

On the other hand, almost all natural CBD products are also directly suitable for domestic animals, as long as there is nothing extra in the product, such as e.g. preservatives and additives. In other words, CBD oil can also be used at home, as long as you remember that just two drops of 2% CBD oil can get you a suitable dosage of approx. For a 10 kg pet. For smaller pets, even less can be enough.

How to choose the right medicine?


CBD and cannabis can be a good option for treating pets. When considering cannabis as a medical option for treating pain or inflammation, it is important to understand how the different components of a cannabis product can affect your pet. The following important factors should be kept in mind :


The Entourage Effect: The overall synergistic benefit of cannabis is related to the amount and ratio of cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids. These factors influence the degree of biological activity and the extent of the product’s effects.

Finding the right ratio of THC and CBD, as well as the dosage, are critical to success.

Take into account parallel medications and possible drug interactions .

Always talk to your veterinarian before starting a new drug or nutritional supplement to treat your pet’s illness.

The THC:CBD ratio varies from a very high ratio such as 20:1, to a balanced ratio of 1:1 and 1:2.


Dosage guide

Deciding which product or ratio to use for your pet’s pain and inflammation depends on the severity and origin of the pain. Below is a guide to choosing ratios to use for treating pain and inflammation in animals.


High CBD
4:1 – 20:1 / CBD:THC (little or no THC )
Mild to moderate pain such as arthritis and back pain

A balanced relationship

Moderate pain such as arthritis and back pain.

High THC ratios

4:1 to 20:1 THC/CBD
Severe pain, such as cancer pain, nerve pain, and advanced arthritis.

When using cannabis as a medicine for pets, it must be remembered that significant side effects are unacceptable. The goal of cannabis treatment for pets is to relieve symptoms without other side effects. Pets’ normal behavior patterns should be unchanged after treatment.

The following are instructions for dosing THC and CBD for cats and dogs. Always talk to your veterinarian before starting to treat your pet’s illness with cannabis-based medicines.

Dosage of THC

THC is always a limiting factor in dosing .

0.2 to 0.6 mg of THC per 5 kg of body weight , twice a day.
Start with a small amount and slowly increase the dosage every 4-7 days.
Higher dosages may be possible/necessary on a case-by-case basis.
Keep a close eye on whether the pet shows any loss of balance or attention. Reduce the dose or stop the medication immediately if you notice significant side effects.


Dosage of CBD

0.5 to 5 mg of CBD per 5 kg of body weight , twice a day.
Start with a small amount and slowly increase the dosage every 4 to 7 days.
Often small doses are effective. Higher doses of CBD may be beneficial in certain conditions.


Medicinal cannabis can be of great benefit to animals in pain. The safe and effective use of cannabis requires an understanding of the milligram amounts of THC and CBD (or other cannabinoids ), the ratio of cannabinoids, and the appropriate dosing of the drug for animals.

Nothing is more important than your pet’s safety. So when it comes to the content or dosage of cannabis medicines, don’t leave anything to guesswork or make assumptions on your own.

The author of the original article, Gary Richter, one of the authors of, is an Oakland-based veterinarian. You can read more about his work in the article CBD for pets .

You can read more about suitable dosing for animals here .

You can find the best CBD products in Finland in Hamppumaa’s online store .


Noora Peltola, hemp partner

Agrologist AMK, natural product developer & permaculture designer

CBD and Lyme disease

CBD and Lyme disease

Borreliosis is an inflammatory disease caused by a bacterium spread by ticks, which in the worst case may become chronic and restrict movement. This article explains in more detail what borreliosis is, how the functioning of the endocannabinoid system can be seen behind it, and whether CBD could be of help in supporting the treatment of its symptoms.


What is Lyme disease?

Borreliosis, or Lyme disease, is a globally known disease caused by bacteria, which in some cases may also become chronic. Lyme disease is the result of the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, which lives in small mammals, such as wild rodents, and is carried and spread around by ticks and taiga ticks. Rarely, but sometimes, borreliosis can be contracted from the bite of a tick or tick. (1)

Lyme disease gets its name from the small town called Lyme in North America, where the first cases of borreliosis were detected in the 1970s. Today, borreliosis is found all over the world, and in Finland it is most common in the Åland region, where a third of all domestic borreliosis cases are detected. According to estimates, you get a tick bite every year in Finland. 500,000 people, of which approx. 6,000 get Lyme disease. However, only approx. 50-80% of them get symptoms. (1)

Symptoms of borreliosis or Lyme disease


For borreliosis to be possible, the rule of thumb is that the tick should be attached to the person for at least 24 hours. Another condition for getting infected is that the tick carries the Borrelia burgdorferi bacterium. The probability of borreliosis infection is very small, but still possible.

The most obvious symptom of borreliosis is a large, red rash-like area that develops around the tick or stinger injection site, the center of which often turns white. This red area is not actually painful, swollen or itchy, etc., and its appearance is not always a sign of borreliosis. If the rash continues to spread after several days, it is almost a sure sign of infection. However, in all cases of borreliosis, a red spot does not appear, so you should not just wait for it, but honestly observe your own condition a few weeks after the tick bite.

The most common symptoms, in addition to the red spot, are flu-like symptoms such as headache , fever, fatigue and muscle aches .

A red ring-shaped rash on a person's leg.

A red spot is a clear symptom of borreliosis, but it doesn’t always happen, but it’s good to watch for other symptoms after the bite.



Chronic borreliosis, or prolonged Lyme disease


In the absence of a red spot or if it quickly heals on its own, borreliosis may go unnoticed, in which case it also goes untreated at that moment. In untreated borreliosis, the bacterium spreads from the tick bite to other parts of the body, causing inflammation, for which antibiotics usually used in treatment may no longer be effective. Untreated borreliosis usually progresses to a more serious infection than the initial symptom of a red ring on the skin. The most common infections caused by chronic Lyme disease are e.g. arthritis, meningitis, nerve root infection or facial nerve palsy, but these are not actually symptoms of Lyme disease, but part of its acute disease picture. (1,2)

The most common symptoms of chronic borreliosis are pain in the joints, flu-like symptoms, and the aforementioned infections. If left untreated, the bacterium that causes borreliosis can even progress to the central nervous system, and this can be avoided by starting treatment early enough. (1,2)


Tick bite and borreliosis prevention


There are actually no preventive measures, but you can try to avoid tick bites. The best ways to do this are to protect the body with clothes, an effective check for ticks after going outside, especially in risk areas, and various herbal preparations that can be used to try to repel ticks and prevent them from getting attached.

Taking care of the body’s resistance is of paramount importance in the prevention of all diseases, and it may also help against diseases and parasites spread by ticks.

It is said that ticks do not like the smell of garlic(3) or St. John’s wort, and one way to prevent ticks from getting infected is to eat garlic or rub fresh St. John’s wort on trouser legs, shoes and ankles. There are also other different natural preparations based on herbs on the market that can be used to repel ticks, either directly on the skin or applied to clothes.


Treatment of borreliosis


A tick bite usually heals itself, but if the borrelia bacterium enters the body and causes symptoms, it is treated with strong antibiotics. Antibiotic treatment in the rash phase can prevent borreliosis from becoming chronic.

Lyme disease is often challenging to diagnose, especially if there is reason to suspect it outside of the typical tick season. Antibodies only develop in the blood within a few weeks, and by then the rash is often already gone.

Prolonged borreliosis, i.e. chronic Lyme disease, is treated either with a strong and long course of antibiotics or intravenously administered antibiotics. Treatment practices in Finland differ slightly from the way other countries treat borreliosis and chronic borreliosis. It is common for people suffering from borreliosis to travel to, for example, Germany, which has its own hospital dedicated to the treatment of borreliosis.

The endocannabinoid system in Lyme disease


The endocannabinoid system , which takes care of the balance of the entire body, makes sure that everything works and happens in the body as it should. The endocannabinoid system is not actually involved in the origin of Lyme disease or its course, but as in almost all diseases, changes have been noticed in the functioning of the endocannabinoid system compared to a healthy system.


CBD oil for Lyme disease?


Hemp contains numerous compounds, most notably cannabidiol (CBD), have been extensively studied and the positive effects on many diseases are undeniable in light of these. The relief of borreliosis symptoms with the help of CBD oil has only been studied a little, if at all, and the observations based on its therapeutic effect are mainly based on user experiences.

CBD or any other compound found in hemp does not cure Lyme disease or remove the bacteria that causes it from the body, but it may help alleviate the symptoms. CBD might relieves inflammation and affects various pains such as muscle pain (4,5). CBD oil is also protective of the nervous system and thus could potentially be good in the treatment of chronic borreliosis as well.

A book has been written about the use of CBD in the treatment of lyme disease, which you can buy for yourself in paper or e-version here Expert Guide on Using CBD Oil to Prevent and Cure LYME Disease. The book is written by American Ph.D Daniel Ross.

There is also a book on the effect of cannabis, i.e. hemp containing THC, on Lyme disease, which can be purchased either in paper or e-version here Cannabis for Lyme Disease & Related Conditions: Scientific Basis and Anecdotal Evidence for Medicinal Use eBook : White, Shelley, McIntyre, Julie: Kindle Store .

A dog is lying on the grass with a human hand with a tick in front of it.

Although borreliosis is rare in animals, it is still possible. CBD oil may also ease the pet’s borreliosis symptoms.



Lyme disease, ticks and CBD in animals


Ticks are a very common problem especially for cats and dogs in the summer, because they walk with their noses stuck in the grass almost all the time. Lyme disease can also be transmitted from ticks to animals, but this is very rare, especially when compared to the fact that animals may have several ticks attached to them after just one run. There are specific preparations for animals to repel ticks, from collars to herbal preparations, and you should check their suitability and functionality for your own animal species from your veterinarian. For example, a homemade peppermint alcohol product intended for dogs is not suitable for cats. The recipe for this preparation find here .

CBD oil is mostly suitable for animals for the same ailments as for humans, and it may therefore be worth trying to use CBD oil also for the treatment of animal borreliosis and to alleviate the symptoms. You should always visit a veterinarian if you suspect that your pet is infected with borreliosis.




Borreliosis is a very unpleasant disease, especially when it develops, which fortunately can be cured with strong antibiotics at the latest. It’s easy to notice a tick attached, but sometimes the tick has time to detach before you notice the bite. A red, rash-like spot often appears at the bite site, but this does not automatically mean Lyme disease. Ticks also infect pets and they can also get borreliosis, although it is much rarer. CBD oil may have positive effects on borreliosis and its symptoms, but there has been very little research into this.




  1. Lumio J. 2021. Duodecim terveyskirjasto. Borreliosis (Lyme disease). Referred on 23/01/2023
  2. Lumio J. 2021. Duodecim terveyskirjasto. Prolonged and chronic Lyme disease. Referred on 23/01/2023.
  3. Siippainen A. 2020. Helsinki news. MT: This basic spice in every home repels ticks effectively – don’t give it to the dog . Referred on 5/19/2023
  4. Lorena C. et al. 2021. The anti-inflammatory effects of cannabidiol and cannabigerol alone, and in combination. Referred on 03/03/2023
  5. Mlost, J. et al. 2020. Polish Academy of Sciences.. Cannabidiol for Pain Treatment: Focus on Pharmacology and Mechanism of Action Referred on 03/03/2023
CBD and herniated disc

CBD and herniated disc

A herniated disc is undoubtedly one of the most common causes of back pain. It is very common in working-age people and also largely due to work-related reasons such as sedentary work or strain. CBD is a cannabinoid obtained from hemp, whose positive effect has also been noticed in the treatment of neuropathic back pain. In this article, we will explore whether CBD oil could be helpful in alleviating the symptoms of a herniated disc.


What is a disc bulge / herniated disc?


Intervertebral discs are like small pillows that are located between the vertebrae of the spine, cushioning the load on the spine. Their purpose is to keep the vertebrae separate from each other and they consist of two parts; of a gelatinous interior and a solid outer shell with nerve fiber endings. (1)

Disc bulging is caused by degeneration of the disc. It is also a natural wear and tear associated with aging, which is not necessarily associated with greater pain. Promoted by stress or sitting, the degeneration often affects only one or a few discs, allowing the core of the disc to enter the spinal canal. The disc presses on the spinal nerve or causes local irritation, from which pain arises. (2)


Symptoms of a herniated disc


A herniated disc usually causes sudden pain, even if it has developed slowly. The actual pain point is in the lumbar spine, but the pain often radiates below the knee as well. Symptoms also include numbness, tingling and muscle weakness. (2,3)

Sometimes the bulge gets so big that it requires immediate surgical treatment. In this case, in addition to pain, the symptoms include challenges in holding stool and urine and significant muscle weakness in the leg. (2,3)

Bulging disc treatment


A herniated disc is treated with the help of painkillers, physiotherapy, rest, focus on ergonomics and light movement. Usually, the symptoms subside within a couple of months, but if they continue or worsen, it is necessary to talk to the doctor and reevaluate the treatment. A herniated disc is also treated with surgery, but it is only considered if the above-mentioned methods do not help. (3)


How to treat a bulging / herniated disc at home?


The aim is to focus the treatment of disc herniation at home and on taking ergonomics into account in everyday life. Usually, the bulge is treated with home remedies and physiotherapy, but approx. 15% of all cases require surgery. (2,3)

Usually, the physiotherapist gives instructions for movement and light stretching, but a good general guideline can be to take a regular, leisurely walk. Special attention must be paid to ergonomics when the hernia occurs acutely, but also afterwards, in order to avoid recurrence of the hernia. (2,3)


the woman works ergonomically.

A bulging disc often heals on its own, but sometimes the treatment is surgery. CBD oil may help with symptoms.




The degeneration of the diaphragm cannot actually be prevented, but its progress can be influenced by ergonomics and good lifestyles. Most of the time, a bulging disc in working-age people is caused by either sitting or one-sided strain, so it is important to pay attention to work-related ergonomics. It is even more important that these ergonomic instructions are actually followed, because often they are known, but not used. (2,3)

The condition of the intervertebral discs can be maintained with gentle movement, diet and not smoking (2). Sports where there is tackling or where the movement is always similar like in golf, there are higher risks of sudden and slowly developing disc herniation.

The symptoms of a herniated disc radiate to the leg


A herniated disc usually radiates to the leg, below the knee, and it is one of the clearest signs by which the causes of back pain can be identified as a herniated disc. You don’t always have this feeling of radiation in your leg, but it is very common.

Does the herniated disc reflect in the neck?


A herniated disc manifesting in the lumbar spine does not actually affect the neck, but various pain conditions also occur in the neck area, some of which are associated with degeneration of the discs. These diseases are rather classified as diseases of the cervical spine, but they have the same type of symptoms and root causes. Usually, hernias in the back do not actually radiate to the neck, but there is also degeneration in the cervical spine and its disc pads, which causes pain. The discs in the cervical spine also naturally degenerate as a result of aging, which can cause stiffness in the neck and sometimes even a tilt of the head. (4)


How does CBD oil affect the symptoms of a herniated disc?


CBD is an anti-inflammatory cannabinoid whose therapeutic effects are widely studied and recognized. It is a gentle, safe and effective supplement to support the treatment of many diseases, but its effect on disc herniation has only been studied a little, and the mechanism of action is not yet known. However, it has been noticed that somehow it has an effect and the topic would definitely be worth further research. The mechanisms of action have mostly been estimated and are related to CBD’s anti-inflammatory effects, slowing down the absorption of the endocannabinoid anandamide, and CBD’s muscle-relaxing properties in general. (5)

Chronic back pain in particular is often accompanied by anxiety and depression due to pain conditions that make life difficult. CBD has been studied to have a positive effect on both of these. CBD also affects the quality of sleep, which often suffers due to symptoms caused by herniated discs and back pain. Read more On the effect of CBD oil on insomnia .


Back pain relief with CBD oil?


The effect of CBD on back pain has not yet been studied very extensively, but because back pain is often caused by neuropathic or nerve pain and inflammation, in the light of user experiences and research, CBD oil is potentially good for relieving back pain. (5)

In summary


Disc herniation and the effect of CBD oil on it have been studied very little. However, we do know that CBD is cannabinoid , which has a lot of properties that have a positive effect on health, some of which could also be well suited for the symptoms related to the bulging of the diaphragm.



  1. Structure and function of the back. Spinal canal. Referred on 10/22/2022.
  2. Saarelma O.. 2022. Health Library Duodecim. Sciatica, herniated disc, bulging disc. Referred on 10/22/2022
  3. Symptoms and treatment of a bulging disc. Mehiläinen. Referred on 10/22/2022.
  4. Saarelma O.. Health Library Duodecim. Diseases of the cervical spine. Referred on 10/22/2022
  5. Silveira JW, Issy AC, Castania VA, Salmon CEG, Noguiera-Barbosa MH, Guimaraes F., Defino HLA and Del Bel E.. 2014. Protective Effects of Cannabidiol on Lesion-Induced Intervertebral Disc Degeneration. Referred on 10/22/2022
CBD, kidney failure and nephritis

CBD, kidney failure and nephritis

The kidneys are an important body cleansing organ, whose smooth functioning is an absolute prerequisite for optimal health. Kidney-related diseases are rapidly becoming more common, side by side with type 2 diabetes. In this article, we will learn about kidney failure, kidney inflammation, the endocannabinoid system behind the kidneys, and whether CBD oil could be helpful in supporting the treatment of kidney diseases.


Functions of the kidneys


Normally, a person has two kidneys, located below the ribs, on either side of the spine. Kidneys have several important functions in terms of life. They both clean the blood and body fluids of waste materials, but also regulate the body’s acid-base, fluid and salt balance. (1)

Kidney-related diseases are rapidly becoming more common and are found in men almost twice as often as in women. Kidney diseases are often accompanied by other diseases as well.


Kidney deficiency


In kidney failure, the blood is not cleaned properly, and fluids do not circulate in the body quickly enough. Impairment progresses individually depending on the cause of the impairment.

Impairment is determined by the plasma creatinine concentration (P-crea), which is affected by the ability of the kidneys to filter blood. The calculated renal filtration rate, GFR, classifies the severity of the impairment, and if it is less than 15 ml/min, it is already worth considering dialysis treatment. Readings below 60 ml/min indicate that the kidneys are working poorly. (2)

Creatinine is a metabolic product of muscles, and its elevated amount in the blood indicates a weakened ability of the kidneys to filter the blood. Of course, there are other reasons for an elevated creatinine concentration, e.g. dehydration or obstructions in the secretion of urine, and it does not always indicate that the kidneys are functioning poorly. (1,2)

As you get older, the GFR value naturally decreases, and kidney failure is most common among the older population. The most common causes of impaired function are type 2 diabetes, aging and diseases related to vascular health.


Sudden (acute) kidney failure


Sometimes dehydration, i.e. profuse vomiting/diarrhea or profuse bleeding, infection, surgery, etc. may cause sudden, short-term kidney failure. Most of the time, the condition goes away on its own with the removal of the cause, such as adequate hydration.




Kidney failure causes almost no symptoms until the need for dialysis treatment is already close. At that time the symptoms are e.g. itchy skin, nausea, loss of appetite and weight loss.

Mild kidney failure is often discovered by accident in connection with other research or, for example, an occupational health check-up, because it can be seen in a normal comprehensive blood count as an increase in the value of P-crea and P-urea. (1,2)




The best way to treat the kidneys is to prevent their failure. Of course, it is not always possible, because the impairment can develop suddenly, e.g. as a result of severe diarrhea, but good, health-supporting lifestyles also contribute to kidney health. Exercise, diet, moderate alcohol consumption and not smoking are the best ways to prevent kidney-related diseases. Moderate use of anti-inflammatory drugs during life can also promote the well-being of the kidneys. (3)

In mild cases, kidney failure is treated with diet, lifestyle changes and medication, but if the situation is already long-standing and the failure is severe, the treatment is dialysis, i.e. treatment that replaces kidney function or a kidney transplant.


Kidney-friendly food on the table.

It is possible to influence the health of the kidneys with a healthy lifestyle, such as diet.




Diet plays a significant role in the treatment of kidney failure, as it is also often largely the cause of its onset. A diet that supports the kidneys is low in salt, contains moderately good, high-quality fats and a wide variety of foods such as vegetables, fruits, meat and eggs. (3)

Especially in the case of advanced insufficiency, attention should be paid to excessive potassium and phosphorus, because their excessive intake and the inability of the kidneys to take care of the salt balance is a bad combination from a health point of view. (3)


Renal failure in cats and dogs


Cats and dogs also have kidney failure, which is mostly acute kidney damage. Clear symptoms include e.g. copious drinking and urination, as well as fatigue and vomiting. Sudden kidney damage is often caused by poisoning or lack of oxygen in the kidneys, which are the result of unsuitable food or e.g. from drying out the body.

When acute kidney damage occurs in pets, it is important to get treatment quickly, because the situation progresses quickly. It is estimated that up to half of the deaths of cats and dogs are caused by acute kidney injury. (4,5)


Kidney infection


Kidney infections are rare and they occur when bacteria that cause inflammation enter the kidneys. More commonly, kidney-related infections are known both as urinary tract infection, which does not always progress to the kidneys, and as mole fever, which is always accompanied by inflammation in the kidneys and their impaired function. Inflammation of the glomeruli, or glomerulonephritis, is caused by streptococcal bacteria, but is very rare, whereas TIN, or inflammation of the kidney tissue and interstitial tissue as well. (6)

Symptoms and treatment


Symptoms include red-brown urine, burning when urinating, pain on both sides of the lower back, nausea and fatigue. Of course, nausea and fatigue alone are not a sign of kidney-related inflammation, but they also need some other typical symptom. (6)

Kidney infections are always treated based on the cause, usually with medication.


Effect of alcohol on the kidneys


Abundant use of alcohol can damage the kidneys, as alcohol interferes with e.g. maintaining the body’s salt balance. The use of alcohol itself has numerous properties that negatively affect health, and several of these eventually also affect the health of the kidneys.

More about the effect of alcohol on health and here you can read more about the use of CBD together with alcohol .

The endocannabinoid system and the kidney


The endocannabinoid system is a system that has a balancing effect on the background of all body systems. The system in question is found in all humans and animals, and its operating principle is the same for all. The endocannabinoid system includes endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-AG , their corresponding receptors CB1 and CB2 and the enzymes that break them down, mainly FAAH and MAGL enzymes.

Since the endocannabinoid system affects the background of almost all functions of the body, its components are everywhere in the body, including the kidneys and the background of their functions.

Anandamide affects the kidneys at least in maintaining the body’s salt balance, and 2-AG seems to be involved in at least repairing kidney-related damage. (7,8)

Changes in cannabinoid receptor levels have been observed in connection with kidney diseases, and depending on the disease, they are either low or high compared to a healthy person. Both receptors are found in the kidneys and have several important functions. (7,8)


CBD (cannabidiol) is a compound found in the hemp plant that, according to research, has effects on health. CBD has been observed good e.g. to reduce inflammation, sleep quality to equalize, restless legs to soothe, cardiovascular health impressive, for pain relief and to reduce nausea . CBD has other good properties, but these effects could be helpful in supporting the treatment of kidney-related diseases. (9)




The kidneys are an important organ whose tasks include, for example, maintenance of fluid balance. Sometimes the deficiency can be difficult to notice, as the symptoms may be quite imperceptible. CBD oil has properties that may alleviate symptoms of kidney failure and inflammation.





  1. Kidney and Liver Association. Kidney deficiency. Referenced 03/07/2023.
  2. Saha H.. 2019. Duodecim health library. Kidney failure (uremia). Referenced 03/07/2023
  3. Nylund P.. 2018. The best treatment for kidney failure is effective prevention. Referenced 03/07/2023.
  4. Sympathetic expert vets. Sympatti oy. Referenced 03/07/2023.
  5. Gordin E., Viitanen S. and Spillmann T.. 2018. Sic!. Acute kidney damage in cats and dogs must be detected early and treatment started quickly.ähö-on-todettava-varhain-ja-hoito-aloitettava-nopeasti . Referenced 03/07/2023.
  6. Jalanko H.. 2021. Duodecim health library. Referenced 03/07/2023.
  7. Chua JT, Argueta DA, DiPatrizio NV, Kovesdy CP, Vaziri ND, Kalantar-Zadeh K. and Moradi H.. Endocannabinoid System and the Kidneys: From Renal Physiology to Injury and Disease. Referenced 03/07/2023
  8. Ho C., Martinusen D. and Lo C.. 2019. A Review of Cannabis in Chronic Kidney Disease Symptom Management. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.sagov/pmc/articles/PMC6388458/. Referenced 03/07/2023.
  9. Park F., Potukuchi PK, Moradi H. and Kovesdy CP. 2017. Cannabinoids and the kidney: effects in health and disease. Referenced 03/07/2023.
CBD and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

CBD and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

Strange situations, whether they happened or didn’t happen, run through my mind, and in addition, the lock on the front door must be checked at least a hundred times before leaving. Does it sound familiar? Everyone has mild symptoms, but sometimes it may be an obsessive-compulsive disorder, i.e. OCD. OCD is not serious, but is in any case a state of mind classified as a psychological disorder. In this article, we take a deeper look at OCD, see what the endocannabinoid system has to do with it, and consider whether CBD could help with obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

What is Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)?


Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a psychiatric disorder based on compulsive thoughts and action patterns. It is estimated that around 1-3% of Finns suffer from obsessive-compulsive symptoms, but the diagnosis is rarer than that. The disorder is not dangerous, but its symptoms can be so strong that it controls a person’s life and thoughts. (1)

The disorder usually starts already in childhood, but it also appears together with other psychiatric diseases, such as depression and anxiety. The risk of obsessive-compulsive symptoms during pregnancy and breastfeeding has been found to increase approximately twice compared to normal. The actual peaks for the onset of symptoms are in adolescence and young adulthood. (1,2)

All people have compulsive thoughts, feelings and behaviors in some situations, but the symptoms are classified as a disorder when they affect life in a dominant way.


Factors behind the outbreak


It is not known exactly what causes obsessive-compulsive symptoms, but it is suspected that e.g. inflammation of the body, oxidative stress and a disorder related to the glutamatergic pathway, which is behind almost all psychological illnesses. (1,2,3)


Obsessions rule life


Obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms are related to either compulsive thoughts or compulsive actions and are often unrealistic and excessive.

Compulsive thoughts include, for example, fears of contamination and contracting diseases, paranoia and suspicion. The thoughts are mostly distressing and negative. (1,2) Compulsions are often neurotic ways of controlling these thoughts.

A person suffering from compulsive symptoms may wash their hands so much for fear of disease that the skin breaks or clean so neurotically that all places are shiny, and even that is not enough. The symptom picture is also related to the need for symmetry, in which case everything must be in a certain order and everything must be perfectly in its place all the time (1,2).

The person suffering from the symptoms often realizes that the way he acts or thinks is no longer normal, but is still unable to change his habits without help.

The OCD test


There are several different tests that you can use to examine your compulsions before going to the doctor. OCD test of the mental health center can be found here .

In addition, the website of Mielenterveystalo also has a self-care program for those suffering from mild and moderate symptoms and Welcome to the self-care program for obsessive-compulsive symptoms | .

A person suffering from OCD washing their hands.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a mild mental illness, the symptoms of which may be alleviated by e.g. with therapy and CBD oil.



Obsessive compulsive disorder treatment and medications


In general, therapy and drug therapy or their combination are used as treatment, but neuromodulation treatments are also used. (2) Cognitive-behavioral therapy, which is primarily used as a treatment, is not so effective that it is necessary to develop other ways to relieve symptoms or eliminate them completely.

The endocannabinoid system and OCD


The endocannabinoid system is an observer of all body functions, whose task is to balance vital functions. The endocannabinoid system is found in all humans and all animals, except crustaceans, and has numerous different functions throughout the body.

The endocannabinoid system consists of endocannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors and enzymes that break them down.

In the background of obsessive-compulsive disorder, it has been observed, for example, increased endocannabinoid levels in the brain, which is where the symptoms start. (4) Of course, this does not mean that the endocannabinoid system is the cause of the onset of diseases, but that somewhere in the body there is a place where endocannabinoids and their corresponding receptors are needed more. You can read more about the lack of endocannabinoids and its effect on the onset of diseases in the article endocannabinoid deficiency state .


CBD oil in a dropper bottle for OCD compulsions.

Research on the benefits of CBD specifically for the treatment of OCD symptoms is just beginning, but based on the early results, it seems that cannabinoids such as CBD would also have positive effects on alleviating obsessive-compulsive disorder.




CBD is a compound found in the hemp plant, which, according to studies, has numerous effects on the functions of the human and animal bodies. In addition to being neuroprotective, antioxidant and oxidative stress-relieving, according to studies, it has been found to be a good support alongside the treatment of many psychiatric diseases. (4)

Only a few studies have been conducted on the use of cannabinoids for the treatment of OCD, but already based on them, it is possible to say that cannabinoids probably have positive effects in alleviating obsessive-compulsive disorder. (3,4)

GSK-3β is an enzyme whose imbalanced activity affects the background of several neurological diseases. It regulates e.g. cell membrane, inflammatory pathways and neuron polarities and affects the occurrence of oxidative stress. According to researches CBD reduces the activity of the GSK-3β enzyme, as well as controlling the release of serotonin and relieving anxiety and psychotic symptoms. (3)

CBD oil according to studies and user experiences, it is well tolerated, effective and safe to use to alleviate the symptoms of many different diseases. It has numerous properties that may have a positive effect, e.g. insomnia and anxiety and it has been found to alleviate e.g. symptoms of post-traumatic stress and stress .



Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a mild mental illness that nevertheless has a sensitive life-dominating effect. Symptoms include being neurotic about things like washing your hands. It is possible to get rid of obsessive-compulsive disorder with, for example, therapy.



  1. The working group established by Duodecim of the Finnish Medical Association and the Finnish Psychiatric Association. Duodecim treatment. Referred on 20/02/2023
  2. Obsessive-compulsive disorder. Referred on 20/02/2023
  3. Kayser RR, Haney M, Raskin M, Arout C, and Simpson HB. 2020. Acute Effects of Cannabinoids on Symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Human Laboratory Study. Referred on 20/02/2023
  4. Vallee A., Lecarpentier Y. and Vallee JN.. 2021. Molecular psychiatry. Possible actions of cannabidiol in obsessive-compulsive disorder by targeting the WNT/β-catenin pathway. Referred on 20/02/2023.
CBD and Bipolar Disorder

CBD and Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder, or bipolar disorder, is a mental health illness for which everyone carries predisposing genes. The disease is challenging and often difficult to treat, but it can also be alleviated with lifestyle and possibly with the help of CBD oil. This article will introduce you to bipolar disorder, the endocannabinoid system behind it, and how CBD could be helpful in treating it.


What is bipolar disorder?


Bipolar disorder, (manic-depressive), also called bipolar disorder, is a mental health disorder characterized by alternating periods of depression and mania. The mood varies between manic and depressed, and in between there may be long periods called the recovery phase, when the symptoms hardly appear. (1,2,3,4)

About 1-2% of Finnish adults suffer from bipolar disorder and it is equally common in both women and men. The first disease episode usually occurs in young adulthood, between the ages of 15 and 35. The frequency and number of episodes during life varies between sufferers. Sometimes the onset of periods of illness goes in synchrony with the seasons, other times they are the result of more challenging phases of life. For others, the disease is also easier to predict in advance, as the seasons may follow each other cyclically; after depression, mania, then again depression and mania. In between these, there may be a recovery phase, when the mood is typical for the person. (1,2,3,4)

Bipolar disorder is divided into two types. People with type 1 have mania, while people with type 2 only have hypomania. Type 1 in particular includes an increased risk of e.g. divorces, suicide and disability. (1,2,3,4)


Causes of illness

Bipolar disorder is strongly hereditary, but environmental factors probably also predispose to it. Heritability is approx. 10-15 %. (3)

All people carry some predisposing genes, and depending on the circumstances, the disease will break out or not.

According to a recently completed study, the disease is caused by a disruption of the internal clock, which is caused by low-level inflammation in the body, activation of the immune system, and chronic stress. In addition to MJ Rantala, associate professor of evolutionary psychology at the University of Turku, the group that carried out the research includes S. Luoto, J. Borraz-Leon and I. Krams. According to the study, the reduced need for sleep was thought to be a symptom, but now it is thought to be the cause of the onset of mania. Disruption of the internal clock and thus the deterioration of sleep quality and decrease in quantity most obviously triggers mania, because sleep affects chronic stress and the level of inflammation in the nervous system. (5)




The symptoms of the disease vary between seasons as well as between sufferers, and the symptoms can be anything in intensity. A strong change in mood from one extreme to the other is typical, seasonally. The symptoms of bipolar disorder therefore include episodes of depression and mania that are clearly separated from each other.

It would be good to know how to recognize your own initial symptoms, so that the management of the disease is as successful as possible. Usually, the onset of mania is accompanied by increased energy and a decreased need for sleep, an increase in sexual desire and a generally more active approach to life.


Depressed woman sitting on the floor.

Depression is the other side of bipolar disorder and CBD oil may help with that.




The symptoms of the depressive phase are not much different from ordinary depression, when a person is very tired, uninterested and unwilling. During the depression period, even the most important and dearest things are not necessarily of interest, but up to 18 hours of the day are spent sensitively on the bottom of the bed. It is typical that a period of depression follows mania, and in this case depression may also be accompanied by shame and regret for the things that happened during the mania. The depressive phase of bipolar disorder may be associated with a little more depression than usual, e.g. psychotic symptoms, weight gain and slowing down of thoughts and movement. (1,2,3,4)

The depressive phase usually lasts at least a week, but can last even months.



There are two different types of mania. Mania is a faster gear in the life of a bipolar disorder sufferer and then there is enough energy to share with others. The symptoms include a loss of control over one’s own actions, when everything seems to be successful and exciting, one cannot sleep for more than a few hours, and especially one cannot rest on one’s laurels. It’s great to do all kinds of things when you finally have enough power. Talkativeness increases, self-esteem rises and the person may become a “freak for grandeur” who spends money recklessly. During mania, a person is sexually hyperexcited. (1,2,3,4)

Hypomania is clearly milder than mania, but they still have the same elements. During hypomania, a person does not become psychotic, but the mania phase is mainly seen as increased energy, increased self-esteem and a decrease in the need for sleep.

Manic phases usually last from a week to months.


Mixed episode


If the symptoms change rapidly, even within one day, from depression to mania and back again, it is called a mixed episode. A mixed episode can be particularly stressful for those closest to you, as unpredictable behavior can bring challenges to everyday life and social situations.




Psychological illnesses are often associated with strong shame, which is why a person is not always willing to admit all the symptoms he has. Depending also on the phase that the person is going through, he may be completely unable to judge that it is e.g. manic episode.

In order to diagnose bipolar disorder, the review often requires a little longer, as the diagnosis requires at least two manic/depressive episodes. In Finland, the time from the first episode of illness to diagnosis is approx. 8 years (5).


Treatment and medication


There is no medicine that can cure or stop mania or depression, but bipolar disorder is treated in such a way that the disease remains as symptom-free as possible and the mood is stable. The most important task of drug treatment is to prevent episodes from recurring, as they also worsen and intensify the symptoms of the next episode.

Commonly used drugs include e.g. antipsychotic medication, drugs that affect sleep, mood stabilizers, and lithium and valproate, which are used to try to stabilize mood during a mixed episode or mania. During the depressive period, the medication differs from the treatment of ordinary depression, as mood stabilizers and antipsychotics are used instead of antidepressants. (3,4)

Medication can be difficult, as only a few commit to regular use of the medication. Often, the drug is stopped independently just at the onset of mania or depression and sometimes also in the middle of the recovery phase, thinking that the medication is no longer needed.

The best way to treat and manage the disease is to acknowledge its existence and the fluctuating episodes it causes. Recognizing the symptoms and reacting to them is of paramount importance even in those moments when symptoms do not occur. Lifestyle greatly affects the onset and maintenance of the disease. Regular routines, a nutrient-rich diet without additives, not intoxicating and minimizing coffee consumption are very important aspects in managing symptoms, as well as taking care of the best possible sleep quality. (3,4)

Various therapies also play a significant role in managing the disease. Such are e.g. individual psychotherapy, and couple and family therapy.

Natural treatment

There are several factors behind the onset of bipolar disorder and disruption of vital functions. Good life management is important for treating bipolar disorder. The drugs used in treatment often cause strong side effects, so during the recovery phase it is especially important to take care of the basics so that both mind and body are ready to receive another episode of depression/mania. (3,4,5)

The background of the onset of the disease is therefore a disruption of the internal clock, stress, inflammation of the body and probably also accumulations of heavy metals in the brain. A diet that cleanses the body and relieves inflammation and following it with a competent nutritionist could be significant in terms of treating the disease.

Also, stopping the use of substances, observing regularity in life through routines and adding exercise to everyday life could be effective ways to relieve stress, inflammation and help the internal clock stay on schedule. (3,4,5)

An image depicting bipolar disorder, with a man walking on a tightrope.

Bipolar disorder, which is caused by the imbalance of the internal clock, is also a disease that affects loved ones, as it causes instability in the sufferer’s life.

Experiences and tests


There is a lot of material and different tests on the Internet if you want to examine your own or a loved one’s symptoms. You should always talk to a professional about symptoms and suspicions about getting sick, but you can map out the situation first at home, e.g. with this test Mood Disorder Questionnaire MDQ .

The bipolar disorder guide has a lot of information for both the sufferer and their loved ones and can be found here 2. Do I have bipolar disorder? – Bipolar guide.

Experiences, support and peer support are offered by e.g. association Bipolar and you can find them here Bipolar .


Close ones


Bipolar disorder can be heavy and challenging for loved ones as well. Especially for the family, children and spouse of the person suffering from strong symptoms, both long periods of depression and also long periods of mania can be difficult times, and the situation may not get any easier even during the recovery phase. Often loved ones notice the onset of mania/depression faster than the symptoms, and during the recovery phase, the loved one may unnecessarily get annoyed with their spouse by misinterpreting their behavior. Overreaction and fear of the situation turning in the direction of depression/mania easily causes arguments and the relationship is put to the test because of this. (4)

Mania may take the patient to a closed ward, and during depression the spouse may not be able to do anything about it together. Accepting and putting up with this demands an extreme amount from the spouse, and families are often offered e.g. relationship therapy, in which the experience of both is heard. (4)

The matter is challenging to the extent that the sufferer needs enormous support, understanding and love, especially from the spouse and loved ones. The variability of situations can become burdensome for the family over the years, especially if the disease is still untreated and without a diagnosis and mood-balancing medication. A spouse’s illness may also cause shame, so getting help for both yourself and the sick person can be unnecessarily delayed. (4)


The endocannabinoid system in bipolar disorder


Purpose of the endocannabinoid system is to balance all processes in the body. The system found in almost all living species is responsible for the needs that are necessary for life, such as e.g. appetite, sleep and relaxation and is therefore of course also part of the onset, maintenance and possibly recovery of bipolar disorder.

The endocannabinoid system includes endogenous cannabinoids, their corresponding two receptors and the enzymes that break them down.

Both pro-inflammatory cytokines and the endocannabinoid anandamide a clear increase in levels has been observed in those who are going through at least another episode of the disease. Also, an increase in other, lesser known, endocannabinoids in those who have both schizophrenia and substance abuse problems in addition to bipolar disorder. (6)

Another of the most well-known cannabinoids, 2-AG is at a clearly lower than normal level in those suffering from mental health challenges. (6)

The CB2 receptor has a strong influence on the immune response, and its activation could be significant in the treatment of bipolar disorder, which is partially caused by inflammation in the body. (7)


CBD adjusts the internal clock


Disturbances of the internal clock, low-grade inflammation of the body and stress are common features of bipolar disorder. A compound found in hemp, According to studies, cannabidiol or CBD has an effect on the internal clock , relieves inflammation , and also relieves stress . cannabinoid. CBD is not intoxicating, does not cause addiction and has been found to be effective even after long-term use.

According to research, harnessing cannabinoids for mental health treatment is challenging to the extent that they affect everyone in slightly different ways. However, CBD may also have therapeutic effects on mental health challenges and may also be useful in supporting the treatment of bipolar disorder.

CBD acts mainly through non-cannabinoid receptors, but it also has an effect that activates the cannabinoid system. (8)

The intoxicating cannabinoid, THC(tetrahydrocannabinol), the use of hemp is not recommended for people with bipolar disorder, as THC may e.g. trigger mania. (7)




Bipolar disorder is a difficult-to-diagnose mental illness that causes challenging symptoms that range from deep depression to high-energy mania. Lifestyle has a great impact in terms of disease prevention and treatment, but often alongside them different mood-balancing drugs are needed. CBD oil may relieve symptoms during both depressive and manic periods, but also affect future periods of illness, as CBD in general has been found to have effects that may alleviate the causes associated with bipolar disorder.




  1. Bipolar disorder. Referenced 2/22/2023
  2. Central Association of Mental Health. Bipolar disorder. Referenced 2/22/2023.
  3. A working group set up by the Duodecim of the Finnish Medical Society, the Finnish Psychiatric Association and the Finnish Youth Psychiatric Association. Duodecim On-site treatment. Bipolar disorder. Referenced 2/22/2023.
  4. Bipo guide. Referenced 2/22/2023.
  5. University of Turku. Media release. The researchers found out the mechanism of origin of bipolar disorder. Referenced 2/22/2023.
  6. Garani R., Watts J. and Mizrahi R.. 2020. Endocannabinoid System in Psychotic and Mood Disorders, a review of human studies. Referenced 2/22/2023.
  7. Arjmand S., Behzadi M., Kohlmeier KA, Mazheri S., Sabahi A. and Shabani M.. 2019. Cambridge university press. Bipolar disorder and the endocannabinoid system. %5BauthorTerms% 5D=Shokouh%20Arjmand&eventCode=SE-AU. Referenced 2/22/2023
  8. Campos AC, Moreira FA, Gomes FV, Del Bel EA and Guimarez FS. 2020. Multiple mechanisms involved in the large-spectrum Therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in Psychiatric disorders. Referenced 2/22/2023.
CBD and fatigue

CBD and fatigue

Fatigue is very common and everyone will experience it at some point in their lives. Constant fatigue can be caused by many different reasons and the background also affects it endocannabinoid system. In this article, we’ll explore fatigue and whether CBD oil could help manage the symptoms!

The human body is a subtle entity, which on the one hand is durable and stable, but on the other hand reacts very sensitively to various environmental factors. Fatigue is an expression of various experiences related to the general state of alertness. There can be many reasons behind fatigue and CBD oil can help with some of them.


Causes of fatigue


Fatigue can be caused by a bad night’s sleep, stress, medication or a stressful life situation. Menstruation, iron deficiency anemia, menopause, depression and allergies cause fatigue, as does, for example, watching over a baby. Fatigue is the first or side symptom of some diseases. (1)

In general, fatigue is caused by lifestyles that can be influenced by yourself. Sufficiently long night sleep, stress relief, diet and exercise are basic things that can increase your own endurance (1). CBD oil according to studies, has an effect on insomnia. It improves the sleep cycle and makes it easier to both fall asleep and wake up. It has also been found to deepen sleep.


iron-rich foods on the table.

One of the most significant factors causing fatigue is iron deficiency anemia and low iron stores in the body, i.e. ferritin.


Iron deficiency anemia


Today, iron deficiency anemia is a very common body imbalance condition, especially among women, which causes severe fatigue and weakness. Iron deficiency can be difficult to detect, because the hemoglobin concentration in the blood can be within the reference values, but the levels of storage iron, i.e. ferritin (ferritin and P-TfR), are very low.

It is thought that almost all women suffer from low ferritin and its effects should be taken seriously. The challenge is the poor absorption of iron consumed as a supplement and the fact that what works for one person may not work for another. Iron stocks also seem to decrease quickly again, even if they could be temporarily raised to a safe level.

Iron deficiency is basically a disturbance in the production of red blood cells, and its background is often a lack of trace and mineral substances that build red blood cells. To produce red blood cells, e.g. copper, iron and several B group vitamins. In order to get the iron values permanently in order, it is good to consider the diet as a whole. In the beginning, especially if the storage iron is very low, it can be good to take some well-absorbed iron product, which can often be found in health food stores, and with the energy you get from it, you start thinking about your own overall situation and why the iron is not absorbed. (2)

There are a huge number of different views on the causes of iron deficiency. Some think it’s a vegetarian diet and others think it’s eating meat and eggs. One believes that heavy menstruation is the reason, and the other blames everything on their own beliefs. However, the truth is that there are certainly many reasons and the problem is transgenerational. You can find different perspectives on the subject by searching huge amounts on the internet, and to improve the situation, it is possible to try all kinds of things, from iron preparations to iron infusion to diet correction. (2)

Doctor Ilona Ritola maintains the INFO – Raudanpūte – website, which has a lot of information related to the topic.

There are different types of iron products. What is absorbed by one person is not necessarily absorbed by others, and the form in which the iron is usually affects how challenging the preparation in question is for the stomach. The absorption of iron is promoted by e.g. Vitamin C, and it should not be taken together with dairy products.

Symptoms of fatigue


The symptoms of fatigue are quite clear. In the morning, it would be impossible to get out of bed, and the day does not seem to start. In addition, for example, going to work can feel overwhelming and the ability to concentrate can be non-existent. Taking care of everyday things is therefore more burdensome than usual, and the thought of the sofa and curling up under a blanket is always on my mind. Fatigue can appear at any time of the day, depending on the cause, and it cannot necessarily be corrected by rest. Prolonged fatigue can also be a symptom of an illness.

In fatigue symptoms related to hormonal imbalance, fatigue often strikes in the afternoon!


Constant fatigue and weakness


It is good to find out the cause of constant fatigue, because when it becomes chronic, fatigue may turn into exhaustion and recovery can be a long process. Long-lasting fatigue that does not resolve with lifestyle changes, such as paying attention to sleep quality, can also be a sign of illness.

The feeling of weakness may be related to iron deficiency anemia or some other disease. Exhaustion also causes weakness. Powerlessness is a symptom that strongly affects life, because it is both a mental and a physical feeling at the same time. The legs may not carry and even a small everyday adversity may seem like an insurmountable challenge.


Treatment of fatigue


The treatment of fatigue depends entirely on the cause of the fatigue. Prolonged fatigue or fatigue occurring as a symptom of an illness and its treatment should be agreed with a doctor, but fatigue caused by your own choices can be corrected with demanding but simple methods. It is good to make changes to your diet in a healthier direction, especially if you feel tired immediately after eating. The feeling that comes from eating is light, but full, satisfied and energetic. Fatigue is caused by digestion that takes too much energy, which can be caused by the simplest combination of bad ingredients.

Stress can be relieved in many ways. The forest, sauna, moments where you don’t demand anything from yourself, good food and calming the nervous system are proven to be good ways to calm the mind. You can read more here On the effect of CBD oil on stress .

Good lifestyles are a prerequisite for a vibrant life. The body copes better with everyday challenges when the foundation is in good condition. Good or even moderate physical condition, high-quality nutrition, a balanced mind contribute to coping, and fatigue is often caused by deficiencies in the basic things of life.


Mental fatigue


Exhaustion is sometimes called mental fatigue, and on a general level it often means tiredness related to everyday things. The rhythm of life can be really burdensome and between work, home and free time and slowly causes exhaustion. Exhaustion is challenging to notice, let alone admit to yourself, and that’s why it often has time to progress too far, in which case the situation requires a long rest and calming down of life before the strength returns to normal.


tired woman sleeping in a hammock.

Fatigue is caused by many reasons and it is good to treat them seriously, because fatigue usually has a deeper meaning.


Does CBD oil help with fatigue?


Often in studies about CBD and also according to user experiences, especially high doses of CBD oil may cause fatigue. That’s true, but possibly adjustable by what time of day you take CBD and what kind of dose.

CBD affects adenosine, which is one of the hormones that cause fatigue. Adenosine levels naturally rise in the evening and cause a feeling of fatigue. (3,4)

The use of the CBD oil the effect on fatigue is individual. Some people get tired after just one drop of CBD oil, while others take it even in the morning without any tiring effect on the level of alertness. In particular, cannabinoid acids such as CBD-A and CBG-A may raise the mood and, with it, also the state of alertness.

CBD oil may be helpful for sleep-related challenges and thus also have an effect on the general state of alertness.




Fatigue is a common and natural feeling that can be affected by many health-promoting life choices. Fatigue that cannot be cured by easy means should be investigated in more detail, because sometimes the underlying cause is illness, exhaustion or a lack of vitamins.




  1. Saarelma O.. 2022. Health Library Duodecim. Fatigue. Referred on 3/17/2023.
  2. Carlo-Melkas N.. 2018. Pharmacy. Iron deficiency behind many problems. Referred on 3/17/2023.
  3. Grinspoon P.. 2021. Cannabidiol : what we know and what we don’t. Referred on 3/17/2023.
  4. Shannon S., Lewis N., Lee H., and Hughes S.. 2019. Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: A Large Case Series. Referred on 3/17/2023.
CBD and Huntington’s disease

CBD and Huntington’s disease

Huntington’s disease is a rare but all the more unfortunate disease that occurs mostly among the white population. In this article, we’ll look at Huntington’s disease, the endocannabinoid system behind it, and whether CBD could help alleviate its symptoms.

What is Huntington’s disease?


Huntington’s disease (Huntington’s disease) is a disease occurring in the central nervous system that strongly affects functions related to memory, behavior and body movement. Huntington’s disease is quite rare and is estimated to affect 4-10/100,000 people in Finland. Huntington’s disease is mainly a disease of the white population and it occurs most in Europeans, but also in North America and Canada the prevalence is almost at the European level. (1,2)

Huntington’s disease is caused by an error in the HTT gene, which causes degeneration of the central nervous system. (1,2)

Symptoms of Huntington’s disease


Symptoms usually only start at an older age. Most often in 30-year-olds at the earliest, but usually only in those who have crossed the 50-year-old threshold. The symptoms are clear changes in behavior, compulsive movements, dementia and psychological symptoms such as anxiety, social challenges and sadness. The symptoms usually start with movement called chorea, weight loss and sleep difficulties, and slowly progress to other typical symptoms. (2) The symptoms are manifold and vary greatly between patients.

Sometimes the symptom is also psychotic symptoms such as paranoia and visual and auditory hallucinations. (2)

Prevention, diagnosis and treatment


The hereditary but rare Huntington’s disease is caused by an error in the protein called huntingtin, which encodes the HTT gene. It is estimated that about half of those who carry the genetic defect eventually become ill, and the timing of the onset of the disease largely depends on how much longer than normal the CAG repeat period is in the huntingtin chromosome. The reason why not everyone gets sick or why the disease breaks out in some people is not yet known. (1,2,3)

Getting a diagnosis is often slowed down by the fact that the sufferer himself does not notice and admit the symptoms, but making a diagnosis is quite easy based on the symptoms.

There is no cure or treatment for Huntington’s disease. Specially developed drugs are used to treat symptoms such as compulsive movements and mood, but the drugs are often poorly tolerated and quite ineffective. Usually the patient dies no later than 20 years after the diagnosis, but if the disease has already been diagnosed at an older age, it has hardly appeared alongside the usual symptoms of old age. (1,2)


The endocannabinoid system and huntington


The endocannabinoid system is found in almost all humans and animals. The purpose of this system is to be in the background of vital functions, monitoring and balancing processes so that the body functions as optimally as possible. Sometimes, for some reason, a malfunction occurs in the system and the system starts to operate either with over- or under-production. Dysfunction of the endocannabinoid system is at the root of many diseases, but it is not the actual culprit for the onset of diseases.

Two receptors belonging to the endocannabinoid system have been recognized, the CB1 and CB2 receptors. During Huntington’s disease, CB1 receptors are clearly reduced, while CB2 levels seem to be normal compared to a healthy person. The levels of CB1 receptors are directly proportional to the CAG repeats, but nevertheless, decreased CB1 receptor levels are likely a consequence, not a cause, of Huntington’s disease. (3,4)

CBD oil bottle and hemp leaves.

Huntington’s disease symptoms are diverse and can be mitigated by e.g. CBD oil.



Does CBD help?


CBD is a cannabinoid found in the hemp plant, which, according to research, has numerous properties that have a positive effect on health. Oil is pressed or extracted from hemp that contains all the active ingredients of hemp, this is called full spectrum oil.

Huntington’s disease involves the death of nerve cells and the inflammation that occurs in them. CBD has been found in studies to prevent cell death (5), to relieve inflammation and also to protect nerve cells, and thus it might slow down the progression of the disease and possibly ease its symptoms.

CBD oil may also have other effects that may ease the symptoms of Huntington’s disease. CBD has been detected to relieve anxiety and MS disease in studies

to restrain the body’s compulsive movements. It might have too memory-enhancing or memory-preserving properties according to research on Alzheimer’s disease.



Huntington’s disease is a multi-symptom disease for which there is still no curative treatment. It is possible to alleviate the symptoms and slow down the progression of the disease with the help of medicines and possibly also CBD oil.


  1. Huntington Association of Finland Huntington’s disease. Referred on 27.12.2022.
  2. Sipilä OTJ, Kaasinen V., Hietala M., Päivärinta M. and Majamaa K.. 2019. Duodecim Aikakusikirja. Huntington’s disease. Referred on 27.12.2022.
  3. Pazos MR, Sagredo O. and Fernandez-Ruiz J.. 2008. Current Pharmaceutical Design. The Endocannabinoid System in Huntington’s Disease. Cited 12/27/2022.
  4. Lastres-Becker R. and Fernandez-Ruiz JJ. 2003. The endocannabinoid system and Huntington’s disease. Referred on 27.12.2022
  5. Rieder S., Chauhan A., Singh U., Nagarkatti M. and Nagarkatti P.. 2009. Cannabinoid-induced apoptosis in immune cells as a pathway to immunosuppression. Referred on 27.12.2022.
Treatment of glaucoma with CBD

Treatment of glaucoma with CBD

The effect of the cannabinoid CBD on glaucoma has been studied for a long time. Eye pressure disease, even causing permanent blindness, is an unfortunate, incurable disease in humans, which fortunately progresses slowly in most cases. In this article, we will get to know glaucoma as a disease, the endocannabinoid system behind it, and also whether CBD oil could be helpful in lowering eye pressure or other factors behind the disease.

What is glaucoma?

Glaucoma, i.e. intraocular pressure or cataract, is a disease affecting the optic nerve, which is the most common cause behind permanent visual impairment. In Finland, it affects just under 100,000 people, and it is more common only in people over 65. However, approx. 1% of people aged 40+ have glaucoma, often without knowing it. The risk of getting sick increases with age, but the disease is also sometimes found in children and young people. (1)

The cause of eye pressure is not known, but the eye pressure is usually elevated for a long time before the onset of the disease. The increase in pressure causes metabolic and blood circulation disturbances in the optic nerve, which eventually damages the optic nerve. Pressure on nerve fibers also affects the onset of the disease. (1)

Glaucoma in children always has a clear cause behind it, such as eye damage or an inflammatory disease . (2)

Glaucoma symptoms

Glaucoma is usually asymptomatic until the disease is already too advanced to stop it. The first symptoms are observations that you cannot see properly with the other eye. As the disease progresses, vision deteriorates in areas of both eyes, sometimes faster in one than the other. Glaucoma is also associated with tube vision, i.e. a condition where the field of vision has shrunk to a small tube in the middle of the field of vision. (1)

A sudden attack of intraocular pressure (acute angle-closure glaucoma) is accompanied by strong symptoms. The eye pressure suddenly rises dangerously high and then the symptoms are a severe headache and pain in the eye area, redness of the eye and reduced vision in the affected eye. Sometimes the seizure is not triggered by medication, but it is necessary to open the corner of the eye with the help of a laser. (1)

The symptoms of glaucoma, i.e. eye pressure disease, are related to the weakening of vision.

The first symptoms of glaucoma are usually a loss of vision in one eye. As the disease progresses, the vision usually deteriorates in areas of both eyes.


Prevention of intraocular pressure

Ocular pressure is partly hereditary and myopia may also contribute to its occurrence. There is not much that can be done to prevent it, but you can and should take the best possible care of eye health in general.

Some factors may have an effect on the development of glaucoma. For example, activities that put pressure on the head, such as weight lifting, high blood pressure, stress and even playing fans may make it possible for the intraocular pressure to rise permanently, but these have not actually been classified as risk factors, and they do not directly lead to the onset of glaucoma.

Glaucoma diagnosis and treatment

Most of the time, the eye pressure is elevated if there is reason to suspect glaucoma, but this is not always the case. Eye pressures can be at a normal level and therefore just measuring the eye pressure is not enough to confirm the diagnosis. Usually, studies use a combination of several methods, which take into account intraocular pressure, visual field, nerve pressure layer and the chamber angle of the eye. (1)

Glaucoma is treated both with eye drops that equalize the eye pressure and with drugs taken internally that affect the pressure. Keeping the pressure as low as possible is its most important treatment method. Treatment of the ventricular angle with laser and pressure surgeries are also used alongside medical treatment. (3)

Glaucoma cannot be completely cured, but medications slow down the progression and alleviate the symptoms. Glaucoma usually progresses slowly, and in almost all cases it does not lead to complete blindness.

Endocannabinoid system underlying glaucoma

The endocannabinoid system balances all body functions. Its most important task is to maintain and ensure the functionality of vital functions. The endocannabinoid system consists of the body’s endogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids), their corresponding cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), and their decomposers.

The body’s endogenous cannabinoids have numerous important functions in the eye area, and both of them have been observed in the eye area, excluding the lens (4). Endocannabinoid in glaucoma with anandamide (AEA) has a role e.g. in keeping intraocular pressure steady and low. The functions of arachidonylglycerol (2AG) in glaucoma are not yet completely clear, but they are related to anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects (4).

Cannabinoid receptors are also found throughout the eye area. On the retina, their activation improves e.g. nerve flexibility. The background of glaucoma seems to be influenced especially by the CB1 receptor, which has been widely observed throughout the entire eye area. (5)

Does CBD help glaucoma symptoms?

CBD is a well-known and researched compound called cannabinoid found in hemp, which naturally has several therapeutic effects. CBD oil may not directly affect eye pressure by lowering it, but its certain properties may slow down the progression of glaucoma.

At first it was thought that cannabinoids, both endo- and exocannabinoids, would affect the eye and intraocular pressure via the central nervous system. Studies have since shown that cannabinoids act locally through the direct mediation of receptors (5). CBD does not work through the known cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, but through other receptors in the body such as e.g. through the serotonin receptor.

The effect of CBD is transmitted through body receptors

Endocannabinoids respond to the endocannabinoid system’s own receptors, but they also have other receptors in the body through which they act. Listed below are a few receptors outside of the endocannabinoid system that have some role in glaucoma.

5-HT1A, a member of the serotonin receptor family, has been found in animal experiments to be a pathway that alleviates keratitis, through which CBD can influence. (6,7)

The GRP18 receptor is a newly identified and even suspected cannabinoid receptor, which has been widely observed e.g. in eye tissues and retina. CBD might have an eye pressure-lowering effect through the GPR18 receptor (6). GRP18 is also activated by anandamide (4).

GPR55, assumed to be the third cannabinoid receptor, is activated by both phyto-, endo- and synthetic cannabinoids. CBD also acts through this receptor and it has been found that this connection would have an inhibitory effect on the growth of the growth cone of the eye. (6,7)

TRPV channels are relevant channels in the CBDin the background of the effect of , both in the eyes and in the body. In the eyes, they are at least involved in the background of the anti-inflammatory properties. (6,7)

CBD protects the nervous system and reduces inflammation

CBD has been found to have nervous-protective and calming properties. Glaucoma is caused by nerve damage, the calming of which could reduce the strain on the optic nerve and nerve fibers (7). Antioxidative and anti-inflammatory, i.e. anti- inflammatory, effects are also behind the eye health-related healing properties.


CBD is best absorbed through the skin


It is often recommended to dose CBD through the skin, because it is quickly absorbed directly into the bloodstream and travels quickly throughout the body.

In relation to eye pressure, in order to get the best results, it has been thought that CBD should be dosed locally through the skin, as the absorption is not optimal when taken orally. It seems that not enough CBD reaches the eye to easily detect a drop in eye pressure. Another challenge associated with lowering intraocular pressure with CBD is that CBD has such a short duration of action that it should be dosed practically all the time. (6,7)

You can read more about the transdermal effect of CBD here .


A cat suffering from glaucoma, i.e. eye pressure.

Ocular pressure can also occur in cats, dogs and other animals.


Glaucoma in cats and dogs

Eye pressure also occurs in animals. Glaucoma in cats and dogs is similar to that in humans; it is accompanied by visual impairment and possible blindness. Glaucoma in animals is also treated with drugs and, in extreme cases, with surgery. Interestingly, cat glaucoma usually gets better, but dog glaucoma does not. Glaucoma in animals can be difficult to detect at first, and they have the same challenge as humans, i.e. it is often diagnosed too late. Regular eye examinations for animals are also important, so that possible diseases, including glaucoma, are noticed in time. (8,9)


In summary

Glaucoma is a common sight-damaging disease that unfortunately is often diagnosed only when the disease has already progressed far. It is initially asymptomatic and as a slowly progressing disease does not initially cause such a great harm to life that it would be investigated. CBD has been found to affect e.g. the properties that protect the nervous system and affect glaucoma mainly come from them and the properties that reduce inflammation.



  1. Seppänen M.. 2021. Health Library Duodecim. Eye pressure (glaucoma). Referred on 5/11/2022.
  2. Vaajanen A., Gielen F. and Tuulonen A.. 2017. Period book Duodecim. Glaucoma and alternative treatments. Referred on 5/11/2022.
  3. Rotten. M.. 2018. Period book Duodecim. Glaucoma treatment – fine art between efficacy and adverse effects. Referred on 5/11/2022.
  4. Cairns EA, Baldridge WH and Kelly MEM. 2016. Neural Plast. The Endocannabinoid System as a Therapeutic Target in Glaucoma. Referred on 5/11/2022.
  5. Tomida I., Pertwee RG and Azuara-Blanco A.. 2004. Cannabinoids and glaucoma. Referred on 5/11/2022.
  6. Aebersold A., Duff M., Sloan L. and Song ZH.. International journal of experimental cellular physiology, Biochemistry and pharmacology. Cannabidiol Signaling in the Eye and Its Potential as an Ocular Therapeutic Agent. Referred on 5/11/2022.
  7. Passani A., Posarelli C., Sframeli A., Percipalli L., Pellegrini M., Guidi G and Figus M.. 2020. Journal of medicine. Cannabinoids in Glaucoma Patients: The Never-Ending Story. Referred on 5/11/2022.
  8. Evidence. 2019. Glaucoma or eye pressure disease in dogs. Referred on 5/11/2022
  9. Bauhaus JM 2018. Hill’s Pet. Cat Eye Care: Identifying and Preventing Six Common Cat Eye Problems. Referred on 5/11/2022
Four ways to choose the best CBD oil and CBD product

Four ways to choose the best CBD oil and CBD product


At fairs and presentations, the most common questions about CBD products are: Which of these would be the best CBD product for me? So it’s time to tackle the question on the blog too! We will tell you four ways to choose the best CBD oil or the best CBD product. CBD or CBDA? Read more about the difference between cannabinoids and cannabinoid acids.



Precise and comprehensive well-being with the help of CBD



We always start by asking about the needs of the life situation. People have different symptoms for which they seek help from our products, the effectiveness of which is based on the endocannabinoid system . Sana-hemp product family the products can cover very different needs both in crises and in everyday well-being. The choice of a CBD product is also influenced by the preference for the composition of the dietary supplement and how one wants to consume the dietary supplement.

For some, it is easier to take CBD capsules, while others like to mix CBD products with a smoothie or, for example, coffee. Tincture and CBD oil can be dripped directly into the mouth or added for food and drinks to your own taste. In this case, the chemical composition of the product can also change to the desired form (CBDA> CBD) before consuming it. Lozenges, on the other hand, are a neat and easy way to boost the endocannabinoid system “on the go”.


Figure 1. CBD decarboxylation


1. How is the CBD product absorbed?


CBD capsules, taken first thing in the morning, reach the intestines and the cannabinoid receptors located there. CBD capsules can be swallowed as they are or open and mix with drink/food. The capsules are absorbed through the intestines, reaching the middle body area, and acting through the endocannabinoid receptors located there, supporting lasting well-being.

CBD oils, CBD tinctures and CBD lozenges are absorbed through the mucous membranes of the mouth directly into the bloodstream and reach the endocannabinoid receptors in the head area quickly. The receptors in the head area have a positive effect on the whole being. Through the blood circulation, the products are effectively transported throughout the body and where help is most needed.


Figure 2. The internal cannabinoid system and cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2.


2. What are your body and mind needs?


Cannabis Sativa oils are the most popular products for the needs of the body and mind in crisis, as well as a clear deficiency state of the endocannabinoid system .

We recommend starting with a powerful combo that includes CBD capsules and Activated CBD oil. Capsules in the morning to nourish the body and mind and oil in the evening for a restful sleep. This combination goes a long way!

Mind-body messages start in the gut. The gut is ours cradle of health, which contains as much intelligence as a cat’s brain. Most of the receptors that need cannabinoids such as CBD / CBDA are located in the intestines. If you need support for gut health , CBD capsules are probably the best CBD option for you.

If you have already tried our products and need stronger CBD oils (10% and 20%) to maintain your endocannabinoid system .

Four ways to choose the most suitable CBDA product. The endocannabinoid system.

The internal cannabinoid system. CB1 and CB2 receptors


3. What is the best way for you to remember to take CBD?


No product is effective left in a jar. So what is the best and easiest way for you to remember to take CBD oil / CBD products?

When you need easy and accurate dosing, CBD Capsules are your solution. The fat in the capsules improves the absorption of cannabinoids many times over.

Is your morning tea or smoothie the basis of your day? Then you can add CBD oil or CBD products to breakfast. The best of CBD oils the choice is Natural CBDA / CBD oil , because based on experiences and feedback, it is not perceived as tiring.

In a mobile life situation, the product’s small size and portability are convenient. Small-sized CBD oils and CBD capsules slip easily into handbags and backpacks.

The best way to take a CBD product regularly is to combine the consumption of the products with your daily routine – such as taking CBD oil with an evening snack or consuming it after lunch.


4. Do you need a very precise dosage of CBD?


Different bodies have different needs and sensitivities. For others, a few drops are enough and someone else feels that they need twenty drops to get the desired effects . This is influenced by e.g. the person’s size, age, metabolism and life situation. When talking about animals and children, the dosage is particularly accurate.

Encapsulated products can be precisely dosed, as can ingestible CBD products. For animals, we recommend using CBD oil that can be easily mixed with food, for example. Dosing should start with one drop. Read more in the article how much CBD can be given to animals .

Sometimes it is difficult to see the number of drops if you drop it directly into your mouth. You can refine the dosage of the tincture and CBD oil by first dropping it on a spoon or even on the back of your hand. This way you can see and count the drops. Differences of a few drops are not dangerous for an adult, but if you want to be particularly careful, you can drop the product in front of a mirror, for example.

For all our products, you can find the recommended daily dose and more detailed instructions in the product information. There have been no reports of overdoses, but with large amounts the body’s state of alertness has been perceived to decrease.

Ordering CBD Oil. We hope that you will find the right product for you with these instructions in our online store !

Four ways to choose the best CBD product

Order CBD products and CBD oil for pets here .



CBD helps in the treatment of addictions

CBD helps in the treatment of addictions

According to studies, CBD oil seems like a promising product for the treatment of various addictions, or as an auxiliary substance to be used in connection with treatment. Although many believe that addiction can never be cured, it is still possible to live a life where you can feel free even after a strong period of addiction.

There are many methods and methods available for the journey to learning to live with strong desires or dominant ways of doing things, but there is no single pill for that problem. Whether addiction can be cured or not, this article will consider how CBD oil helps in drug addiction situations in particular and how CBD oil in general could ease the symptoms of those struggling with drug addictions.


The role of the endocannabinoid system in addiction


Addictions are physiologically complex phenomena directed at a substance or activity that are strongly linked to dopamine, e.g. the neurotransmitter related to the regulation of pleasure and emotions to the hormone’s own neurotransmitters. There are CB1 receptors in dopamine neurons, as well as in abundance in the brain in the areas associated with e.g. reward and the creation and maintenance of addiction (1). In order to fulfill our natural needs, we are guided by rewards. We get a rush of pleasure when we fill our stomach with food or go to the bathroom, but unfortunately also from intoxicants such as alcohol and tobacco. This creates a cycle, when we start searching for that source of pleasure without realizing it. A functional change in the cell is necessary for change, i.e. addiction, to be possible. The emergence of addiction is the result of the plasticity of the brain and cells, and the endocannabinoid system is part of this plasticity. (1,2,3)


Dopamine and the endocannabinoid system


Dopamine activity, which appears to be affected by intoxicants, is linked to cannabinoid activity (3). The endocannabinoid system fine-tunes dopaminergic activity, and intoxicants disrupt that signaling (1,2,3). This signaling disruption between the endocannabinoid system and dopamine activity appears to be the cause of difficulty in quitting substance abuse (1). The uneven signaling of the endocannabinoid system itself contributes to irregular plasticity of the nerves, stress, negative emotional states and cravings, which in turn predispose to rewarding activities, i.e. to addictions, for example(1,3). The endocannabinoid system is a necessary factor in the adaptation of cells from recreational use to use disorder and vice versa, i.e. the endocannabinoid system is both an enabler of addiction and a necessary tool for withdrawal.

The endocannabinoid system also plays a role in emotional learning and remembering processes. e.g. CB1 ligands have been found to both facilitate and moderate the reaction in various fear and reward situations. (4)


CBD oil in the treatment of addictions


Studies show that CBD oil is even a really good form of support for those struggling with addictions. The topic has been studied both with animal experiments and with volunteers, people suffering from various drug addictions. CBD responds to cannabinoid receptors, but also to other body systems such as opioid and serotonin receptors (1,3).

Through cannabinoid receptors, CBD oil affects the areas in the brain that are responsible for e.g. about cravings and reward behavior. It has been found that CBD weakens the strengthening of reward memory for drugs (1,2,3,4,). It has been found to relieve stress related to the use of intoxicants and, in the case of many intoxicants, also to reduce drug-seeking behavior (1,2,3,4). CBD has been found to increase dopamine activity and possibly weaken the mesolimbic circuit disorder caused by drugs (2,3).


The effect of CBD can last for months


According to studies, the effect of the CBD preparation lasts for several days, weeks and sometimes even months after the last dose of CBD taken (2,5). tobacco, heroin, alcohol and opioid users, and good results are visible.

CBD oil and smoking cessation


In smokers, even a 40% reduced need to smoke was observed compared to the placebo group, if they themselves were willing to quit (3,5).


CBD oil and alcohol addiction


Alcoholics, on the other hand, felt that the cravings decreased and the alcohol-seeking behavior seemed to decrease. What is special is that CBD has been found to heal the liver and nervous system from damage caused by alcohol after stopping use (5).


CBD oil in the treatment of opioid addiction


Opioid users felt that their cravings decreased and the stress related to the use and seeking of substances was alleviated, CBD has been studied to have a weakening effect on the reward response caused by opioids (1,2,5).


CBD oil experiences based on research


Experiences of the benefits of CBD oil vary depending on the situation. Like anything in the treatment of addictions, CBD is not a miracle substance that just erases all symptoms; e.g. in a study of heroin-addicted mice, it was found that CBD did not appear to have an effect on the tendency to relapse into heroin use, although it was found to reduce drug-seeking behavior in mice (2). Similar results were also visible in alcoholics and smokers (1).

“Smokers had up to a 40% reduced need to smoke compared to the placebo group, if they themselves were willing to quit. Alcoholics, on the other hand, felt that the cravings decreased and the alcohol-seeking behavior seemed to decrease.”


CBD use is perceived as pleasant


The common thing in the human studies seems to be that the use of CBD was clearly a pleasant experience for the user in the studies. CBD has been found to have effects on the intensity of cravings, stress, overcoming withdrawal symptoms and improving general well-being, despite the fact that the results are not clear cut or straightforward (2,3,4,). Variation in how CBD oil works for someone and with which addiction is case-by-case, but one could even say for sure that it is of some help with all substances. Researched!


CBD oil to help with general symptoms


Withdrawal symptoms are individual for everyone, but there are similarities. The most common symptoms are e.g. anxiety, stress, fear states, indigestion and sweating. Also, the fear of recreating one’s own identity and possible major life changes keeps a person stuck in addiction, even if it is very harmful.


According to studies, CBD oil is gentle, safe and effective


Numerous studies have found that CBD oil is a gentle, safe and functional product for a wide range of ailments once the appropriate dosage has been found. Although the withdrawal symptoms can be really strong and understandably difficult to tolerate, CBD oil is such a versatile product that it may help its user on many levels.

According to research , CBD balances the nervous system and improves sleep quality. CBD oil relaxes the mind and stabilizes the heartbeat. It calms the intestines and improves appetite. CBD oil has been found to be antipsychotic and anti-nausea. Animal experiments show that CBD affects fear memory by reducing learned fear; it acutely relieves the feeling of fear and interferes with the consolidation of the fear memory (4).


The background of addictions is often trauma


Despite the fact that studies and articles mainly focus on treating drug addictions, CBD oil can also be well suited for treating other addictions. The background of addiction is often trauma or some other circumstance related to emotional memory, and CBD has been found to regulate the areas of the brain that affect emotions and memories. In principle, it doesn’t matter whether the object of addiction is chocolate or heroin, CBD oil works in any case precisely at the heart of the problem.



  1. Endocannabinoid signaling in reward and addiction. 2015. Hurd Y. And Parsons L. Referred on 22.10.2021.
  2. Cannabidiol for the reduction of cue-induced craving and anxiety in drug-abstinence individuals with heroin use disorder : a double-blind randomized placebo control trial. 2019. Alishayev J., Hurd Y., Kudrich K., Oprescu A., Salsitz E. and Spriggs S. Referred on 22.10.2021
  3. The endocannabinoid system and cannabidiol’s promise for the treatment of substance disorder. 2019. Chen Y., Christensen E., Solowij N., Yucell M. Referred on 22.10.2021
  4. Cannabidiol regulation of emotion and emotional memory processing: relevance for treating anxiety-related and substance abuse disorders. 2017. Bertoglio L., Guimarães F., Lee J. And Stevenson C.. Referred on 22.10.2021
  5. Role of Cannabidiol in the Therapeutic Intervention for Substance Use Disorders. 2021. Navarrete F , García-Gutiérrez M., Gasparyan A., Austrich-Olivares A and Manzanares J. 2021. Referred on 22.10.2021
CBD cosmetics

CBD cosmetics

CBD cosmetics have been studied to have a positive effect on the well-being of the skin. CBD is approved for cosmetic ingredients and listed in the EU CosIng database. Cannabidiol , or CBD, is therefore approved for use as a cosmetic ingredient.

Skin care and natural cosmetics products containing CBD are growing at a fast pace. Indeed, CBD has several official health claims. In this article you will find more information about the benefits of CBD cosmetics.


You should take good care of your skin


It is easy to think of the skin as just a shell that holds the human body together, but in reality it is much more. The skin is the body’s largest organ, which regenerates quickly and is also able to take care of itself very well. The skin is a living, breathing entity whose health should be taken care of! CBD products make it easier.


Natural cosmetics


The best way to care for the skin is to choose natural cosmetics that care for the skin and support its natural properties. Healthy skin takes care of and heals itself. The skin is a sensitive entity whose task is to protect the body, e.g. from impacts, extreme temperatures, chemicals, harmful microbes and cell damage. The skin also functions as a means of metabolism and as a producer of vitamin D. The skin is an organ whose function is easily disturbed, e.g. from stress and the effect of chemicals.

High-quality CBD natural cosmetics that support the skin’s natural function consist of only a few ingredients, CBD oil or CBD extract and a well-absorbing carrier oil. In addition to these, other natural skin-care ingredients have also been added to some of the CBD cosmetic products.


Endocannabinoids are also present on the skin


The endocannabinoid system participates in the skin, e.g. for cell growth, regeneration and specialization, regeneration and formation of the skin barrier, and immunological and inflammatory processes (1). Endocannabinoids and cannabinoid receptors have been detected in different layers of the skin, except for the outermost layer. Also on the skin, the endocannabinoid system acts as a monitor and balancer between different functions.


CBD helps with skin problems (psoriasis, eczema and acne)


CBD is an ingredient in cosmetics that has not been researched yet, but has a very promising effect. It has been studied and used with good results for various, even challenging chronic skin conditions such as psoriasis (2), eczema (3,4) and acne (1,3). Natural cosmetics containing CBD have the same skin care benefits as CBD in general; it is soothing, balancing, nurturing and well tolerated. It is suitable for different skin types.

On Internet discussion boards and product reviews of different manufacturers, you can find countless experiences of the positive effects of CBD on dry skin and such common skin problems as psoriasis , acne, atopic dermatitis and eczema. Many report that they quickly got great relief from CBD products.


What is the effect of CBD cosmetics based on?


CBD’s effect on the skin is based on the same principles as it works elsewhere in the body. CBD responds to cannabinoid receptors, which have also been found in the two lower layers of the skin. With the help of a suitable carrier oil, CBD cosmetics are slowly absorbed through the skin directly into the bloodstream, from where it travels not only to the skin but also to all the body’s CBD receptors (1). Due to its anti-inflammatory (1,3,5) and sebaceous (3) properties, using CBD in cosmetics is an excellent idea.

In addition to phytocannabinoids , terpenes , minerals and trace elements, CBD oil also contains phytonutrients, which have been found to be of great importance when it comes to the well-being of the skin. Phytonutrients e.g. prevent infections caused by viruses and bacteria and have been found to have antioxidant effects.

Most troublesome skin symptoms such as atopy, eczema, psoriasis and aging-related challenges are usually symptoms caused by inflammation and stress in the body and skin. CBD oil in cosmetics gets to the root cause of the problem comprehensively and locally.


CBD is the best natural cosmetics.

CBD oil is the best natural cosmetics for skin care.


Absorption of CBD


Recently, the absorption of CBD through the skin, transdermally, has been studied, and it seems that hydrophonic CBD oil would be well absorbed into the bloodstream when administered directly to the skin. The challenge is to transport the water-repellent CBD through the water barrier of the skin, and the choice of the right carrier oil plays a significant role. (1)

In CBD cosmetics, the CBD concentrations are quite low, usually approx. 1% of the dry weight of the product, so the daily dose of CBD will hardly be fulfilled through the cosmetics on the foreign market. However, even a small amount of CBD has a positive effect on the whole body.


The use of CBD oil on the skin and in cosmetics is also suitable for the mouth


Using CBD oil in cosmetics is easy. You add a few drops as is to the skin and apply, or mix 1:100 with other cosmetics. Note that you only need a very small amount, because the water-repellent CBD needs to get through the skin’s water barrier.

You shouldn’t put anything on your skin that you wouldn’t put in your mouth, so CBD oil that is labeled as non-toxic can usually also be put in your mouth, so you get the good effects of CBD oil internally.


Final canet


CBD cosmetics, when studied even with small samples, are quite promising and perhaps a revolutionizing product group for skin care in the future. In Europe, the manufacture, sale and use of CBD cosmetics is permitted. High-quality CBD-containing natural cosmetics have already been used and studied enough around the world that it can be said to be a gently effective skin care product for even difficult skin conditions .




  1. Therapeutic Potential of Cannabidiol (CBD) for Skin Health and Disorders. 2020. Baswan S., Klosner A., Glynn K., Rajgopal A., Malik K., Yim S., Stern N.. . Referred on 26/01/2022
  2. National Psoriasis Foundation. 2021. Referred on 26/01/2022
  3. Cannabidiol exerts sebostatic and anti-inflammatory effects on human sebocytes. 2014. Olah A., Toth B., Borbiro I., Sugawara K., Szöllösi A., Czifra G., Pal B., Ambrus L., Kloepper J., Camera E., Ludovici M., Picardo M., Voets T., Zouboulis C., Paus R., Biro T.. Referred on 26/01/2022
  4. Cannabidiol is an effective helper compound in combination with bacitracin to kill Gram-positive bacteria. 2020. Wassmann C., Hojrup P., Kudsk J.. Referred on 26/01/2022
  5. A Therapeutic effect of cbd-enriched ointment in inflammatory skin diseases and cutaneous scars. 2019. Referred on 26/01/2022
The effect of CBD on the well-being of the intestines

The effect of CBD on the well-being of the intestines

The article examines the effect of CBD on intestinal well-being from a scientific point of view. In addition, we will familiarize ourselves with the importance of the intestines for the body’s balance and general well-being.

In Western countries, the view that our gut is our second brain has gradually gained ground. They are strangely somewhat similar in their folded appearance, and today it is also known that our intestines produce and contain a lot of neurotransmitters in our nervous system.

Western culture, especially in recent decades, has focused more and more on the development of the brain located in our head and less on the well-being of our intestines; intestinal problems are more and more common nowadays.

Inflammatory bowel disease prevalence rates in Finland are among the highest in the world, according to the patient organization IBD and Other Intestinal Diseases Association (1). Intestinal problems can be unpleasant and at worst disabling. CBD provides new perspectives to alleviate these challenges.

Research shows that taking care of your gut is one of the most important parts of achieving optimal health and well-being. Recent breakthroughs point to links between gut bacteria and diseases as diverse as fibromyalgia and depression. We can expect more scientific revelations about CBD and digestive health. Next, let’s look at what is known at this point:


Digestive tract, a wider than understood entity


As a child, I remember hearing to my surprise that our digestion begins in the mouth. In fact, our nervous system prepares for food already with the help of smells and visual sensations, but the digestive tract starts in our mouth and ends in our rectum.

The digestion of food in our mouth works with the help of the enzymes in our saliva and our chewing, these prepare the food for ever finer processing. The food’s journey continues in our stomach to be digested more literally, after which it moves to our intestines to be processed. Our digestive tract could also be called a kind of food separation channel, because we don’t take in everything that we put in our mouth. This is where the different tasks of our intestines come into play.


Gut-associated lymphoid tissue: a lesser-known factor


GALT ( gut-associated lymphoid tissue) is part of the mucosa-related lymphatic tissue that functions in our immune system to protect the body from attacks in the gut. There are a lot of immune cells in the intestine, especially in the GALT. The importance of this lymphatic tissue is still very little mentioned in the discussion about intestinal function, and it is a part of the lymphatic circulation important for our metabolism and immunity, which is otherwise little known.

Since the surface of the mucous membrane has a physiological function in the absorption of food, it is thin and acts as a permeable barrier to the internal parts of the body. Likewise, its fragility and permeability create vulnerability to infection, and in fact, the vast majority of pathogens that enter the human body use this route. The importance of GALT in the body’s defense is based on its large plasma cell population, which is the producer of antibodies and whose number exceeds the number of plasma cells in the spleen, lymph nodes and bone marrow combined. GALT accounts for approximately 70 percent of the mass of the immune system, and impaired function can significantly affect the strength of the entire immune system.

The lymphatic tissue associated with the intestine is located throughout the intestine, and its surface area is approximately 260-300 m². To increase the surface area for absorption, the intestinal mucosa consists of finger-shaped protrusions. The crypts at the base of the intestinal glands continuously produce several antibacterial substances, including lysozyme, and are believed to be involved in fighting infections. GALT also includes e.g. small intestinal Peyer’s patches, isolated lymph node follicles found throughout the intestine and in the human appendix. The immunological function of GALT is primarily predictive and avoids inflammation. GALT regulates our gut microbiota. (2)


The gut microbiome: a vital entity


Our digestive system gives us the nutrients and energy we need to live. After all, we eat every day unless we are fasting, but the connection between the digestive system and overall health goes beyond what is immediately obvious. Intriguingly, our gut bacteria may play a key role in our well-being.

There are over 10 trillion bacterial cells in the human digestive tract, consisting of hundreds of bacterial species, most of which are involved in your digestion. The totality of intestinal microbes is called the intestinal microbiome. A healthy gut microbiome consists of a healthy balance of microbes. The immune system regulates your microbiome.

Disturbances in the normal development of the microbiome can predispose to, for example, the development of allergies (3), and in a Finnish study published on January 31-22, its imbalance is also linked to the development of metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes (4). In addition, a healthy gut microbiome can reduce the risk of diseases such as celiac disease and inflammatory diseases such as IBS, Crohn’s disease and arthritis, and a connection has also been seen in the case of fibromyalgia (5) and depression (6) with gut microbes.

These connections suggest that there is a link between gut bacteria and various bodily functions outside the digestive tract. Although the extent and nature of these connections are still being studied, part of the explanation may lie in the immune system. A professor of medicine at Johns Hopkins discovered that colon cancer may be the result of an interaction between the immune system, gut microbiota, and cells lining the colon (7). Studies have also shown a connection between pulmonary tuberculosis, the immune response and a reduced number of certain intestinal bacteria.

Although these phenomena are still being studied, one thing is clear: taking care of your digestive health is an important way to support your immune system (and vice versa).

The human intestine.

CBD has a positive effect on intestinal well-being.

CBD and gut health


Our endocannabinoid system, or ECS maintains our body’s homeostasis, i.e. balance, but especially in relation to our topic, it regulates the immune response, motility of the digestive tract and appetite. Cannabinoid receptors are found on cells throughout the digestive system. This also includes the enteric nervous system, which has been called the second brain of the gut.

There is evidence that ECS dysregulation may play a role in poor gut health. Studies have found that endocannabinoid levels are altered in patients with intestinal disorders such as IBS, celiac disease, and colon cancer.

CBD is an exogenous cannabinoid or phytocannabinoid – endocannabinoids are produced internally, while CBD originates from outside the body. Both can affect the ECS and its many interconnected systems. By interacting with the ECS, CBD could help promote proper gut health by regulating lymphatic function and the microbiome. Here are some of its possible effects:


CBD and inflammatory conditions


Many diseases and disorders affecting the digestive tract are inflammatory in nature. The exact causes of conditions resembling ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, and IBS, such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, and IBS, are unknown. However, according to experts, malfunctions of the immune system can play a role. The body turns against itself by attacking the intestinal cells as if they were foreign invaders, leading to inflammation. Intestinal inflammatory conditions can also cause heartburn and skin challenges.

Studies have highlighted the potential of CBD as a regulator of the immune system. It has been shown to reduce inflammation and intestinal damage during both chronic and acute inflammation. It acts through several mechanisms, especially affecting the immune system and interfering with the axis between the immune system and the enteric nervous system.


Obesity and feeling full


Although many people don’t think of obesity as a result of digestive disorders, your ability to maintain your weight and control your appetite may depend more on gut health than you think. Evidence suggests that the bacterial makeup of your gut has a direct impact on how your body burns calories, absorbs nutrients, and increases your appetite.

In order to control weight and appetite, intestinal bacteria break down previously undigested carbohydrates (polysaccharides) into short-chain fatty acids. When fat cells detect short-chain fatty acids, they release a hormone called leptin, which tells the brain that you are full. If an unhealthy gut biome prevents the release of short-chain fatty acids, you want to keep eating. Your sense of satisfaction from a meal depends on which bacteria win the battle.

Research shows that cannabinoid receptors are directly involved in the regulation of eating, caloric consumption, hormone secretion and fat storage. Stimulation of certain ECS receptors has been shown to reduce food intake and increase fat metabolism. Supporting the functions of the endocannabinoid system could help you feel satisfied with less food while supporting healthy digestive processes (8).


The exciting future of CBD and gut function


The endocannabinoid system and the gut microbiome have both been the focus of recent cutting-edge research. The lymphatic tissue related to the intestine must also be taken into account. Fascinating connections have been found between all of these, and have been found to relate to the connection between gut health and wider well-being. Researchers have observed altered levels of endocannabinoids and certain gut bacteria in patients with various ailments.

Through its interactions with the ECS, CBD may play a role in mediating this complex relationship. Although the research is still preliminary, it is a promising phytonutrient that relieves inflammation and promotes healthy digestion in countless ways. It may even promote a healthy balance of bacteria in the gut microbiome. This is good news for indigestion sufferers and others. With new breakthroughs on the horizon, the future looks even brighter.


Finally, a couple of additional mentions: the raw form of CBD, CBD-A, can be a better option especially for stomach challenges, especially for nausea challenges, e.g. due to its anti-inflammatory properties. There is also support for the intestines in food: as one example, fermented products, such as sauerkraut, are good for the intestines and thus also for the mind, as here Dr. Andrew Huberman’s interesting podcast tells .




  1. Haapa-aho, O., Suvanto, U. 2020. In Finland, the prevalence of intestinal diseases is among the highest in the world – going to work is possible with individual arrangements. IBD and other intestinal diseases association.
  2. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
  3. Jungles, K., et al. 2021. The Infant Microbiome and Its Impact on Development of Food Allergy. Pubmed.
  4. Ruuskanen, M., et al. 2022. Gut Microbiome Composition Is Predictive of Incident Type 2 Diabetes in a Population Cohort of 5,572 Finnish Adults. Diabetes Care.
  5. Catharine Paddock. 2019. People with fibromyalgia have different gut bacteria. Medical News Today.
  6. Elizabeth Pennisi. 2019. Evidence mounts that gut bacteria can influence mood, prevent depression. Science.
  7. Fields, H. 2015. The Gut: Where Bacteria and the Immune System Meet. Johns Hopkins Medicine.
  8. Rossi, F. et al. 2018. Role of Cannabinoids in Obesity. Int J Mol Sci.
  9. How Might CBD Help With Gut Health And Digestion? 2019. Cibdol.
MS disease, symptoms and the effect of CBD on them

MS disease, symptoms and the effect of CBD on them

MS-disease is associated with various nervous symptoms, which can differ a lot compared to other diagnosed patients. The different symptoms of MS are united by their systematic progression and the fact that the symptoms strongly dominate life and affect the body’s mobility. Over the years, CBD oil has been found to have many positive effects on inflammation, mood, muscle flexibility, etc. and in this article we consider whether it could CBD oil can also help alleviate the symptoms associated with MS.


Hemp has been known for thousands of years


The hemp plant has been used in human history for a long time. In addition to the fact that it has been a useful crop in cultivation for approx. 10,000 years old, its medicinal properties have been known for thousands of years. The various compounds in hemp, such as cannabinoids (e.g. CBD ), have versatile effects but are very gentle, effective and safe to use. Today, hemp and the active ingredients it contains have been studied and their benefits have also been scientifically proven. MS is the only neurological disease for which the possibility of treatment with cannabinoids has been studied so intensively and extensively.

A man with MS sits on the floor and stretches.

Symptoms of MS include spasticity, which can make it difficult to work and move.


MS affects mobility

Multiple sclerosis, more commonly known as MS, is a neurodegenerative disorder that has a debilitating effect on the ability to exercise and function. MS is the most common disease related to the central nervous system in young adults, and its fundamental cause has not been clarified despite numerous studies. It is thought that multiple sclerosis is the sum of many factors. It has been suggested that the background of its outbreak would be not only hereditary factors but also environmental factors. Herpes viruses, epstein-barr virus and toxins spread in the environment such as plant protection agents may play a significant role in the development of MS (1). Likewise, disruption of the endocannabinoid system and cannabinoid deficiency (5).

The key factors in multiple sclerosis are the inflammatory reaction and demyelination of the brain and spinal cord. Basically, it is a malfunction of the immune system. (1)



Myelin is a soft, fatty substance whose purpose is to form an electrically insulating membrane around the neuron’s efferent branch. Electrical impulses sent by nerve cells travel faster when the myelin membrane is intact, and this is a basic requirement for normal nervous system function. The myelin membrane controls the flow of information between different parts of the brain, and in its absence, nerve impulses are exposed to disturbances. This situation, where the myelin membrane is damaged, or even completely absent, is called demyelination.


The endocannabinoid system in immune defense


The endocannabinoid system normal functioning is a significant part of the functioning of the immune defense. It has been found that the activity of the endocannabinoid system and the prevalence of CB1 and CB2 receptors are directly related to the functioning of the immune system and the inflammatory response. (2).

The endocannabinoid system affects the immune response in many different ways


The purpose of the system itself is to balance all bodily functions, but with the endocannabinoid system and endocannabinoids have other roles as well. Cannabinoids have been found in e.g. affecting the function and number of different cells. They have been found to regulate the cell cycle and regulate the function of immune cells (3). Cannabinoids inhibit the production of inflammatory cytokines and they inhibit the presentation and transport of antigens to inflamed tissues (2, 6).

Evidence has also been obtained that cannabinoids protect the nervous system by reducing the amount of stimulating amino acids, and therefore cannabinoids, or actually their lack, could be a significant factor in the development and development of inflammatory diseases (2, 3).

MS can be treated without drugs.

Symptoms of MS can be eased with CBD oil.


Medical treatment of MS is supported by drug-free treatment


In the treatment of multiple sclerosis, drug-free treatment is considered equally important alongside drug therapy. Drug-free treatment includes nutrition, sleep, exercise, rest and supporting mental well-being. Most of the time, the symptoms associated with MS are experienced as strongly dominating life. Drug treatment in combination with drug-free treatment usually slows down the progression of the disease and relieves the symptoms, but despite that, many need more nurturing elements in life. (4)

Just like the symptoms of MS, the functioning of the endocannabinoid system is also balanced and normalized with drug-free treatment methods!


CBD oil could be part of a drug-free treatment


CBD oil does not cause strong side effects or addiction and it has been found to work just as effectively even if it has been used for a long time. Most drugs that affect the central nervous system are highly addictive or cause life-threatening side effects. This was a big reason why the use of cannabis in the treatment of MS has been studied so extensively; is the desire and need to find light, natural remedies for people suffering from severe symptoms. CBD has also been found to improve appetite and relieve nausea, which could be helpful in alleviating the side effects caused by medications.


The versatile effects of CBD in support of MS


The use of the CBD oil verification of the effect in humans mainly focuses on the good experiences of both the patients themselves and their caregivers and relatives. Although CBD oil is perceived to be helpful for various symptoms, the relief may not be visible in pictures or experiments. Instead, studies conducted on mice show such changes in the tissues that possibly explain the effect of CBD on the symptoms of MS. For example, a study published in 2015 clearly showed that CBD, the mice treated with CBD showed significantly fewer symptoms of T-cell-related autoimmune disease than the corresponding group of mice that did not receive CBD. CBD appeared to slow disease progression through axonal damage and immune cell activation and permeability (3).

CBD oil’s antioxidant, neuroprotective and immune cell effects are most important for the complex pathology of MS. CBG has also been found in studies to have pain-reducing effects.

CBD oil for inflammatory reaction


When studying MS, we have reached the inflammatory mediators that play a central role in the development and progression of MS. There are several of these and CBD has been found to affect each of them (3). CBDhas anti-inflammatory effects through A2AR activation and can be seen e.g. by activating intracellular anti-inflammatory pathways (4). CBD is also an effective inhibitor of various functions of microglial cells. By suppressing these cells, CBD is able to prevent inflammatory processes in the central nervous system (4).

Training for muscle spasticity in a patient with MS.

The spasticity or muscle stiffness of MS can be treated with the help of CBD oil.


Spasticity, muscle spasms, mobility and pain. What is the effect of CBD oil on them?


The effect of CBD oil on MS and spasticity in particular is interesting. Patients and their caregivers experience a clear relief of spasticity, mobility and mood, but the results are not visible by external standards. Studies have also reported a reduction and alleviation of pain associated with movement. (3, 4, 5). Bladder control has been eased, as well as the strength and number of muscle spasms (6).

You can find more information on the subject in the article pain and CBD oil .


CBD oil can ease other symptoms of MS


In addition to the aforementioned physical symptoms, there are a number of other symptoms associated with MS. Anxiety and depression, which are familiar to many and may also bother you at night. CBD has for anxiety related features that facilitate it. Anxiety itself is the body’s reaction to stress and is a natural feeling in itself, but when it becomes chronic, it does more harm than good. CBD relieves anxiety, e.g. by alleviating conditioned fear and long-term stress and by reducing the manifestation of the “fight-flight” reaction.

CBD oil has been found to stabilize sleep, improving the quality of sleep and making it easier to fall asleep and wake up. According to user experiences, it is one of the most significant benefits of CBD from the perspective of both patients and relatives.


MS is a worldwide disease that occurs in young adults, for which curative medical treatment has not yet been invented. While waiting for that, there are a number of drugs and drug-free treatments that can be used to control the progression of the disease and alleviate the symptoms caused by it. CBD has been surprisingly extensively studied in the treatment of multiple sclerosis, and although it is challenging to observe the results by external means in humans, clear benefits can be seen in studies conducted on mice. The user experiences speak for themselves, and cannabis has been a popular support form of treatment among MS patients since the 1990s.



  1. MS disease now – site. Cited 4/27/2002
  2. Clinical Use of Cannabinoids for Symptom Control in Multiple Sclerosis. 2015. Notcutt W.. . Referred on 27/04/2022.
  3. Cannabidiol inhibits pathogenic T cells, decreases spinal microglial activation and ameliorates multiple sclerosis-like disease in C57BL/6 mice. 2011. Kozela E., Lev N., Kaushansky N., Eilam R., Rimmerman N., Levy R., Ben-Nun A., Juknat A, Vogel Z.. https: //www.ncbi.nlm.nih .gov/pmc/articles/PMC3165959/#b52 . Referred on 27/04/2022.
  4. Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Experimental Models of Neurological Disease. 2020. Silvestro S., Schepici G., Bramanti P., Mazzon E.. Referred on 27/04/2022.
  5. Cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 Receptors and Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Are Specific Markers of Plaque Cell Subtypes in Human Multiple Sclerosis. 2007. Benito C, Romero J, Tolón R, Clemente D, Docagne F, Hillard CJ, Guaza C, Romero J.. Referred on 27/04/2022
  6. Perspectives on Cannabis-Based Therapy of Multiple Sclerosis: A Mini-Review. 2020. Mecha M., Carrilo-Salinas F., Feliu A., Mestre L., Guaza C.. Referred on 27/04/2022
Parkinson’s disease and CBD

Parkinson’s disease and CBD

Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disease that generally occurs in the older population. Studies show that it is the second most common disease Alzheimer’s disease after. Although the disease has been studied for more than 200 years after James Parkinson first discovered it in 1817, the root causes of Parkinson’s disease are still under investigation in Finland as well. However, it is known that there are connections and risk factors related to both the heredity of the disease and the environment. The motor abilities of the person suffering from the disease begin to weaken gradually, making it difficult to move and eventually speak, in addition, the muscles begin to stiffen, and tremors and muscle tremors can also occur as symptoms. The article presents Parkinson’s disease in more detail, and how multi-prone CBD affects its various causes and symptoms.


Symptoms of Parkinson’s disease


There are four primary motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease:

  • resting tremor
  • typical muscle stiffness or spasticity
  • slowing of movements, i.e. bradykinesia
  • postural instability (balance disorders)

These start slowly over months and years. Symptoms are almost always first in the limbs of one side, until over time they become bilateral. Doctors mainly diagnose Parkinson’s disease by finding two or more of these symptoms, but not every symptom needs to be present to consider a diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease. In fact, younger people may only notice one or two of these motor symptoms, especially in the early stages of the disease.

The slow, rhythmic tremor typical of Parkinson’s disease usually begins at rest in one arm or leg and eventually affects both sides of the body and can also spread to the face. Stiffness of the limbs or body is also called spasticity. Stiffness, especially in the early stages of the disease, may be mistakenly associated with e.g. arthritis. Muscle stiffness manifests itself as slowness, for example, in bending the arm, and when the other person assists with the bending, there is resistance in the movement.

Slowing down of movements can be seen, for example, as difficulty getting up from a chair, starting to walk is also sluggish and the steps are short. In addition to the general slowness of movements, there is typically a reduced or mask-like expression (hypomimia), a decrease in the frequency of blinking the eyes, and problems with fine motor coordination. Postural instability is more common in the later stages of the disease and includes the inability to maintain a stable upright position. Balance disorders in Parkinson’s disease are associated with a tendency to fall, especially backwards; in fact, even a light nudge can cause a person with Parkinson’s to take steps backwards or even fall. (1) (2)

For the tremors associated with Parkinson’s disease, many people have received great help from CBD. This the article includes a video of Larry’s intense rest tremors disappearing instantly with CBD.


Visual disturbances


Parkinson’s disease is characterized by the loss of dopamine-producing cells in the substantia nigra of the brain. Because of this, in addition to movement-related difficulties, visual disturbances are common, as a decrease in dopamine can affect the visual cortex. Parkinson’s can therefore weaken the mobility of the eyes just like the limbs. People with Parkinson’s disease can experience many types of visual disturbances.

The changes in the structure of the eye associated with Parkinson’s disease are mainly limited to the effects on the retina, which is affected by the reduction of dopamine in the same way as the nucleus. Color vision, especially the ability to distinguish between different shades, can be impaired due to the loss of dopaminergic receptors in the retina. Symptoms may also include dry eyes and the inability to control eye movements and blinking. (3)


Psychiatric symptoms


On a mental level, symptoms such as apathy, depression and anxiety can occur with Parkinson’s disease. It is not clear whether the psychological symptoms are a response to the increasing losses caused by the neurodegenerative disorder, or whether depression and anxiety share the same neurodegenerative causes as the motor components of the disease.

Both can be true. Given that dementia occurs in many later stages of the disease, it seems likely that affective symptoms in the earlier stages of the disease are causally related.

Cognitive and affective symptoms can be mild or severe. About 50 percent of Parkinson’s patients have anxiety. About a third have depression, and about 50 percent have different types of hallucinations. Milder hallucinations are common. The more serious hallucinations, on the other hand, seem to be a central disturbing part of the mental symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. However, it is not clear whether the psychotic symptoms are caused by the disease or the sleep disturbances caused by it. (4)


A woman with Parkinson's disease is sitting and holding a trembling hand. Tremors and tremors have been successfully reduced with the help of CBD.

The main symptoms of Parkinson’s disease are muscle stiffness, rest tremor and slowing of movements.


Stages of Parkinson’s disease


The course of the disease is very individual, but the first symptoms can be non-motor, these symptoms include mood disorders, cognitive disorders, sleep disorders , blood pressure fluctuations, constipation, urinary frequency, pain symptoms , etc.

Advanced Parkinson’s disease usually makes a person unable to live independently. This means that the person has severe mobility problems and is unable to perform daily activities without assistance.

In addition, the disease is sometimes accompanied by daytime sleepiness and severe exhaustion. Memory disorders, slowing down of thinking and depression can also occur. However, rarely does one person get all these symptoms.

Dr. Margaret M. Hoehn, a pioneer in understanding Parkinson’s disease, discusses the Hoehn and Yahr scale, which is used around the world to classify patients in research studies. He has deliberately used the word “Parkinson” because the term applies to all forms of the disease, including Parkinson’s disease.

The method by which the degree of severity of Parkinson’s disease is designated today using the Hoehn and Yahr scale was published in 1967. The original definition of the five levels of difficulty is as follows:


Phase I: initial symptoms


Symptoms on one side of the body, where functional impairment is usually minimal or absent. The patient has tremors (dyskinesia), stiffness, slowness of movements and little or poor condition in the arms and/or legs on one side of the body, sometimes also on the other side of the face. This phase of Parkinson’s disease often goes completely unnoticed. Later, after receiving the diagnosis, the patient may remember, for example, that he noticed an intermittent tremor in one hand many years before. Early stage diagnosis is currently so challenging that sometimes the disease has to develop for several years before a diagnosis can be made with certainty.


Stage II: initial symptoms progress


Bilateral or midline symptoms, without loss of balance. Months or years later, similar symptoms and signs appear on the opposite side of the body, or other signs appear in the “midline,” what doctors call “axial” symptoms. These may include bilateral loss of facial expression (masked face); decreased eye blinking; speech abnormalities; soft voice, monotony, loss of volume, stiffness of the trunk muscles (rigidity) that makes the patient appear clumsy or causes neck and back pain; postural disorders, general sluggishness, but still able to perform all daily activities.


Stage III: advanced Parkinson’s disease


The first signs of impaired balance reflexes. Loss of balance and the inability to make the rapid, automatic, involuntary movements necessary to prevent falls is one of the most worrisome and dangerous aspects of parkinsonism, and one of the most difficult to treat. Even if it is only mild, it is a criterion that distinguishes stage II from stage III. All other features of parkinsonism are evident, and there is usually no reason to doubt the diagnosis. The main factor that distinguishes stage III from stage IV is that the patient is still completely independent in all daily activities (dressing, hygiene, eating, etc.) Although he is somewhat limited, he has work opportunities depending on the workplace. A chance for a normal life.


Stage IV: End-stage Parkinson’s disease


Fully advanced, severely disabling disease; the patient is still able to walk and stand without assistance, but is clearly incapacitated. The patient is not able to live an independent life because he needs help with some daily activities. It is this inability to live alone that marks the transition from stage III to stage IV. If the patient is still able to live alone, no matter how difficult it is, his disease is stage III and not stage IV. However, a stage IV patient is still able to stand and walk without assistance.


Stage V: Final stages of Parkinson’s disease


Confinement to a bed or wheelchair, unless assistive devices are used. The patient may have the following symptoms: inability to get out of a chair or out of bed without assistance; tendency to fall when standing or turning; freezing, stumbling. Without an assistant immediately present, the patient is at risk of falling.

Rather, this method of grading severity is a mixture that combines the patient’s symptoms, the physical symptoms observed by the doctor, and the patient’s ability to function. In some cases it is not applicable. Sometimes, for example, phase I is missed and the disease breaks out bilaterally or becomes generalized. Similarly, many patients never reach stage V. Patients should not fearfully conclude that when their balance becomes unstable, they should immediately begin to watch for signs that they will soon become dependent on others.

Despite these drawbacks, this difficulty classification method has proven to be practical for decades. The multistage classification has been particularly useful in evaluating the reported results of new treatments and in planning research projects because patients respond differently depending on the disease, the patient’s age, and other factors. A stage II patient can become almost normal with proper treatment, while a stage IV patient has residual symptoms and improvement is never as significant or dramatic.

There are other scales for assessing the severity of parkinsonism: the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), the modified Columbia scale, the Webster scale, the Schwab and England Disability Scale, the Northwestern University Disability Scale, and numerous others, each with their own proponents and utility. (5)

Elderly people with Parkinson's disease sit outside on a bench.

According to researchers, a later diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease, poor results in exercise tests, dementia and psychotic symptoms are connected to a shorter life expectancy


Prognosis of Parkinson’s disease


Parkinson’s disease is not considered fatal, but people with Parkinson’s disease have a shorter life expectancy than the general population.

New research provides clues as to why some patients die earlier than others. Danish researchers observed from a follow-up of 200 Parkinson’s patients that a later diagnosis, poor results in exercise tests, psychotic symptoms and dementia were associated with a shorter life expectancy. In addition, men with Parkinson’s disease were more likely to die early than women.

To identify risk factors associated with early death, researchers at Stravanger University Hospital in Norway analyzed data from 230 Parkinson’s patients who participated in a larger study. The analysis revealed that:


  • The average time from onset of symptoms to death was 16 years.
  • The average age at death was 81 years.
  • Dementia patients were almost twice as likely to die prematurely as patients without memory problems.
  • Patients with Parkinson’s disease-related mental health symptoms were nearly 50 percent more likely to die prematurely than patients without those symptoms.
  • Men with Parkinson’s disease were about 60 percent more likely to die prematurely than women. (6)


Alleviation and treatment of Parkinson’s disease


Now that we know more about Parkinson’s disease, can we somehow alleviate the challenges associated with it? Unfortunately, there is no known cure for Parkinson’s disease, but some things give it relief. It is important to maintain mobility by walking as well as general beneficial exercise and suitably challenging exercise. It is also good to maintain coordination and other fine motor skills by practicing.

It would also be good to find a diet that relieves inflammation, but this is individual for everyone. However, some anti-inflammatory herbs, such as the well-known turmeric, have been studied to alleviate the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. The same is done by some antioxidatives and e.g. dopamine boosting herbs such as Bacopa monnieri and Mucuna pruriens. (7) Mucuna contains a significant amount of levodopa (L-dopa), so its use must be coordinated with prescription levodopa. One study has shown that this herb is better than synthetic pure levodopa in the long-term treatment of Parkinson’s disease. (8) Caffeine is also known to have positive effects on Parkinson’s disease. (9) But one compound is particularly good for Parkinson’s disease, and we’ll delve into its effects below.

The use of CBD products made from hemp has become more common among people with Parkinson’s disease. CBD is of the endocannabinoid system a functional cannabinoid. It relieves Parkinson’s symptoms, such as depression, anxiety, muscle tremors and impaired sleep.

There is also some indication that CBD can be used to slow the progression of the disease and improve some of the underlying factors, such as neuroinflammation and dopamine regulation.


CBD oil and CBD products for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

Parkinson’s disease is also treated with CBD. CBD can ease the symptoms of the disease such as anxiety, depression, insomnia, depression and muscle tremors. In addition, CBD may prevent further progression of the disease.


What are the benefits of using CBD in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease?


Cannabidiol, or CBD, has grown in popularity over time in the wellness and health world. Researchers confirm that CBD can help with various ailments, such as pain and anxiety. Next, we look at the potential benefits of using CBD in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease.

Supports dopamine production

CBD has been shown to improve dopamine production in at least one preclinical study (10). It works through the recently discovered GPR6 receptors located in the brain in the same area where dopamine is produced (11).

If this new and significant discovery is found to be significant enough through future research, we can expect CBD to become the primary treatment option for Parkinson’s disease. Research still needs to be continued.


Relieves inflammation


Brain inflammations lead to a loss of dopamine, making this one of the main factors maintaining Parkinson’s disease (12). When CBD is used to treat brain inflammation, dopamine increases. According to research, reduced inflammation slows the progression of the disease because CBD regulates several key functions related to the inflammatory process (13). Alleviation of inflammation can also reduce general depressive symptoms.


Improves sleep quality


CBD is known for its mild sedative effect (14). CBD improves both the quality and quantity of sleep in many clinical studies (15). Other cannabinoids , including CBG (cannabigerol) , act like muscle relaxants, having a remedial effect on some causes of insomnia associated with Parkinson’s disease (16).


Reduces psychotic symptoms


Psychotic symptoms develop as Parkinson’s disease progresses. Patients experience hallucinations. Low dose CBD has been shown to reduce the occurrence of hallucinations. This greatly helps patients to manage the disease.


Reduces muscle tremors


CBD has been shown to reduce muscle tremors in Parkinson’s disease[17] and for other similar types of neurodegenerative disorders such as MS (multiple sclerosis) (18) and Huntington’s disease (19).


Protects nerves


CBD works significantly as a neuroprotective substance, i.e. it is able to prevent the death of nerve cells , which makes it a neurodegenerative disease reliever. It also acts as a powerful antioxidant. Some also believe that oxidative stress is the cause of Parkinson’s disease.


Supports a healthy microbiome


Theories related to the effects of the microbiome have received evidence in recent years. Research so far strongly suggests that changes in the microbiota seem to influence the emergence of neuroinflammation. (20) Also at the end of 2021, Finnish researchers have obtained samples that show that Parkinson’s disease begins with a disruption of the microbiome. (21) More about CBD and the microbiome can be found in the article The effect of CBD on intestinal well-being .


What is the recommended dose of CBD?


Not enough clinical studies have yet been conducted to determine the right dosage for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, but the use of CBD has been extensively studied in the treatment of another similar disease, multiple sclerosis.

Studies of multiple sclerosis and other neurodegenerative diseases often use high doses of CBD to produce benefits. In general, it can be said that a higher dose is needed to achieve a benefit similar to the study results.

It is recommended to start with a low dose and increase to a high dose. You can find more detailed information on the dosage of CBD From the CBD Dosing Guide .

It is also possible to use CBD externally as a cream for muscle tension.




There is no cure for Parkinson’s disease. Most of the treatment options available, including CBD, are intended to slow the progression of the disease and treat symptoms.

However, CBD is an excellent option for both of these purposes; it alleviates many common side effects (including insomnia, depression, anxiety, muscle tremors) and may slow the progression of Parkinson’s disease.

Most Parkinson’s patients take large doses of CBD for long periods of time. This is why it is recommended to switch to the strongest possible CBD products after milder CBD products.


  1. Atula. S. 2018. Duodecim. Parkinson’s disease. Referred on 10/10/2022.
  2. American Parkinson Disease Association. Common Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease
  3. American Parkinson Disease Association. Parkinson’s Effects on Vision.
  4. MacLennan, N. 2022. Psychreg. The Psychology of Parkinson’s Disease
  5. 2018. Parkinson’s Resource Organization. Five Stages of Parkinson’s.
  6. Forsaa, EB et al. 2010. Pubmed. What predicts mortality in Parkinson disease?: a prospective population-based long-term study. Forsaa, EB Neurology, Oct. 5, 2010; vol 75: pp 1270-1276.
  1. Srivastav, S. et al. 2017. Pubmed. Important medicinal herbs in Parkinson’s disease Pharmacotherapy
  2. Katzenschlager, R. et al. 2004. Pubmed. Mucuna pruriens in Parkinson’s disease: a double blind clinical and pharmacological study
  3. Ren, X. et al. 2020. Caffeine and Parkinson’s Disease: Multiple Benefits and Emerging Mechanisms
  4. Morales, P., Isawi, I., & Reggio, PH (2018). Towards a better understanding of the cannabinoid-related Orphan receptors GPR3, GPR6, and GPR12. Drug metabolism reviews, 50(1), 74-93.
  5. Laun, AS, & Song, ZH (2017). GPR3 and GPR6, novel molecular targets for cannabidiol. Biochemical and Biophysical research communications, 490(1), 17-21.
  6. Hirsch, EC, & Hunot, S. (2009). Neuroinflammation in Parkinson’s disease: a target for neuroprotection?. The Lancet Neurology, 8(4), 382-397.
  7. Baker, D., Jackson, SJ, & Pryce, G. (2007). Cannabinoid control of neuroinflammation related to multiple sclerosis. British journal of pharmacology, 152(5), 649-654.
  8. Crippa, JA, Guimarães, FS, Campos, AC, & Zuardi, AW (2018). Translational Investigation of the Therapeutic Potential of Cannabidiol (CBD): Toward a New Age. Frontiers in Immunology, 9.
  9. Russo, EB, Guy, GW, & Robson, PJ (2007, August 1). Cannabis, pain, and sleep: Lessons from Therapeutic clinical trials of sativexρ, a cannabis-based medicine. Chemistry and Biodiversity.
  10. Evans, FJ (1991). Cannabinoids: the separation of central from peripheral effects on a structural basis. Planta medica, 57(S 1), S60-S67.
  11. Kluger, B., Triolo, P., Jones, W., & Jankovic, J. (2015). The therapeutic potential of cannabinoids for movement disorders. Movement disorders, 30(3), 313-327.
  12. Malfitano, AM, Proto, MC, & Bifulco, M. (2008). Cannabinoids in the management of spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis. Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment, 4(5), 847.
  13. Dowie, MJ, Howard, ML, Nicholson, LFB, Faull, RLM, Hannan, AJ, & Glass, M. (2010). Behavioral and molecular consequences of chronic cannabinoid treatment in Huntington’s disease transgenic mice. Neuroscience, 170(1), 324-336.
  14. Keshavarzian, A. et al. al. 2020. Pubmed.
  15. 2021. Evening News. Finnish researchers believe they have found the root cause of Parkinson’s disease
CBD and asthma

CBD and asthma

The most common respiratory disease, asthma, is a nasty disease that can strike people of all ages, but it is also possible to get rid of it completely.

In this article, we get to know asthma as a disease, see how the endocannabinoid system in the respiratory system works, and consider whether CBD oil could be helpful in addition to the treatment of asthma.

What is asthma?


Asthma is an inflammatory disease of the lungs, which is characterized by the narrowing of the bronchial tubes, resulting in an unpleasant feeling and shortness of breath. The lung mucosa in a state of inflammation irritates the airways, causing symptoms typical of asthma. (1)

Asthma affects almost 10% of Finns and it can strike people of all ages. It is the most common chronic respiratory disease. It is also found in animals such as cats, dogs and horses. It is possible to treat asthma without symptoms, and in children and young people it usually gets better by adulthood. (1)

Both hereditary and environmental factors predispose to asthma. (1)


Asthma symptoms


Typical asthma symptoms are cough, shortness of breath, mucus secretion and wheezing. Children also experience fatigue and playful withdrawal. Usually, the symptoms vary depending on the day and time of day. It may be easier during the day compared to night and early morning, when symptoms related to breathing may arise. (1)

Dust, animal hair, freezing air, strong smells and stress often worsen the symptoms, especially in those who also have an underlying allergy. Bad indoor air is more significant for an asthmatic in terms of worsening symptoms than outdoor pollens, air pollution, etc. Poor ventilation in the home and daycare center/school, humidity problems, dustiness, own or a family member’s smoking, various molds, etc. both cause and worsen symptoms as well as allergies and atopic dermatitis. (1,2)

It is possible to take an asthma test online, which allows you to check your own symptoms for possible asthma. The breathing association test can be found here Asthma test | .

Asthma attack

Asthma is associated with sudden attacks of shortness of breath, characterized by strong coughing fits, difficulty breathing and wheezing. The seizure can be intense and cause a very scary situation where the spirit seems to run out completely. For these situations, there is a medicine that opens the airways and calms the lungs, but if the medicine does not help, you should see a doctor immediately.

Asthma in children and young people often causes fatigue


Asthma in a child can be challenging to identify, as the symptoms are mostly mild, and actual asthma attacks do not necessarily occur. The symptoms are a wheezing exhalation, a night cough and a decrease in general endurance, which can be seen e.g. as an increased need for sleep and tiring for games.

Childhood asthma affects approx. 5% of Finnish children and most of the time it gets better before adulthood. (1)

Asthma in young people is as common as asthma in children, but in addition to the diagnosis, just as many have symptoms of asthma. Asthma in young people also often improves by adulthood, and it is not an obstacle, e.g. for work or hobby activities. (1)

Allergic asthma

We talk about allergic asthma when there are allergies in the background that worsen or cause symptoms. Symptoms are caused by e.g. animals, street dust, pollen and other small particles in the air. Atopic skin often worsens asthma symptoms.

Aggravation of allergic asthma symptoms is usually caused by immune cells on the surface of the inflamed bronchus, which react to external stimuli, regardless of whether these come directly into the airways or not.

A woman in the sunset, happy because the oxygen flows.

Asthma treatment is largely about taking care of environmental factors, diet, indoor air quality and all kinds of dust contribute to the onset of asthma.


Treatment of asthma


Asthma is treated with medication and self-medication with lifestyle choices. Asthma is an inflammatory disease and it is maintained not only by environmental factors but also by general lifestyles that cause inflammation in the body, such as a poor-quality diet, smoking, alcohol and too little exercise.

Environmental factors, such as poor indoor air, are a significant cause of symptoms, and keeping the home clean of dust may alleviate the symptoms significantly. However, you should not clean too much, especially with strong chemicals, because lungs sensitive to inflammation may also react to chemicals in detergents, such as fragrances. (1,2)

Asthma medicine


The purpose of asthma medications is both to soothe inflammation of the bronchi and to soothe physical symptoms such as bronchial constriction and shortness of breath.

Inhaled cortisone preparations or tablets are used as asthma medication. In most cases, you have to take an anti-inflammatory medicine taken daily and a medicine used to control the seizure, taken as needed.

Untreated asthma

Untreated asthma causes permanent changes in the bronchial tubes and in the worst case may even lead to death. If left untreated, asthma worsens over the years to such an extent that you probably feel like seeking treatment at some point.


The endocannabinoid system , which balances the body and monitors everything in the background, also affects the processes that control lung function.

The receptors CB1 and CB2 belonging to the endocannabinoid system, as well as the corresponding endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-AG , all have their own functions in the background of lung function and inflammation in the lungs.

Cannabinoid receptors both have important functions in the lungs and related diseases. The CB1 receptor seems to be more behind normal functions, while the CB2 receptor is involved in inflammation-related functions and their prevention. (3,4)

The endocannabinoid anadamide has been found to relax the respiratory system. It also has anti-inflammatory effects just like 2-AG. According to research, both of these endocannabinoids are strongly present in lung function and have been shown, e.g. regulating and relaxing the pulmonary arteries. (3,4)

CBD oil for asthma symptoms?


A compound found in hemp called cannabidiol or CBD is a molecule that has been studied for decades and, according to studies, has numerous effects on the health of both humans and animals. CBD mainly acts on other receptors in the body, such as TRPV receptors and serotonin receptors, but it also has the effect of activating the cannabinoid system’s own receptors.

According to animal experiments, the CB1 and CB2 receptors activated by CBD have a reducing effect on bronchial inflammation and structural changes. The effect of reducing the hypersensitivity of the airways was observed, as well as the reduction of the inflammatory and relapsing processes of allergic asthma. (5,6)

According to studies, CBD has anti-inflammatory and immunity-boosting properties effect. It also relaxes the muscles and may reduce bronchoconstriction. (5,6)

In addition to the fact that CBD has been found in several studies, e.g. to relieve inflammation and has numerous other properties that may be helpful in relieving the symptoms and side effects of asthma. CBD might help in sleep- related challenges, stress and depression .


Cat and dog asthma


Asthma is also quite common in pets such as cats, dogs and horses. In cats and horses, asthma is clearly more common than in dogs, and the symptoms are all quite similar to those in humans, i.e. cough, wheezing, fatigue and breathing difficulties. (7,8)

CBD oil has also been found to be suitable for treating animals and may have positive effects on animal asthma as well. Usually, CBD oil is dosed to animals according to their body weight.




Asthma is a common inflammatory disease characterized by a long-lasting cough, increased mucus production in the respiratory system and a tight feeling in the chest. Asthma gets worse over time, if it is not treated, and since the treatment is largely self-medication in addition to medication, it is possible to prevent and treat it even before asthma is diagnosed.

CBD oil is versatile, safe and, according to research, an effective reliever of inflammation, and since asthma is an inflammatory disease, it might also help reduce inflammation as a support for asthma treatment.



  1. Asthma. Referenced 2/14/2023.
  2. Salomaa ER.. 2020. Duodecim health library. Asthma. Referenced 2/14/2023.
  3. Bozkurt TE. 2019. Endocannabinoid System in the Airways. Referenced 2/14/2023.
  4. Simon A., Einem von T., Seidinger A., Matthey M., Bindila L. and Wenzel D.. 2015. Nature communications. The endocannabinoid anandamide is an airway relaxant in health and disease. Referenced 2/14/2023.
  5. Vuolo F., Abreu SC, Michels M., Xisto DG, Blanco N., Hallak JEC, Zuardi A., Crippa J., Reis C., Bahl M., Pizzichinni E., Maurici R., Rocco P., Pizzichinni MM, Dal-Pizzol F.,. 2019. Science direct. Cannabidiol reduces airway inflammation and fibrosis in experimental allergic asthma. Referenced 2/14/2023.
  6. Vuolo F., Petronilho F., Sonai B., Ritter C., Hallak J., Zuardi A., Crippa J and Dal-Pizzo F.. 2015. Mediators of inflammation. Evaluation of Serum Cytokines Levels and the Role of Cannabidiol Treatment in Animal Model of Asthma. Referenced 2/14/2023.
  7. Own animal clinic. Feline Asthma. Referenced 2/14/2023
  8. Equivet. Equine asthma. Referenced 2/14/2023.
CBD, heart attacks and strokes

CBD, heart attacks and strokes

Diseases related to heart function, infarcts and various seizures are common and also cause many deaths every year. Cerebral infarctions are largely caused by the same causes as myocardial infarctions, and their effect on a person can be fatal. In this article, we will get to know brain and heart attacks, the endocannabinoid system behind them and whether CBD oil could be of any help in preventing or treating them.


What is a heart attack?


A heart attack is tissue necrosis caused by the blockage of a blood vessel located in the tissue. Such can occur in both the brain and the heart, and about half of the deaths of working-age people in Finland are caused by them.

The incidence of heart attacks has clearly decreased from the 1970s to today, but they are still statistically the single largest cause of death.



A cerebral infarction can occur for a few different reasons. It is most commonly caused by narrowing of the blood vessels and is then a medical attack caused by narrowing of the coronary artery, like a heart attack. Some of the cases are caused by a blood clot, an embolism, that originates in the heart, which sets off and ends up in a small blood vessel or a branch of the vessel, thus blocking the flow of food to the brain. A cerebral infarction can also be caused by a rupture of a cerebral artery, which causes bleeding into the brain. (1)



Cerebral infarction usually occurs suddenly. The most obvious symptoms are unilateral dysfunction of the limbs and drooping of the oral cavity on the same side and weakness of the upper limbs. Usually the symptoms are also accompanied by numbness, muscle weakness and difficulty producing speech. Depending on the location of the cerebral infarction, visual disturbances, double vision, dizziness and confusion are also common, but cerebral infarction is not associated with pain. (1)

Myocardial infarction , i.e. heart attack


A heart attack, i.e. a coronary heart disease attack, is the result of a blockage in the heart’s coronary artery or the detachment of the plaque causing the blockage. A heart attack is always a serious situation requiring treatment, which in the worst case leads to cardiac arrest and death.

A heart attack causes death to the heart tissue even in a few hours, and quick access to treatment is very important. (2,3)

The background of a heart attack is almost always coronary artery disease, i.e. a narrowed coronary artery. The coronary artery is the most important blood vessel located in the heart and it is blocked by e.g. as a result of smoking, heavy alcohol consumption and an unhealthy diet. The stenosis develops slowly, but the moment it finally, usually suddenly, becomes blocked, it causes a heart attack. (2,3)


Preliminary symptoms of a heart attack


The symptom of a heart attack is almost always a sudden, severe chest pain that can radiate to the arm, back, teeth and stomach. Sometimes the symptom can also be more of a squeezing, suffocating feeling in the chest area, which causes severe shortness of breath. (2,3)

A heart attack, more commonly known as a heart attack, is a life-threatening situation that requires immediate treatment, and it is good to know how to recognize it.

Moving may worsen the symptoms, or at least not relieve them. Sometimes, especially for diabetics, the elderly and people with memory problems, pain may not occur at all, but the symptoms are mainly an unpleasant sensation and shortness of breath, headache and nausea. This is known as a silent myocardial infarction. (2,3)


First aid and care


Heart attack treatment is usually started at home or at the latest in the ambulance with anti-blocking and pain-relieving drugs. Beta blockers are used to prevent arrhythmias and lower blood pressure.

After getting to the hospital, either a balloon dilation or a dissolution treatment is usually performed, and within a few days, a bypass operation is also performed, in which the blocked blood vessel is bypassed. (2,3)


Causes of heart attacks?


The underlying causes of both cerebral and myocardial infarctions are largely the same. Old age, smoking, heavy alcohol use, diabetes , obesity, high cholesterol and high blood pressure , but also hereditary factors predisposing to heart attacks have been observed.


Recovery time from heart attacks


Recovering from cerebral infarction and stroke can be a slow process, and depending on the extent of the infarction, it is not always possible to return to the way it was before. Rehabilitation usually starts already in the hospital with a multidisciplinary team and it may continue for years after the heart attack. Rehabilitation usually includes a change in diet in a healthier direction, physical therapy, speech therapy and end-of-life medication. (1)

Recovery from a heart attack and related procedures is usually quick. You can usually return to light work up to a week after surgery, but it is recommended to rest and take it easy for at least a few months after the heart attack and the procedures.

Rehabilitation and recovery time are strongly related to possible lifestyle changes, such as a healthier diet, stopping smoking and alcohol consumption, and increasing exercise. Most often, the background is high blood pressure, narrowed arteries and high cholesterol values, and paying attention to these and careful treatment is especially important. (2,3)

man holding chest in sunset.

CBD may have significant effects on cardiovascular health.



Myocarditis, i.e. inflammation of the heart muscle


Myocarditis is not actually related to heart attacks or a predisposing factor to them, but it is a fairly common inflammatory disease that CBD oil may also help with. Myocarditis is caused by a virus that moves with the bloodstream in the body, etc. which gets into the heart and causes an infection there. Acute myocarditis is the single largest cause of heart failure and sudden cardiac death in people under the age of 35. (4,5)

Myocarditis usually gets better on its own within about a week and it is estimated that all people get it a few times during their life without noticing it. Sometimes the inflammation becomes chronic and causes heart failure. (4,5)


The endocannabinoid system


The endocannabinoid system is a monitoring system for all body processes. It is found in almost all humans and animal species, and its function is both to balance the functions of the body and to take care of the basic things of life such as sleep, eating, memory, relaxation and protecting the body.

The endocannabinoid system includes endocannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors and the molecules that break them down. None of these are stored, but they are produced where needed, when needed. Several endocannabinoids are known and the most studied of them are anandamide i and 2-AG. On the other hand, only two receptors have been recognized, CB1 and CB2 receptors.

Both endocannabinoids and cannabinoid receptors are abundant in the brain. The CB1 receptor is more common in the brain and has numerous tasks in the processes that are controlled by the brain. For example, in concussions, it has been found that CBD may protect nerves, increase blood flow to the brain, and protect against reactive oxygen species after a concussion! (6)

The endocannabinoid system is also involved in regulating the functioning of the heart and blood circulation and their underlying functions. (7)




Both cannabinoids have numerous functions in brain function and circulatory system, but anandamide may e.g. reduces the salt-induced increase in blood pressure via TRPV receptors and 2-AG affects the dilation of blood vessels. (8)


CBD for heart attack?


The active compounds found in hemp have been extensively studied for decades. One significant group of compounds found in the hemp plant is cannabinoids, of which more than a hundred different types are currently known. One of the most famous of these compounds is cannabidiol or CBD .

CBD acts mainly through non-cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, most commonly through TRPV and serotonin receptors.

In the brain, CBD may increase blood permeability and increase blood flow during a stroke. (9)

CBD has been found in studies to be beneficial for the heart and circulatory system. Research shows that CBD relaxes and dilates blood vessels, protects blood vessels from damage caused by low-grade inflammation, and protects against cardiomyopathy caused by diabetes. (7,8)

Given during and after a seizure, CBD could act as both a seizure-relieving and damage-reducing cannabinoid, but it has also been found to prevent infarction and nerve damage caused by bleeding in both cerebral and myocardial infarctions. (7,8)

In general , CBD oil could be useful in terms of brain and heart health, because according to studies, CBD has e.g. anti-inflammatory , antioxidant, sleep quality improving and appetite balancing effects.


Researcher holding CBD oil. CBD is used as medicine, e.g. in the treatment of myocarditis.

According to studies, CBD oil has e.g. anti-inflammatory effect, improving sleep quality and balancing appetite.


Compatibility between CBD and heart medications?


CBD, has an effect on the breakdown of some medicines and thus also on the effect. The enzyme cytochrome P450 in the liver breaks down both CBD and certain drugs, which is why their combined effect may differ from the drug’s characteristic effect. Medications that are incompatible with CBD are mainly prescription medications, and among these are also a few medications for the treatment of heart, blood pressure, and blood circulation.

Let’s talk about the so-called from the grapefruit test, if the doctor advises you to avoid eating grapefruit with some medicine, the medicine is probably not compatible with CBD either.

In the case of heart-related challenges, there is hardly any reason to avoid using CBD unless you are using medication that may have unwanted interactions with CBD. About the compatibility of medicines you can read more here.




Even today, the most common cause of death is heart attacks, mainly caused by lifestyle. Both heart and cerebrovascular infarcts are usually caused by narrowing of the arteries, either by a final blockage or by the detachment of the plaque that causes the narrowing. Lifestyle has a significant effect in prevention, but CBD oil may also have an effect, at least during the attack, to alleviate the attack and after the attack to reduce the damage.



  1. Atula S.. 2023. Duodecim health library. Stroke (cerebral infarction and cerebral hemorrhage). Referenced 2/6/2023.
  2. Kettunen R.. 2020. Duodecim health library. Myocardial infarction and heart attack. Referenced 2/6/2023.
  3. Hekkala AM.. 2019. Heart Association. Heart failure. Referenced 2/6/2023.
  4. Cardiol therapeutics. Acute myocarditis. Referenced 2/6/2023.
  5. Kettunen R.. 2020. Duodecim health library. Inflammation of the heart muscle (myocarditis). Referenced 2/6/2023.
  6. Singh Jyotpal and Neary JP. 2020. Neuroprotection Following Concussion: The Potential Role for Cannabidiol. Referenced 2/6/2023.
  7. Kicman A. and Toczek M.. 2020. The Effects of Cannabidiol, a Non-Intoxicating Compound of Cannabis, on the Cardiovascular System in Health and Disease. Referenced 2/6/2023
  8. Stanley C., Hind W and O’Sullivan S.. 2012. Is the cardiovascular system a Therapeutic target for cannabidiol?. %27Sullivan% 20SE %5BAuthor% 5D. Referenced 2/6/2023.
  9. Montecucco F. and Di Marzo V.. Cell press. At the heart of the matter: the endocannabinoid system in cardiovascular function and dysfunction.
CBD and fibromyalgia symptoms

CBD and fibromyalgia symptoms

The term fibromyalgia comes from the words “fibro” which refers to connective tissues and “myalgia” which describes muscle pain. Fibromyalgia is a common disease related to the central nervous system and affects about five percent of people (1). This article reviews research data on whether CBD is helpful in the treatment of fibromyalgia symptoms.


What is fibromyalgia?


Fibromyalgia causes chronic fatigue, memory disorders, and pain in the locomotor and supporting organs, without the case being clearly associated with any inflammation, damage or injury. The symptoms are usually accompanied by low-quality sleep that is not restorative enough and leads to exhaustion. (1)

Older and middle-aged women are most affected by fibromyalgia. Among children and young people, it occurs only rarely (2).


Causes of Fibromyalgia


The cause of fibromyalgia is still not completely known, but it is thought to be related to an imbalance of the autonomic nervous system and a neural pain regulation disorder (1).

In addition, there are indications that fibromyalgia could be caused, at least in part, by anxiety and low mood caused by prolonged stress. This kind of repeated stress can be caused by many different reasons and it can be related to busyness, relationships, money worries, work, unemployment or, for example, traffic noise. (2)

People suffering from the disease have also been noticed to have similar changes in hormone balance as people suffering from a chronic stress state. It is still unclear whether chronic stress is directly caused by fibromyalgia or by other symptoms caused by it. For some reason, the disease most often appears only after middle age. (2)

Fibromyalgic manifestations are associated with several different factors, such as an injury, accident or infection, which can cause sensitization related to the central nervous system. At times, the local pain condition may even develop into pain sensitivity. There are usually other different diseases in the background, which makes the definition of the disease challenging. For example, the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis may closely resemble the symptoms of fibromyalgia. Other common symptoms of fibromyalgia can be psychological and social problems, as well as overactive joints. (2)

Based on several studies, cannabinoid deficiency states in the internal cannabinoid system may be associated with the onset of fibromyalgia (3).

Two women and a fibromyalgia test.

Pain points are places on the body that, when pressed, produce intense pain, which usually only fibromyalgia sufferers react to.

Fibromyalgia and pain points


Fibromyalgia-related pain usually occurs in certain areas, in pain points, unlike e.g. in cases related to rheumatism and osteoarthritis. Pressing on certain pain points creates very strong pain conditions that usually do not occur in a healthy person. (4)

Fibromyalgia cannot be identified with standard laboratory tests, but pain points make it easier to make a diagnosis. Even if the patient has other symptoms associated with fibromyalgia, but if he does not experience pain when pressing certain pain points, it is likely that it is not fibromyalgia. Pressing on the pain point can cause a tingling, stinging or burning sensation. Everyone suffering from fibromyalgia, so-called the pain map with points is individual. Pain is therefore definitely not experienced in all 18 pain points, but according to the definition of fibromyalgia, the patient experiences pain in at least 11 pain points. Pain points are often located around large joints and in the area of muscle attachment points, areas about the size of two euros. Pain points can be found on both sides of the body. There are 10 of them on the back and eight on the front. (4)


Fibromyalgia symptoms


Fibromyalgia is a disease that challenges everyday life, whose symptoms include e.g. constant muscle pain and soreness in the connective tissues, as well as a variety of psychological and neurological symptoms. In addition to these symptoms, it is common for people with fibromyalgia to sleep poorly and suffer from exhaustion, fatigue, weakness, numbness and swelling in the joints. When the body does not get the necessary rest during the night, the exhaustion continues immediately after waking up and it makes everyday life feel heavy. In particular, mental pressure may increase fatigue. Symptoms vary from case to case. (2)

The pain associated with fibromyalgia is described as cutting, burning and stabbing. Symptoms can also include headache, and pain in the urinary organs and stomach area. Based on research, in addition to mental stress and social pressures, cold, humidity and drafts can increase symptoms. Warm air and especially sauna may relieve the pain temporarily, but there is a downside, as the pain conditions may get worse after sauna. (2)

In deep sleep, growth hormone is secreted, which strengthens tissues. Without deep sleep, this growth hormone cannot be obtained, and therefore lower than normal levels of growth hormone have been observed in fibromyalgia patients. Disturbances in hormone secretion can increase the experience of various pain conditions. In studies where the subjects’ sleep has been disturbed, they have been found to have symptoms belonging to fibromyalgia (2). Deep sleep also plays an important role in getting the necessary rest and daily coping.


CBD oil and fibromyalgia

CBD and CBD oils are increasingly being used to treat the symptoms of fibromyalgia.

Lynch and Campbell (2011) and Lynch and Ware (2015) conducted two systematic reviews of the use of cannabis/cannabinoids for chronic pain, including pain caused by fibromyalgia. The studies have been published in the years 2003–2010, and in addition to them, 11 studies have been published in the years 2011–2014. Around 2,000 participants took part in all 29 tests and their duration was several weeks. 22 out of 29 studies showed a significant analgesic or pain-reducing effect, and several also reported improvements in secondary outcomes such as sleep and spasticity. The results are remarkable and the news comforting for fibromyalgia sufferers. (5)

Recent advances made it possible to isolate the active substances of cannabis. At the same time, it enables the production of cannabinoid products, without the unwanted psychoactive effect and the possibility of providing pain relief and alleviation of other symptoms related to fibromyalgia. Cannabis itself is also approved for use in the treatment of chronic pain conditions. (6)

Evidence supporting cannabis in chronic pain conditions is abundant; however, in fibromyalgia they are mostly limited. There are only a handful of randomized trials, and their objectivity has been questioned. However, many retrospective studies and patient studies point to significant relief of pain, improvement of sleep and relief of related symptoms. Evidence supporting the use of cannabis in the treatment of chronic pain and especially fibromyalgia is being collected as the use of cannabis increases with current global trends. Although the current evidence is still limited, new data points to the positive effect of cannabis in the treatment of fibromyalgia symptoms. 6)

Read more about pain and CBD oil .


A woman and a dog on a pole walk.

In the treatment of fibromyalgia, forms of exercise are recommended, e.g. water sports, cycling and dancing. Positive results have been obtained especially from pole walking and pilates exercises.


Fibromyalgia treatment


The treatment of fibromyalgia symptoms can be made easier if the disease can be diagnosed in the early stages. When the reason behind the long-lasting symptoms is known, it is easier to focus on its treatment when additional examinations are no longer needed. (2)

The causes of the disease and the intensity of the symptoms vary in people with fibromyalgia. There is still no single and suitable form of treatment for its treatment. Psychiatric treatment is always recommended if the illness is also accompanied by depression, severe exhaustion or some other psychological symptom. (2)

Exercise is believed to strengthen the body’s own functions related to pain relief. Recommended forms of exercise are water sports, walking, cycling, skiing and dancing. Positive results have been obtained e.g. pole walking and pilates exercises. (2)

It is also possible for fibromyalgia sufferers to participate in a rehabilitation course, which is intended to encourage exercise, treatment and reduce the exhaustion associated with the disease together with groups. The treatment includes e.g. pampering the body which includes massage, baths and conversations. Sometimes the treatments also use cold therapy such as avto.

Medicines in the treatment of fibromyalgia symptoms

No actual drugs have been developed to treat fibromyalgia. Medicines that improve sleep and mood are often first tried. To minimize side effects, drug treatment is recommended to start with the lowest possible dosage. Some drugs used to treat depression (such as duloxetine and milnacipran) have been found to have effects in alleviating the symptoms of fibromyalgia. Some also get help from the more traditional paracetamol, but NSAIDs can do more harm than good. In the most severe cases of pain, drugs intended for the treatment of nerve pain such as gapapentine (Gabrion) and pregabalin (Lyrica) are used. (2)

Although fibromyalgia cannot be completely cured yet, once a suitable medication is found, it can be alleviated, e.g. symptoms related to pain and fatigue significantly. Medicines are not helpful for everyone, however, and due to their harmful side effects, it is recommended to start a possible medication regimen with low dosages. Since the disease is not caused by inflammation, traditional anti-inflammatory drugs do not help it either. In addition, strong opioid-based painkillers usually only have side effects. (6)

Antidepressants, nerve pain medications, and SNRIs are often prescribed to treat fibromyalgia patients. The medication aims to reduce pain, sleep difficulties and anxiety. Sometimes different medicines are used at the same time, but despite this they do not necessarily bring the necessary relief to the symptoms. Although paracetamol is commonly used in the treatment of pain, there is no evidence that it can be used to treat fibromyalgia. (6)



10 facts about fibromyalgia

  • Fibromyalgia occurs in approximately 2-8 percent of the population.
  • There is no cure for the disease, but the symptoms can be alleviated or even disappear on their own.
  • Causes the second most long-term pain in the musculoskeletal system.
  • Chronic pain syndrome accompanied by variable pain and other symptoms.
  • The pain regulation system becomes more sensitive and changes occur in the functioning of the involuntary nervous system.
  • Medicines can mainly treat pain and exhaustion.
  • Hereditary factors affect about half of the cases.
  • Exercise, sleep quality and maintaining mental well-being are essential to the treatments.
  • The disease cannot be detected in a laboratory.
  • Fibromyalgia rarely occurs in children. ( 6)


CBD oil, bottle and pipette.

With the help of CBD oil, the symptoms of fibromyalgia, such as pain and insomnia , can be relieved and thus the quality of life can be improved.




Fibromyalgia and diet


There is no unequivocal evidence of the effect of diet in the treatment of fibromyalgia. The help received from nutrition is always case-specific. General recommendations for fibromyalgia are to pay particular attention to adequate intake of trace elements and vitamins such as vitamin D. (6)

Other fibromyalgic patients avoid foods such as alcohol, red meat, sugar and gluten. Abstaining from certain foods eases symptoms for some and not for others. It is important for everyone to find a diet and food rhythms that suit them. Above all, it would be good to try to avoid stress related to eating, so that the body can find an optimal balance. (6)


How to live with fibromyalgia symptoms?


How to live with fibromyalgia symptoms? Based on experience, healthy lifestyles, regular exercise, rest and a suitable diet can make living with the disease much easier. Positive experiences have also been gained from group courses, where you can talk about your own experiences and peer support is available.

More and more people are experiencing that CBD provides significant relief from fibromyalgia symptoms. So one recommended way is to try it CBD oils that you can order from the online store .



  1. Heikki Julkunen. 2019. Duodecim. Fibromyalgia. Referred on 03/28/2022
  2. Tom Petterson. 2021. Rheumatism Association. Fibromyalgia . Referred on 29/03/2022
  3. Russo, E. 2004. Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency (CECD): Can this Concept Explain Therapeutic Benefits of Cannabis in Migraine, Fibromyalgia, Irritable Bowel Syndrome and other Treatment-Resistant Conditions? Neuroendocrinology Letters.
  4. Fibromyalgia pain points . Referred on 10/05/2022
  5. Sonja Vučković et al. Cannabinoids and Pain: New Insights From Old Molecules. Front Pharmacol. 2018. Referred on 10/05/2022.
  6. Amnon A. Berger et al. ScienceDirect. 2020. Cannabis and cannabidiol (CBD) for the treatment of fibromyalgia. Referred on 10/05/2022
  7. Henna Laitio. 2016. Rheumatism Association. In the treatment of fibromyalgia pain syndrome, drug-free treatment methods are emphasized. Referred on 29/03/2022
CBD oil and menstruation

CBD oil and menstruation

CBD oil and menstruation go well together, as the challenges associated with menstruation are almost as diverse as the effects of CBD oil. Menstruation is a cyclical system that adapts to the lunar cycle, the task of which is to both remove the old unfertilized egg from the path of a new one, and to cleanse the mind and body of old energies, waste materials and beliefs (1).

During the last few centuries, menstruation has become for more and more people a monthly drama of suffering rather than a gentle educational event, because menstruation is accompanied by a variety of symptoms, from shame and mood swings to pain conditions that paralyze the bed (2). Almost all bleeding people suffer from various challenges related to menstruation, and a few diseases associated with menstruation have also been classified. Many types of remedies have certainly been tried over the years, but could CBD oil help with menstruation?

The endocannabinoid system in the reproductive system

The internal general regulator of the body, the endocannabinoid system, also extends to the uterus, ovaries and in the brain the areas responsible for the menstrual cycle and the reproductive system. The endocannabinoid system plays an important role in reproduction, and studies have shown that both cannabinoids and cannabinoid receptors have their own special functions during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. (3, 4)

The endocannabinoid system acts as an observer in the reproductive system by balancing the activity of the cells of the organs responsible for the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. The endocannabinoid system has been shown to be involved in e.g. in follicular development, egg maturation, ovarian embryo transfer and attachment, placental formation, and the ovarian endocrine system. (3, 4) The endocannabinoid system and the HPO axis (hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axis), which is responsible for the hormones that regulate the maturation and release of the ovum, are in a complex but very significant relationship. The HPO axis is responsible for the hormonal function of menstruation, and the endocannabinoid system, on the other hand, regulates the function of the axis to balance if necessary. (4)

Cannabinoid receptors

CB1 and CB2 receptors are both widely present in the ovaries, follicles (the follicle where the egg matures), the corpus luteum, and the scarred corpus luteum. Both receptors are also present in the uterus, ovarian medulla and medulla. The CB2 receptor has been detected on the outermost layer of the embryonal vesicle during the first trimester of pregnancy. (3). It has been established that CB2 receptors are more widespread in the reproductive system, but also that they are not active throughout the menstrual cycle, at least with regard to the endocannabinoid anandamide. The receptors only respond to anandamide when the egg is maturing. (4)

The cannabinoid anandamide is more abundant than other endocannabinoids in the region of the uterus and ovaries. One of the functions of anandamide in the ovaries is to participate in the antrum phase of the maturing egg. It has been shown to be involved in e.g. in follicle maturation, egg maturation and ovulation (3). Anandamide is made in the corpus luteum and the corpus luteum and is produced under hormonal control.

A person holds CBD oil in his hand.

CBD oil and menstruation go hand in hand.

Can CBD oil help with periods?

The active ingredient of CBD oil, cannabidiol, CBD, may not affect menstruation directly by making it easier, but its properties are suitable as a helper for a wide range of symptoms that accompany menstruation. CBD has been studied to relieve pain (5), improve sleep quality (6,7) and relieve anxiety (7). It has antioxidant effects and relieves the inflammatory state of the body (8). CBD oil has been found to help with various chronic pains, such as those associated with the common condition endometriosis (9,10). Supporting endometriosis with CBD oil and cannabinoids in general has been studied with somewhat good results (10,11). CBD oil has also been found increasing the amount of neurotransmitters in the body and improving their binding capacity .

Studies have not shown that CBD has its own functions in the menstrual cycle, or that it clearly specifically helps with a certain problem associated with menstruation. In a roundabout way, it might be a real help. The side effects of menstruation often have a strong impact on life and make it difficult for many. Alleviating or even eliminating the various side effects might help us face our periods with the great appreciation and gratitude they really deserve; the menstrual cycle and menstruation are a real mirror of the internal and external state.

Cannabinoids balance the menstrual cycle

Since menstruation, the uterus and ovaries are ultimately under the control of endocannabinoids, a good way to support menstruation is to take care of the well-being of the entire endocannabinoid system. CBD oil is a versatile, safe and natural way to support the endocannabinoid system. The endocrine system responsible for the effortless functioning of the menstrual cycle is balanced with the help of the endocannabinoid system, and the well-being of both is supported not only by exocannabinoids, but also by healthy lifestyles.

The menstrual cycle is counted as starting from the first day of menstruation. In a normal menstrual cycle, which does not include e.g. diagnosed disease, the symptomatology can be very broad.

Multi-effect CBD oil supports the menstrual cycle

By taking into account your own menstrual cycle and its sensations, you can come to terms with how your period feels and what kind of emotional states are associated with it. The versatile mechanisms of action of CBD oil almost guarantee that it is possible for everyone to find help for menstrual challenges with it, whether it is pain during menstruation, anxiety appearing before menstruation, PMS or tingling in the lower back during the ovulation phase.

CBD oil can relieve symptoms and calm the mind so that the situation is easier to accept. Menstruation tells a lot about health and mental state, and therefore it would be important to be able to listen to what they communicate! Menstruation and the endocannabinoid system work closely together, and cannabinoids and their receptors are involved in most events of the menstrual cycle.


The use of CBD oil to ease menstrual problems is common around the world. Others find that CBD oil is a great help for various symptoms, either alleviating them or eliminating them completely. Several good properties are associated with CBD oil, which can be of great help throughout the menstrual cycle, depending on the current symptom.

See also the article CBD and PMS symptoms .


  1. Just the Mama blog. The Power of Blood. 2019. Referred on 14/02/2022
  2. Women’s house. Woman and hormones. 2018. Referred on 18.02.2022
  3. M. El-Talatini, A. Taylor, J. Elson, L-Brown, A. Davidson, J. Konje. 2019. Localization and function of the endocannabinoid system in the human ovary. Referred on 18.02.2022
  4. O. Walker, A. Holloway, S. Raha. 2019. The role of the endocannabinoid system in the female reproductive tissues. Referred on 18.02.2022.
  5. K. Copland. 2019. research showed pain relieving effects of CBD. Referred on 17.02.2022
  6. S Shannon, N Lewis, H Lee, S Hughes. Cannabidiol in anxiety and sleep : a large case series. .
  7. E. Blessing, M. Steenkamp, J. Manzanares, C. Marmar. Cannabidiol as a potential treatment for anxiety disorders. Referred on 10.07.2021
  8. S. Atalay, I. Jarocka-Karpowicz, E. Skrzydlewska. 2020. Antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of cannabidiol. Referred on 19.02.2022
  9. R. Huttunen. Pain and the endocannabinoid system. 2019. Referred on 13/02/2022
  10. J. Sorian, B. Alexandra, B. On Daniel, S. Seidman, D. Sorian. 2017. The clinical significance of endocannabinoids in endometriosis pain management. Referred on 18.02.2022
  11. M. Biles. 2019. CBD and cannabis for endometriosis. Referred on 10.02.2022

CBD and weight loss

CBD and weight loss

Dieting is certainly one of the oldest and most consumed trends in history. People have always had soldiers, young people, advertising faces and misses as role models, whom they wanted to be like, at any cost. Although being overweight is harmful, so can dieting. CBD and weight loss have recently surfaced as a topic. In this article, we will learn about overweight and safe weight loss, the endocannabinoid system behind weight management, and whether CBD oil can help with weight loss.


Overweight in general


Overweight and obesity are a public health challenge, especially in Western countries, including Finland. In Finland, almost 70% of adults are overweight or obese, children approx. 30% and almost half of young people. Since the 1980s, the number of obese people has doubled and the number of children has even tripled. Every other person in Finland has waist fat. (1,2)

Overweight and especially waist obesity contribute to the onset of many diseases, the most common of which is adult-onset diabetes. Being overweight has a negative effect on blood pressure and blood fat values and is a significant factor behind fatty liver . It also causes infertility in both women and men, and is often the cause of knee and leg joint ailments. In addition to physical symptoms, mental challenges are common in overweight people, and especially in young people, obesity can significantly affect self-esteem. (1)

In addition to the fact that obesity is a risk for the person himself, it also creates a financial burden for society.


Factors behind overweight


There can be many reasons behind obesity. It is an energy-metabolic disease that can be caused by mental traumas, sometimes a constant rush, laziness in the kitchen or ignorance of what would be a healthy way to eat. As a result of many diseases, excess weight can accumulate, and sometimes medications also cause it.


Endocannabinoid system underlying body weight


The endocannabinoid system known as the body’s balancing system is behind everything to ensure that the body functions as balanced as possible. It is, of course, an ancient system and still functions as it was originally created in us. This system has a bad tendency to hoard energy when it is available. Of course, the system is only doing it for its goodness when it has not adapted to this abundance that we are used to, but the danger is that energy is stored at maximum power all the time, which of course also accumulates in the wrong places. For this reason alone, gaining excess weight is extremely easy for part of the population; in this regard, they have a well- and efficiently functioning endocannabinoid system.

The endocannabinoid system not only regulates appetite, but also the function of many organs and systems focused on metabolism, such as fat cells, liver cells and the gastrointestinal tract (3,4). It is also a very significant regulator of the brain’s hypothalamus, which is largely responsible for functions important for survival, such as appetite and energy storage, body temperature and circadian rhythm (3,5).

According to studies, the background of obesity and overweight is the overactivity of the endocannabinoid system , in this case the overproduction of the CB1 receptor (3).

These data suggest that a high-fat diet promotes the pathological production of endocannabinoids, which may increase lipogenesis, the conversion of excess glucose into storage fat. This eventually leads to the formation of fatty tissue in the liver. (3)


Cannabinoid receptors


Although both cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, are found throughout the body, the CB1 receptor is more common in the brain. In the hypothalamus of the brain, CB1 receptors and endocannabinoids regulate the activity of systems focused on appetite and food intake. (5)




The most studied endocannabinoids are anandamide and 2-AG. These are the most important endogenous cannabinoids and both of them participate in vital functions related to weight management. In animal experiments, 2-AG levels have been found to decrease during fasting and rise again immediately after eating, while anandamide levels do not seem to vary in vital functions related to eating. This suggests that 2-AG is the more active and important endocannabinoid for eating behavior and energy storage. (3,4,5)

diary, fruit, tape measure and dumbbell to support weight loss.

Safe and targeted weight loss always includes a good plan, a healthy diet and an appropriate amount of exercise.


Safe weight loss

There are guaranteed to be thousands of different weight loss methods, and everything has probably been tried, from not eating to consuming only fat. Usually the weight does fall, but only temporarily. No single diet necessarily guarantees permanent weight loss, but it is important to commit to renovating your lifestyle completely. At first it may seem scary and a lot of effort, but according to experience, a long-term plan bears fruit as increased well-being prevents returning to old habits most effectively.

Safe weight loss is definitely based on an understanding of what you are doing. Most of the time, it’s not about losing weight alone, but a lifestyle change that starts with observing your own patterns of action. Often the goal is to lose weight quickly, but in terms of permanent results, it is not an ideal way to lose weight.

There are various calculators on the Internet that can be used to calculate, for example, the allowed amount of calories in relation to the desired weight loss, but these should be treated with a little caution, because the calculators often set a time target for weight loss and that is not in line with safe weight loss.

In this link, you can find one example of numerous weight loss calculators.


Weight loss and diet

Diet is certainly the most important element behind weight loss. Today there are a huge number of different diets and they can be very different from each other. It can seem extremely challenging to find the lifestyle that best supports you when there are so many options.

One of the biggest mistakes you can make to lose weight is to eat too little or not at all and at the same time deny yourself everything good. It goes without saying that it doesn’t inspire you to adopt this kind of lifestyle and often the weight accumulates back before it has been properly gained or even lost.

Depending on the situation, the surest way to lose weight permanently is to eat lightly and sufficiently, increase the amount of exercise and take care of mental well-being. Increasing vegetables, fruits and berries, reducing empty carbohydrates and stopping or minimizing consumption of refined sugars, hidden sugar and fat, as well as excessive low-quality fat have been researched as the most effective ways to lose weight permanently. It’s good to allow yourself, at least after a rough start, treats, and above all, to find ways to treat yourself that are not harmful to your health.

A versatile diet to support weight loss.

A healthy diet can effectively lose weight.


CBD and weight loss


In general, it may be thought that hemp increases the appetite, but it is not that simple. Research has shown that CBD isolates in particular reduce appetite, but according to user experiences The use of the CBD oil use balances the appetite without increasing or decreasing it. In order to utilize all the active substances of hemp, it is recommended to note that the oil is of the highest possible quality, containing all the therapeutic substances of hemp. CBD has been found to work best when it works synergistically, i.e. together with all the active substances of hemp.

Despite its appetite-smoothing effects, CBD oil is not a weight-loss medicine. Best for weight loss support CBD could be a stress reliever, reduce depression and anxiety , and calm the body’s low-level inflammation .


In summary


Being overweight is a public health challenge, and the best way to deal with overweight, the constant yo-yoing of weight and the resulting health challenges is to take healthy lifestyles into account. Food rich in nutrients, exercise, good quality water and a life as stress-free as possible guarantee a good foundation for a healthy body, but also for the mind. Being overweight causes both physical and mental health challenges, and treating it with its side effects is one of the most significant expenditure items in the public health care budget.

The endocannabinoid system is responsible for processes related to eating and also overweight. CBD oil may be helpful for dealing with various side effects such as sleep- related challenges, but the weight loss itself must be done with the help of other means such as diet and exercise!




  1. Mustajoki P.. 2022. Health Library Duodecim. Fatness. Referred on 11/16/2022.
  2. Department of Health and Welfare. Prevalence of obesity. Referred on 11/16/2022
  3. Bellocchio L., Cervino C., Pasquali R. and Pagotto U.. 2008. Journal of neuroendocrinology. The Endocannabinoid System and Energy Metabolism. . Referred on 11/16/2022
  4. Horn H., Böhme B., Dietrich L. and Koch M.. 2018. Endocannabinoids in body weight control. . Referred on 11/16/2022.
  5. Miralpeix C., Reguera AC, Fosch A., Zagmutt S., Casals N., Cota D. and Rodriguez-Rodriguez R.. 2021. Hypothalamic endocannabinoids in obesity: an old story with new challenges. . Referred on 11/16/2022.
CBD, arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis

CBD, arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis

Joint diseases such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and arthritis cause various symptoms ranging from joint stiffness to inflammation and severe pain. There is no curative treatment or medicine for these diseases yet, but luckily there are some ways to alleviate the symptoms. In this article, we will get to know the two most common joint diseases and find out if CBD helps with their symptoms.


Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, what is the difference?


Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis are similar, but differ based on the root cause. Osteoarthritis is caused by e.g. from hard work, aging, injury and heredity, while rheumatoid arthritis is a purely inflammatory disease. In both, the joints are symptomatic, causing pain and various side symptoms.




Osteoarthritis is the world’s most common joint disease and is largely caused by strain and injuries to the joints. The actual cause of osteoarthritis is unknown, but the symptoms are caused by cartilage breaking down faster than repair. (1)

Osteoarthritis occurs most often in the knee, hip, fingers and back. On the back side, osteoarthritis can occur in the joints between the vertebrae. As a result of osteoarthritis, some kind of changes can occur in the bones, joint bursa and joint cartilage.


Rheumatoid arthritis


Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory rheumatic disease, the causes of which are largely in heredity, unilateral movement and lifestyle. Less than one percent of Finns suffer from it, and it can break out at any stage of life. Rheumatoid arthritis is usually diagnosed in older people, over 65 years old, but sometimes it also occurs in children. According to statistics, rheumatoid arthritis is more common in women than in men, as only one third of rheumatoid arthritis diagnoses are given to men. (2) Rheumatoid arthritis is most commonly found in the joints of the fingers.




The symptoms of osteoarthritis are excruciating pain in the joints and joint stiffness, especially in the morning. The pain worsens with exertion and subsides with rest, but advanced osteoarthritis also causes pain at night, which may contribute to the development of sleep difficulties (1). with CBD oil according to studies, it has effects that improve sleep quality and balance the sleep cycle. Read more about the effect of CBD insomnia. In addition, CBD has pain-relieving properties .

The first symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis are manifested as morning stiffness in the small joints of the body in the fingers and toes. The symptoms are usually symmetrical on both sides of the body. Common side symptoms are e.g. weight loss, fatigue, pains and fever which are partly caused by the body’s inflammatory reaction. (2)

Treatment and prevention


Osteoarthritis cannot be cured, but in general the condition of the joints can be taken care of preventively, e.g. by adding good quality collagen to the diet and avoiding exercise that causes strong shocks, but doing it regularly. Also, preventing the accumulation of excess weight may affect the development of osteoarthritis. (1)

Osteoarthritis is treated at home, e.g. by losing excess weight and using cold therapy. It is a good idea to see a doctor at the latest when the painkiller no longer helps, despite the fact that there is no cure or treatment available. Osteoarthritis is mainly treated with painkillers, but a TENS device that gives electrical impulses is also used for pain relief. (1)

Rheumatoid arthritis is treated with anti-inflammatory drugs, and the goal of the treatment is remission, i.e. a state where the disease does not progress. In Finland, rheumatoid arthritis is treated with a combination of traditional anti-rheumatic drugs and glucocorticoids, and usually at least 75% of patients achieve remission relatively soon after starting treatment. (2)

Rheumatoid arthritis may be impossible to prevent, but its onset can be prevented by taking care of the joints through diet and light exercise. Avoiding smoking may also help!

hand with typical rheumatoid arthritis pain points described.

Diseases related to the joints cannot be cured, but there are a few ways to alleviate the symptoms. CBD may be especially effective in supporting the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.


The cannabinoid system


The endocannabinoid system monitors all processes in the body and regulates them as needed towards balance. The background of most diseases is some kind of disturbance in the functioning of this system. The endocannabinoid system is also involved in joint function.

The endocannabinoid system includes the endogenous cannabinoids, i.e. the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-AG , their corresponding receptors CB1 and CB2, and the molecules that break down these elements.

Both cannabinoids and their receptors are present in the joints. In diseases affecting the joints, it has been noticed that the CB2 receptor in particular is abundant, but both endocannabinoids and both receptors have been detected in increased amounts compared to healthy joints. (3)

In the joints, endocannabinoids seem to target newly damaged joints the most, although they are also present in healthy, well-functioning joints, including those suffering from joint diseases.

CBD to help?


Those who practice Chinese medicine have already said thousands of years ago that hemp eliminates rheumatism. The claim as such is hardly true, but it is known that one of the most significant effects of cannabinoids is the reduction of inflammatory markers in the body.

CBD for tissue damage caused by osteoarthritis does not necessarily help, but side symptoms such as pain, sleep difficulties and stiffness may be affected. CBD has been studied and used successfully e.g. For stiffness caused by MS , various pains and challenges related to sleep. (3,4)

As rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory disease, its symptoms and the course of the disease with CBD oil may have effects. CBD has been studied to reduce inflammation in the body, and this effect is likely to be seen in the increased CB2 receptor levels in the joints of the rheumatism patient, which have risen both through the activation of CBD and the endocannabinoid system itself. (3,4)

A study conducted in Canada as an anonymous survey of joint disease sufferers clearly stated that CBD had a positive effect on various symptoms. Pain was reduced by 86%, functional ability improved by 66% and sleep-related challenges eased by 66% of those who responded to the survey. Several of the respondents also reported that the need for medication decreased or even stopped completely after starting to use CBD. (4)

The American organization focused on joint diseases, the Arthritis foundation, has collected statistical information not only on joint diseases, but also on the treatment of joint diseases with CBD. To the English site can be found here .


CBD for pet joints?


CBD oil also suitable for supporting animal care. The use of CBD oil related to the well-being of the joints is one of the most common ways to use CBD oil in animals, and according to user experiences and research, it has a positive effect. Improvements in mobility and general condition have been observed in dogs suffering from joint diseases In connection with the use of CBD . (5)




Joint diseases are usually incurable and unfortunately common. The condition of the joints can be influenced by following healthy lifestyles, but they are not necessarily a guarantee that these diseases may not break out during life. The endocannabinoid system is also involved in joint function, and its parts have their own roles in the background of joint-related well-being. CBD oil may be particularly helpful for the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, but it may also have an effect on the side symptoms caused by both osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, such as stiffness and factors that disturb sleep.


  1. Pohjolainen T.. 2019. Duodecim health library. Osteoarthritis (arthrosis). Referenced 1/18/2023.
  2. Julkunen H.. 2022. Duodecim health library. Rheumatoid arthritis. Referenced 1/18/2023
  3. Barrie N and Manolis N.. 2017. The endocannabinoid system in pain and inflammation: Its relevance to rheumatic disease. %20N% 5BAuthor%5D. Referenced 1/18/2023
  4. Frane N., Stapleton E., Iturriaga C., Ganz M., Rasquinha V. and Duarte R.. 2022. Cannabidiol as a treatment for arthritis and joint pain: an exploratory cross-sectional study. %20M% 5BAuthor%5D. Referenced 1/18/2023.
  5. Ellevate science. 2018. Cisio’s PR newswire. Referenced 1/18/2023
  6. Arthritis foundation. Referenced 1/18/2023



Pain and CBD oil

Pain and CBD oil

A normal person experiences physical pain in their life. Nowadays, chronic pain is also familiar to more and more people. For a long time, pain can even become a part of our identity. How to deal with pain? In the long run, it can even become an unbearable burden on our lives. Many arts have often already been tried, and especially in serious health challenges, it is important to progress in healing on many levels. But have you tried proper CBD yet? For many, the help it brings to pain challenges is undeniable. More and more people have even felt that they got their life back from their pain with the help of CBD .


What causes the pain?


Have you ever stopped to think about what causes pain? What exactly is pain? That brings a challenge to our consciousness. When we hurt our toe on a chair, for example, we carelessly caused a small damage to our toe, and the pain is a signal of this. If we didn’t experience pain, we wouldn’t learn to be careful of the chair. But what about a stomach ache? Of course, this can also be caused by, for example, wrong nutrition. In addition to this, we can also be in a stressed state. In recent decades, we have already learned to understand the concept of a stress stomach.

As is well known, this same phenomenon can also occur as a headache, but for a long time, even in medical circles, we have started to notice the view that our physical and mental well-being are connected to each other more than previously thought. A late doctor from the United States has been a pioneer in the subject John E. Sarno. In her medical career, she quickly saw the connection between allergies and mental well-being. Also Dr. Sarno noticed the same connection between mental ailments and back pain. Through his mappings, we finally began to understand that this kind of pain can be located anywhere in our body.

Dr. Sarno and many other experts have found that while pain can be a message of damage where the pain is, pain can also be experienced to avoid emotional pain.


The role of CBD in pain management


CBD balances our endocannabinoid system, abbreviated ECS (from endocannabinoid system). The ECS regulates all of our other eleven self-regulatory systems, so it has an effect on the one hand directly on pain, but also on possible underlying emotional states.

CBD’s direct effect on pain


The endocannabinoid system consists of cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 and their ligands anandamide and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), and enzymes responsible for ligand metabolism. Cannabinoid ligands can also activate other receptors in addition to cannabinoid receptors. These receptors include TRPV1, GPR18 and GPR55. The main ligand of the TRPV1 receptor (Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-1) is capsaicin (1), which creates the heat in chilies. This is why some people experience a mild hot flush when using cannabinoids. For some, the burning may be excessively intense at first, but it goes away after use.

Traditionally, chili is known to be an effective pain reliever, although its effect only targets TRPV1 receptors. Today, awareness of CBD’s effect on pain is also spreading. Our endocannabinoid system affects pain directly and indirectly through the other receptors mentioned above. It plays a very central role in the experience of pain throughout our body. In 2020, Poland conducted a review of the pain-relieving effects of CBD in our body in a wide range of pain situations, such as nerve pain, inflammatory pain, osteoarthritis and others. The final conclusion was that CBD is a well-tolerated and safe natural compound that has shown promising pain-relieving effects in a wide range of pain challenges in clinical trials (2).

Walking in nature, a suitable diet, a sauna combined with cold water, light exercise, adequate rest and many other things can also be helpful for pain relief.

It is also important to understand that our endocannabinoid system is really a central part of our body’s functioning, and that part of pain relief with CBD is our body’s way of telling us that we have nourished its most important self-regulating system. We are designed to get a lot more cannabinoids from our diet than we currently do.


The effect of CBD on the underlying factors of pain


The aforementioned research into the underlying causes of pain has shown that emotional states can also cause physical pain. Pain seems to be the body’s mechanism to avoid these emotional states if they are too much for our consciousness to handle. However, CBD has an effect on these background factors as well, as has been studied.

Innovare Journal of Medical Science published an article in 2020 that analyzed no less than 76 studies published in 2019 and 2020 on the effects of CBD on certain diseases such as stress , anxiety and depression . The study concluded that CBD has promising effects on these ailments, especially when it is not just CBD isolate. (3)

In 2020, the effects of CBD have also been studied for stronger stress conditions with larger doses. The positive results have inspired further research. (4) Mental challenges can be eased by finding meaning in one’s life, spiritual exercises such as meditation, doing things that interest oneself, and for some, vigorous exercise can also be therapeutic. It may also be necessary to avoid spending a lot of time in front of screens. This article also covers the topic in terms of anxiety: CBD oil can relieve anxiety .

A woman is holding a sore shoulder and suffering from shoulder pain.

Pain in the shoulder area and shoulder can be relieved with CBD oil and massage.

The use of CBD for various pain conditions


Below you will find a list of different common pains, divided into different areas of our body:


  • Lower abdominal pain
  • Lower back pain
  • Coccyx pain
  • Pain in the sternum
  • Pain in left side


Head and limbs:

  • Headache
  • Wisdom tooth pain
  • Foot pain
  • Pain in the soles of the feet
  • A shooting pain in the arm


Nervous system, joints and pelvis:

  • Sciatica pain
  • Neuropathic pain (nerve pain)
  • Knee pain
  • Elbow pain
  • Coccyx pain


The style of using CBD depends on the location of the pain. If it is, for example, general lower abdominal pain, it is most effective to take CBD orally. Pain in the lower abdomen can also be related to intestinal well-being. You can read more about it The effect of CBD on intestinal well-being .

For many other common ailments, it can also be good to put CBD directly locally at the point of pain. CBD cream and CBD oils are best for topical use.

A person sitting on the ground suffers from leg pain.

Pain in the metatarsals and soles of the feet is becoming more and more common. The soles of the feet can be massaged with CBD oil. Just by massaging the soles of the feet, you can affect the pain conditions and well-being of our entire body, the soles of the feet are full of nerve endings.


Pain in the metatarsals and soles of the feet is becoming more and more common


The ball of the foot and the sole of the foot are also increasingly areas where pain occurs. Massaging the soles of your feet with CBD oil is especially good, as it allows the CBD to have the most relaxing effect. By massaging the soles of the feet, you can affect the pain conditions and well-being of our entire body, because it is full of nerve endings. You can read about the anatomy of the bones of the feet and the increasingly common barefootness and the advantages of barefoot shoes compared to cushioned shoes From a comprehensive article written in New York Magazine , which also tells about the history of shoes and the effect on the health of our feet (5).

For foot care, you can find 100% natural CBD foot cream in our online store, which has been specially developed for tired feet. CBD cream warms, increases peripheral blood circulation and soothes the skin. Thanks to the natural active ingredients, the cream reduces leg swelling and tenderness, and speeds up healing from muscle injuries.


How much CBD to use


The amount of CBD used largely depends on the intensity of the pain and its location. The pain can be especially strong when, for example, there are symptoms of a wisdom tooth. For such acute, strong pain conditions, it can be good to spread the use of CBD to three times a day and with a larger amount than usual. A product-specific dosage recommendation is usually sufficient for normal periodic pains.

What is a large amount? What is a small amount? What is a normal amount? Based on experience, it can be assumed that each endocannabinoid system is individual, and similarly, each hemp variety and product has a slightly different effect. Still, we can get some indication regarding usage volumes.

It is good to start using CBD with a smaller amount at first. As simplified as possible, a rule of thumb for different usage amounts can be given with the following diagram:

Dosage instructions for CBD for every five kilograms (5 kg) of body weight:


1 mg | 3 mg | 5 mg

For example, if a person weighs 50 kg, then a mild dosage would be about 10 mg, medium strength 30 mg and strong 50 mg.

You can find more details about dosing in this article: CBD oil dosing – a complete guide to dosing




  1. Huttunen, R. 2016. Pain and the endocannabinoid system. University of Oulu. Referred on 07/05/2022
  2. Mlost, J. et al. 2020. Polish Academy of Sciences. Poland. Cannabidiol for Pain Treatment: Focus on Pharmacology and Mechanism of Action Referred on 07/05/2022
  3. Ferro M. et al. 2020. Innovare Journal of Medical Science, Vol 8, Issue 6. The role of cannabidiol in the inflammatory process and its properties as an alternative therapy – a review (meta-analysis ). Referred on 10/05/2022
  4. Appiah-Kusi, E. 2020. Springer Link. Effects of short-term cannabidiol treatment on response to social stress in subjects at clinical high risk of developing psychosis . Referred on 07/05/2022
  5. Sternberg, A. 2008. New York Magazine. You Walk Wrong . . Referred on 11.05.2022
CBD oil relief for PMS symptoms

CBD oil relief for PMS symptoms

The many challenges of PMS, i.e. the days before menstruation, are now familiar to almost all menstruating people. There are many reasons for this. with CBD oil has been studied to have positive effects, e.g. to the sensation of pain, anxiety and bad night’s sleep and e.g. many people around the world suffer from these symptoms related to menstruation. According to user experiences, CBD oil really brings relief to many menstrual-related side symptoms, and in this article we will learn how CBD oil could help with PMS symptoms.


What is PMS?

PMS, i.e. Premenstrual syndrome, is a large group of different symptoms related to menstruation and the time before menstruation. They include both physical and psychological symptoms, the intensity of which varies from imperceptible to those that make life difficult. Uncomfortable sensations start 1-2 weeks before menstruation and usually subside on the 4th. by the leak date. Of menstruating people, approx. 20-30% feel that they have PMS symptoms that affect their lives and approx. 5-10% suffer from very severe symptoms. However, it is estimated that more than 95% of all menstruating women feel that PMS is a part of their life, perhaps with mild, well-tolerated sensations that pass quickly (1).


CBD oil works through the endocannabinoid system

As the endocannabinoid system is a background influencer in almost all functions in the body, it is also a balancer of the menstrual cycle and the body systems behind it. Endocannabinoids have been detected both in the brain from those areas that regulate functions related to menstruation and reproduction, as well as in the uterus, ovaries and placenta. (2, 3). CBD oil works through cannabinoid receptors and travels evenly throughout the body with the blood!


The spectrum of PMS symptoms is wide

The most common PMS symptoms include e.g. various pain states, mental imbalance, sleep-related challenges and skin symptoms. There are more than 150 different symptoms, so it is likely that everyone who menstruates feels at least a few of them. There are certainly several reasons for the symptoms, but there is no clear root cause for PMS. Fluctuations in the concentration of two hormones, estrogen and progesterone, is the most common cause under which all PMS symptoms are grouped, but the strength and prevalence of premenstrual syndrome is also influenced by beliefs related to menstruation, an unbalanced state of the body, physical and/or psychological trauma, etc.


CBD oil relaxes with the symptoms

The spectrum of PMS symptoms is wide and may even vary between menstrual cycles. CBD oil is flexible in its handling and tackles the problem at hand at any given time. So it can be very well suited to varying PMS symptoms. The effect of CBD oil directly on PMS has been studied very little, but user experiences from abroad are good. Although there aren’t really any studies regarding this particular connection, a broader understanding of the effectiveness of CBD oil on PMS symptoms can be obtained by looking at CBD oil effects in general.

PMS symptoms can be eased with CBD

A woman in the evening sun as a shadow.

CBD oil can ease PMS.






PMS, CBD and acne

According to studies, CBD oil seems to work well for the skin problem that is part of the most common PMS symptoms, acne. CBD oil calms and balances skin function, especially when administered transdermally, i.e. through the skin. Hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle, stress and poor sleep quality affect the skin’s natural function. CBD oil has been found to promote cell flexibility and reduce sebum secretion (4) in addition to its calming and balancing properties (5).


PMS, CBD and pain perception

Ka complex flow of information starts from the nipple point, which first ends up as a pain signal via the dorsal horn to the hypothalamus in the brain. The hypothalamus transmits information to the higher levels of the brain, where the experience of pain finally arises. PMS is associated with different, different pains, the root cause of which can be difficult to determine. The most commonly known are headache, lower abdominal and lower back pain, and breast tenderness.

CBD oil has been found to block the transmission of the pain signal (6). Studies also show that CBD oil has been helpful for muscle and joint pain, such as lower back and lower abdominal pain associated with PMS (6,7). The treatment of migraines with CBD oil has been studied with somewhat good results, but since the headaches are so different from each other, more related studies are still awaited.

Read more about how CBD oil affects pain .

PMS, CBD and Mood

During menstruation, and the changes in hormone activity that precede them, cause mood swings. They are also believed to affect serotonin levels. You may feel anxious and fearful. Many talk about a tendency to cry, a low mood and a feeling of sadness for which there is no clear reason. CBD oil balances the nervous system and calms the mind, it has been found to affect the way we perceive internal and external things. For example, pain or an anxious feeling. Through the endocannabinoid system, CBD prevents brain cells from sending a signal as if triggering what was happening (8). In studies, CBD has been found to relieve anxiety and elevate mood (9), and also works in cooperation with serotonin production, as a result of which CBD oil may alleviate the symptoms caused by low serotonin.


PMS, CBD and sleep

The endocannabinoid system also regulates factors underlying sleep. PMS is associated with an excessive need for sleep, as well as too little sleep. Some suffer from night waking and some cannot sleep at all. The endocannabinoid system regulates the sleep cycle and the depth of sleep. CBD oil has been found to improve the quality of sleep, the functioning of the internal clock and has a positive effect to balance during sleep .



Many have learned to live with PMS symptoms, perhaps through the power of painkillers, sick leave and family. The truth is that any sensation more than a little is not normal and something that should only be swept under the carpet with acceptance and wait for the next month of suffering. There are plenty of user experiences around the world about CBD oil’s help with even difficult PMS symptoms, and as time goes on we will certainly get more research results on the subject. Let it be said, however, that research on the functionality of CBD oil has accumulated so widely on many challenges comparable to PMS symptoms that CBD oil can be a potential support for those struggling with PMS symptoms.



  1. Premenstrual symptoms (premenstrual syndrome. 2021. Aila Tiitinen. Referred on 15/02/2022
  2. M. El-Talatini, A. Taylor, J. Elson, L-Brown, A. Davidson, J. Konje. 2019. Localization and function of the endocannabinoid system in the human ovary. Referred on 15/02/2022
  3. O. Walker, A. Holloway, S. Raha. 2019. The role of the endocannabinoid system in the female reproductive tissues. Referred on 15/02/2022.
  4. Cannabidiol is an effective helper compound in combination with bacitracin to kill Gram-positive bacteria. 2020. Wassmann C, Hojrup P, Kudsk J.. . Referred on 15/02/2022
  5. Cannabidiol exerts sebostatic and anti-inflammatory effects on human sebocytes. 2014. Olah A., Toth B., Borbiro I., Sugawara K., Szöllösi A., Czifra G., Pal B., Ambrus L., Kloepper J., Camera E., Ludovici M., Picardo M., Voets T., Zouboulis C., Paus R., Biro T.. Referred on 15/02/2022
  6. A balanced approach for cannabidiol use in chronic pain. 2020 . Argueta D, Ventura C, Kiven S, Sagi V, Guptal Kalpna. Referred on 15/02/2022
  7. A selective review of medical cannabis in cancer pain management. 2017. Blake A., Wan B., Maleks L., DeAngelis C., Diaz P., Lao N., Chow E., O’hearn S.. review-of-medical-cannabis-in-cancer-pain-management.pdf. Referred on 15/02/2022
  8. Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders. 2015. Blessing E., Steenkamp M., Manzanares J., Marmar C.. Referred on 15/02/2022
  9. Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety and Mood Disorders: Molecular Targets and Epigenetic Insights from Preclinical Research. 2021. Melas P., Schrema M., Fratta W., Cifani C., Fadda P. Referred on 15/02/2022
CBD oil can relieve anxiety

CBD oil can relieve anxiety

CBD oil can relieve anxiety symptoms, because it affects our body, e.g. to those CB receptors located in the areas responsible for emotional experiences. Anxiety is a very common feeling that, when chronic, can even make life difficult. CBD oil in the treatment of anxiety has been studied more in recent decades, so there is a wide range of material supporting this view. In this article, we will delve into anxiety, anxiety disorder and how CBD oil could ease the symptoms associated with these!


Anxiety symptoms


My chest tightens, my hands sweat, it hurts, and my nerves tighten over the smallest things. The heart beats and the unpleasant thoughts grow inside the head to enormous proportions. We are talking about anxiety, a feeling that involves both stress and physical bodily reactions and symptoms. It is estimated that approx. 20% of the world’s people experience anxiety symptoms during their lifetime, but the number is certainly higher in reality.


Anxiety symptoms always have a message


Anxiety can be a short-term reaction essential for survival, as it may tell us when we are going in the wrong direction in life or if the decision we just made was wrong. Instead, constant physical and mental anxiety symptoms that hinder life are no longer something that would help us make the right decisions. Vice versa. A deeply anxious person is in a situation where the ability to concentrate is barely enough to survive, CBD oil, in its versatility, can ease this condition.

Anxiety is a familiar feeling to many


Anxiety is undoubtedly a familiar feeling to all people, but sometimes it can become chronic to the point of anxiety disorder. Anxiety is always associated with a malfunction of the stress response, which results in an overreaction of the body and mind to even small, insignificant things. Anxiety can be related to individual situations and events, but also to personal fears and emotional states. Common symptoms associated with anxiety and anxiety disorders are bodily sensations combined with stress. Heart palpitations, sweating, the compulsive need to run away from the place and things running through your mind too much are clear symptoms of an anxiety attack. Similar to these symptoms of anxiety is that the stress reaction always starts in the body first. (1)

Chronic anxiety, an anxiety disorder, is when the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system and their bilateral cooperation goes out of balance; the balancing function of the parasympathetic nervous system no longer works properly. The physical symptoms of an anxiety attack are caused by the activity of the sympathetic nervous system.



Endocannabinoid system and cannabinoid receptor network.

Anxiety has been successfully treated by activating CB1 receptors. CBD affects the receptors of the endocannabinoid system, thanks to which anxiety and related symptoms can be relieved.


The endocannabinoid system is involved in anxiety disorders


Body balancer, endocannabinoid system, is an essential part in the generation of the stress response. The endocannabinoid system also regulates emotional behavior. It determines neural flexibility related to learning and response, especially in connection with events experienced as aversive (2,3). of the CB1 receptor activation plays a significant role in anxiety-related bodily functions. It has been found to work anxiolytically, i.e. as an anxiety reliever for various models of conditioned fear, which are also associated with anxiety and anxiety disorders. CB1 receptor activation prevents the consolidation of fear, and enhances fear extinction and CB1 receptor activation endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) is necessary for the relaxation of hormonal stress. It also protects against chronic stress. (2,3,4)


Anxiety starts with stress


Anxiety develops in stages. First, stress is triggered as a result of some thought or event. Stress is transmitted to the brain to the hypothalamus, which further transmits the information about the caused stress to all body systems and functions. This event results in the release of stress hormones. The release of stress hormones triggers the activity of the sympathetic nervous system, which is responsible for the stress response. When the acute stress is over, the parasympathetic nervous system begins to relax the body and return us to a state of balance. This cycle creates anxiety. Anxiety becomes chronic anxiety disorder at the point when the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems are no longer balanced normally, but the sympathetic nervous system and its function remains on, in the ON position. (5)

A woman relieved of stress in a flower meadow.

Fortunately, anxiety can be treated in many different ways, such as saunas, music and exercise in nature.

There are many ways to relieve anxiety


The best way to relieve anxiety is to get to the root of it. It is essential to put in order the things in life that contribute to the emergence of anxiety, even if it seems difficult at first. The background of anxiety may be a poor diet, too little exercise or traumas, unresolved issues in the past. It’s good to at least partially rule out their contribution to anxiety either before or at the latest when you start trying if CBD oil could be of help. CBD oil alone will not make anyone happy in this matter, but other causes of anxiety must also be weeded out. One of the most important factors is stress relief, which of course is not very easy in this age driven by haste. It is important to find your own ways to calm your mind. Meditation, moving in nature, calm music and sauna are natural, researched ways to relieve stress.


An anxiety disorder makes life difficult



In an anxiety disorder, stress and anxiety symptoms have become chronic, for example fear of public spaces and social situations, panic disorder and anxiety disorder. They are states of mind that really affect the quality of life. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system causes physical, even strong, symptoms. Although they go away on their own in minutes, they can prevent us from doing things we do in everyday life. (6)


Other body receptors related to anxiety


A receptor is a molecule present in the cell, which when activated, initiates the signal transmission mechanisms related to the cell. There are four different types of receptors in our body, which are activated by e.g. hormones and neurotransmitters. CB1 and CB2 receptors are well-known receptors of the endocannabinoid system, but our body also has other receptors that are affected by both endo- and exocannabinoids such as anandamide and CBD .



5-HT1A serotonin receptor


The 5-HT1A serotonin receptor regulates the release of many neurotransmitters and these receptors are located in the peripheral and central nervous system. The 5-HT1A receptor is known as an anxiety-relieving target and it has been found e.g. preventing the harmful effects of stress and promoting the extinction of fear. The function of this receptor is complex, but it has been found to act as a direct promoter of signaling when activated by CBD. In animal experiments, it has been found that many anxiety-relieving functions in the body take place specifically through the serotonin receptor, which is why it is perhaps the most significant receptor related to the relief of anxiety symptoms. (2)


TRPV1 receptor



The TRPV1 receptor, on the other hand, increases anxiety symptoms when activated. It has been shown that, depending on the balance of the endocannabinoid system, either the CB1 or TRPV1 receptor is activated in a stressful situation and it has been speculated that it regulates emotional behavior. CBD activates the TRPV1 receptor at very high doses, possibly by interfering with anandamide inactivation. (2)

CBD oil in a bottle and pipette.

Anxiety disorder and symptoms of anxiety can be relieved with CBD oil.

CBD oil as an anxiety reliever


Numerous studies of CBD oil the benefits are indisputably proven. In addition to CBD has been found to relieve anxiety, according to user experiences, it also relieves stress. Studies show CBD oil to relieve pain, to improve sleep quality and to correct loss of appetite. These are key factors in terms of preventing anxiety.

CBD has also been found to have an effect on the body’s and mind’s defenses and on how a person is able to live outside his own “well” (2,3,4).

Systematic use of CBD oil has been shown to reduce the intensity of the fear reaction, as well as the so-called reduction of freezing. CBD reduces the manifestation of conditioned fear and alleviates the symptoms of long-term stress. It has also been found to reduce the manifestation of the “fight or flight” reaction (3,4).



CBD oil dosage for anxiety relief


Studies have shown that lower dosages have the most effective effect on the treatment of anxiety. This is interesting, because it is easy to think that the bigger the dose, the bigger the effects. One reason for this may be the activation of the TRPV-1 receptor at higher doses of CBD, as the TRPV1 receptor blocks the anxiolytic effect. (2) Animal experiments found that CBD oil affected anxiety symptoms almost equally with both short-term and long-term use (3,4). CBD has been found to respond weakly to the CB1 receptor, which plays a significant role in terms of anxiety, but on the other hand, it increases the structural activation of the CB1 receptor and increases anandamide levels by inhibiting the activity of FAAH, a cannabinoid degrader (2).



Terpene-containing plants and fruits such as orange.

The terpenes extracted into CBD oil can also contribute to the relief of anxiety and anxiety disorders.


Terpenes also affect anxiety


With terpenes commonly found in plants has also been found to have anti-anxiety and anxiety-relieving effects. These terpenes are particularly abundant in the hemp plant, and thus part of the anxiety-relieving effects of CBD oil also come from terpenes. It has been hypothesized that combining terpenes with cannabinoids increases the calming effects, despite their small amount relative to cannabinoids. Terpenes have even been thought to play a significant role when talking about the therapeutic effects of hemp. Full-spectrum CBD oil has these terpenes in store, making it a good choice for treating anxiety. (7)

Well-known cannabis researcher Ethan Russo has put forward a theory about the synergistic effect of plants, which shows that using the whole plant instead of using one part gives more comprehensive help (7).




CBD oil has been found to be an effective anxiety reliever in several studies, both in animal and human experiments. Especially full-spectrum oils, which contain all the active ingredients of hemp, are an effective and safe way to relieve anxiety symptoms both acutely and in the long term. However, anxiety in itself is such a multi-caused state of mind and body that CBD oil alone does not necessarily help, anxiety should and should be treated with other means as well.




  1. Anxiety. 2018. Huttunen M. Referred to on 30/03/2022
  2. Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders. 2015. Blessing E., Steenkamp M., Manzares J., Marmar C.. Referred to on 30/03/2022
  3. Use of Cannabidiol for the Treatment of Anxiety: A Short Synthesis of Pre-Clinical and Clinical Evidence. 2020. Madison Wright M, Di Ciano P, Brands B.!po=16.6667. Referred to on 30/03/2022
  4. Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: A Large Case Series. 2019. Shannon S., Lewis N., Lee H., Hughes S.. Referred to on 30/03/2022.
  5. Generalized anxiety disorder. 2018. Huttunen M. Referred to on 30/03/2022
  6. Anxiety disorder. 2019. A working group set up by the Duodecim of the Finnish Medical Society, the Finnish Psychiatric Association and the Finnish Youth Psychiatric Association. Referred to on 30/03/2022
  7. The “Entourage Effect”: Terpenes Coupled with Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Mood Disorders and Anxiety Disorders. 2020. Goldstein Feber S., Namdar D., Hen-Shoval D., Eger G., Koltai H., Shbiro L., Weller A.. /PMC7324885/. Referred to on 30/03/2022.


CBD and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

CBD and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

The human mind is a sensitive entity consisting of many parts, which is affected by many factors both momentarily and over a long period of time. Traumatic stress disorder is often perceived only as a disease of those who experience continuous trauma at work or in life, but it can break out in times of need for anyone. In this article, we’ll explore PTSD, the endocannabinoid system, and whether or not CBD oil helps to release trauma.


Traumatic stress disorder


Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is the result of a very strong event that shocks a person deeply. For example, an accident, violence, war, disasters, injury or just the threat of these can trigger a stress reaction, which sometimes develops into a syndrome. PTSD is chronic stress , which is always accompanied by a strong traumatic experience that happens either to oneself or to a loved one (1).

After the event, the autonomic nervous system is activated, but does not recover even with time. It is a prerequisite for the onset of PTSD, but not always a sign of it. Often the symptoms start immediately and last from a few months to several years, while sometimes the symptoms only start months later and slowly intensify over time.


PTSD symptoms


Symptoms vary between people, but the most common symptoms include e.g. sleep difficulties and nightmares, constant recall of events, challenges affecting mood such as anxiety and depression, strong emotions, difficulty concentrating and surprising social challenges even among familiar people. Also, states of fear and constant alertness are especially chronic symptoms. Also, e.g. headaches and stomach problems may occur. (1,2)

When making a diagnosis, the symptoms are usually divided into three parts, which usually repeat between different patients. Typical symptoms include flashbacks of the event, physical symptoms such as sweating and palpitations, and some degree of withdrawal and isolation. PTSD may also predispose for substance use, for depression and anxiety. (1,2)


Diagnosis, treatment and prevention


Getting a diagnosis requires that life-threatening symptoms continue for at least a month. Otherwise, the condition is classified as an acute stress reaction, which is treated with slightly different means. Due to the diagnosis, when typical PTSD symptoms appear and continue even slightly longer, it is necessary to see a doctor, who will guide you to the right treatment through a discussion.

Traumatic stress reaction is primarily treated with therapy. According to experience, hypnosis has also been used with good results. Medicines used to treat the disease are e.g. serotonin reuptake inhibitors and various tranquilizers used to treat depression and anxiety, but no specific medicine for this problem has been developed. Because of this, the treatments are currently perceived as quite ineffective. The aim is to avoid drug treatment, because there is no good medicine that works and the drugs mainly focus on side symptoms such as relaxation, sleep difficulties and depression. The most important thing is to get to the actual root cause, that is, to dissolve the experienced trauma as best as possible. (1,2)

It is not actually possible to prevent traumatic stress disorder, because it arises from a very sudden situation.

The symptoms have eased in a woman who enjoys the sun under a tree.

Calming down the nervous system is an essential part of the post-traumatic stress healing process.

PTSD and the nervous system


After a sudden traumatic event, it is common for the autonomic nervous system to become activated and typical stress symptoms such as palpitations, strong feelings of anxiety and cold sweats surface. Fear, escape reaction and are also typical initial symptoms.

The autonomic nervous system is a part of the nervous system that is divided into two parts, the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems. The activation of the sympathetic nervous system is necessary for survival, but if for one reason or another the parasympathetic nervous system does not balance and calm the sympathetic nervous system, the symptoms remain and put the body in a constant state of battle. PTSD develops from the battle mode in which the body and nervous system get stuck. (3,4,5)

The internal cannabinoid system and PTSD


In addition to the endocannabinoid system monitors the functioning of all processes in the body, it also underlies functions related to memories and emotions. (3,4,5) Endocannabinoid system and the stress connection has been studied extensively in animal experiments and it is clearly noticeable (6).

Interesting observations have been made in the studies. It has been noticed that if trauma occurs in childhood, endocannabinoid ligand and receptor levels are clearly reduced, while after trauma in adulthood, ligand levels are reduced, but the number of receptors is increased. Changes in the brain are region-specific and differences between the sexes have also been noticed. (6) In general, PTSD patients seem to be elevated cannabinoid receptor levels and decreased anandamide levels (3,5,6).

With the endocannabinoid system plays a significant role in the background of forgetting unpleasant things. (3)




The memory that stores unpleasant things and erasing them requires the activation of the CB1 receptor (6).

CBD alongside therapy


According to studies, CBD, definitely has a huge potential to help people suffering from PTSD disorder, as it is one of the few so-called of memory cleaning compounds (3,4,5,6). It is almost without exception found to be effective as well as safe and well tolerated, and it can be used by children, adults and animals. In Israel, where the medicinal use of hemp has been studied for decades, CBD has been found and approved for mental health challenges only for the treatment of PTSD, and to support treatment.

The use of CBD in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder has been studied in quite small samples among humans, but the subject has been studied much more widely in rodents. The results obtained from both are promising. It has been found in animal experiments that CBD contributes to the loss of negative memories and the reprogramming of the brain (3,6). It has been suggested that the administration of cannabinoids immediately after a traumatic event might prevent the memory from being attached, reducing the risk of PTSD onset, but this is associated with questions, as PTSD only develops in a fraction of people who have experienced severe trauma, and it is therefore not possible to predict immediately after the situation whether CBD treatment is needed or not. (5)

Cannabinoids weaken traumatic memory by activating the death of negative memory and influencing its recovery. (3).

CBD has been found to have numerous therapeutic properties over the years and acts through several physiological functions. Through serotonin receptors CBD protects the nerves, relieves anxiety and depression, and it also inhibits the production of FAAH, an enzyme that breaks down endocannabinoids, indirectly increasing the levels of CB1 receptors, as endocannabinoids increase at the same rate as decomposers decrease. (6)

CBD has positive effects on sleep-related challenges and you can read more about that effect here. Anxiety has also been found to be alleviated with the help of CBD oil and it is possible read more here.

hemp plant and CBD oil in the evening sun.

According to studies, CBD has properties that may help with the symptoms of stress disorder.


CBD and prolonged stress


The effects of CBD on stress are undeniable. In prolonged stress, the body and nervous system no longer recover, and a good night’s sleep or one walk in the forest will not help. Chronic ie Prolonged stress requires calming down life at least momentarily, and often a person also needs aids such as CBD oil and conversational help to navigate the situation.

You can read more about CBD’s effect on stress here .


In summary


PTSD is a life-affecting syndrome with both psychological and physical symptoms. There are no very effective forms of treatment, because there is no medicine that works, and often with queues for therapy stretching for miles, it can also take a lot of time to get the right treatment. Sometimes traumatic stress disorder goes away on its own over time, but most people who suffer from it need professional help to deal with the trauma. CBD oil has been studied to have properties that, by utilizing it, could ease both the symptoms caused by PTSD and also help to get over the trauma completely. CBD has been extensively studied within the scope of the topic and hopefully will also be used more widely in the future for the treatment of PTSD.




  1. Huttunen M.. 2018. Duodecim health library. Traumatic stress disorder. Referred on 28/11/2022.
  2. A working group set up by the Duodecim of the Finnish Medical Society, the Finnish Psychiatry Association and the Finnish Children’s Psychiatry Association. Duodecim is a valid treatment. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Referred on 28/11/2022.
  3. Bitencourt RM and Takahashi RN. 2018. Cannabidiol as a Therapeutic Alternative for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder: From Bench Research to Confirmation in Human Trials. Referred on 28/11/2022.
  4. Bassir Nia A., Bender R., and Harpaz-Rotem I.. 2019. Endocannabinoid System Alterations in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Review of Developmental and Accumulative Effects of Trauma. %20R% 5BAuthor%5D. Referred on 28/11/2022
  5. Berardi A., Schelling G., Campolongo P .. 2016. The endocannabinoid system and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): From preclinical findings to innovative therapeutic approaches in clinical settings. %20ECS% 20and%20PTSD.pdf. Referred on 28/11/2022.
  6. Elms L., Shannon S., Hughes S, and Lewis N.. 2019. Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Series. %20S% 5BAuthor%5D. Referred on 28/11/2022.
Shingles and CBD

Shingles and CBD

Shingles has become more common and today one in three Finns suffers from the symptoms caused by shingles, which includes e.g. pain and itching. This article reviews studies on the effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on shingles.


What is shingles (herpes zoster)?


Shingles is a viral infection also known as herpes zoster (HZ). Shingles is caused by the chickenpox virus that causes chickenpox. After contracting chicken pox, the virus can remain dormant in the body and reactivate later, causing inflammation in the body. (1)

The most common symptoms of shingles are a severe rash, blisters, fever and headache. Shingles is more common in older people with weakened immune systems. However, anyone who has had chickenpox can sometimes develop shingles. The infection is treated with antiviral drugs and pain-relieving treatments. (1)

In the past, shingles was mainly associated with inflammation of the peripheral nervous system and nerve ganglion, but since then it has been noticed that the virus also often occurs in people who do not have symptoms related to the central nervous system at all. (1)

Shingles is rare in infants. Its outbreak in older people is associated with a weakening of the immune system. Aging significantly increases the likelihood of developing shingles. For people under 45, the risk of shingles increases e.g. steroids, cancer treatments, leukemia, HIV, AIDS and lymphoma. In the study, diabetes also seems to be one of the reasons for the occurrence of shingles. (1)

Getting shingles

The chicken pox virus that causes shingles is easily transmitted by droplet infection and through contact with other people. The incubation period of the disease is on average 10-12 days, after which the blisters start to appear. The virus can be transmitted a few days before the blisters appear and for a week after that, until the skin blisters have turned into scabs. The risk of infection mainly concerns those who have not previously had chicken pox or persons with weak immunity. (1)

Skin blisters that are part of the symptoms of shingles or herpes zoster virus.

Blisters on the skin caused by shingles.

Symptoms of Shingles


Symptoms of shingles include a painful rash, blisters, fever and headache. In generally healthy people, the symptoms are often milder. The first symptom is often pain, which can start as early as a week before any visible changes appear on the skin. Small, brightly colored blisters and redness usually appear on the skin. (2)

Shingles often occurs on the trunk, legs and face. Symptoms are less often observed in the limb area. The infection can also enter the eye and cause blisters in the mucous membranes of the pharynx and mouth. The symptoms are often accompanied by warmth and the experience of being sore. (2)


Shingles treatment


Although the virus that causes shingles cannot be completely removed, its symptoms can be treated in addition to medication with various natural products and treatments that can relieve itching, stress, inflammation and pain. The treatment should be planned according to the situation and started as quickly as possible when the first symptoms appear.


Antiviral drugs


When a patient seeks treatment for shingles, the condition and the need for treatment are first assessed. The general recommendation is to start treatment as soon as possible so that possible treatments are more effective. If the patient is an older person or if the symptoms include a challenging rash, immune deficiency and severe pain, the situation is usually treated with medication. Common drugs used include e.g. famciclovir, aciclovir and valaciclovir. (1)

The antiviral drugs used in the treatment of shingles are classified as nucleoside analogues, the purpose of which is to prevent herpes viruses from reproducing. Medicines work best when treatment is started as early as possible after the first symptoms appear. (1)


Natural treatments and tips

Along with medical treatment, natural treatments are alternative ways to ease the challenges caused by shingles. Listed below are the most effective treatments and the best tips for relieving symptoms.

Avoid scratching

Blisters caused by shingles can cause annoying itching. Scratching the blisters may worsen the symptoms and cause scarring. The itching should be treated with soothing baths, cool towels and different creams. (3)


Skin soothing creams can be used for the symptoms of shingles. Ointments may not speed up the healing process, but they can provide relief from symptoms. Among the creams, you should choose one that does not contain perfumes, as they can irritate the skin. Creams found to be good are those that contain natural capsaicin, which is the hot ingredient known from chili peppers. Capsaicin has been studied to have anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving effects. Chili cream can be used several times a day as needed. In addition to this, after showering and bathing, you can apply calamine cream to soothe the skin, which also helps to dry the blisters. (3)

The cream should be used sparingly, as too much use may prevent the ulcers from drying out. Creams containing antibiotics are not recommended for use on rashes caused by shingles. (3)


A cool bath


Cleaning the blisters that appear on the skin daily can reduce the risk of spreading the infection. A cool bath or shower may provide relief in an acute situation by relieving the pain caused by the blisters and soothing the itching caused by shingles. (3)


Oat bath


In addition to cool water, an oat bath can also reduce symptoms, leaving the skin feeling pleasantly soft. Preparing an oat bath is easy and effortless. Add 1 dl of finely ground oatmeal or oat flour to lukewarm bath water, which is soaked for about 15 minutes before the bath. Too hot water may make the situation worse. After bathing, the body should be dried carefully. (3)


Wet towels


In addition to baths, itching and pain can be treated with cool and damp towels or cloths. To alleviate the symptoms, it is recommended to use a wet towel several times a day. For best results, a towel or cloth is first soaked in cool water, then the excess water is squeezed out and applied to the skin, over the blisters. It is not recommended to use an ice pack that is too cold, as it may worsen the symptoms. (3)




An optimal diet can strengthen immunity and thus prevent the spread of shingles in the body. It is recommended to include an amino acid called lysine in the diet, as well as vitamins B-12, E, A and C. (3)

The list of foods to avoid includes foods and drinks that contain a lot of sugar. In addition, it may be worth avoiding foods rich in arginine, such as nuts, chocolate and gelatin, because arginine may even feed the virus in some cases. (3)


Baking soda and cornstarch


Itching caused by shingles can also be relieved with a paste made from baking soda or cornstarch. The paste is made by making a mixture of two-thirds baking soda or alternatively cornstarch and an additional 1 part water. Water creates a paste-like consistency that is applied directly to the rash. The paste is rinsed off after 15 minutes. If necessary, the procedure can be repeated several times during the day. (3)




Many shingles sufferers use cannabinoids to relieve their shingles symptoms. Studies have shown that cannabinoids such as CBD , CBG, and THC have anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving properties, making them a potential treatment for shingles (4, 5, 6).

Avoid saunas

Saunas and hot water stimulate blood circulation, so you should avoid saunas and hot showers when suffering from shingles.


CBD, cannabinoids and shingles


There is research evidence for the use of cannabinoids in the treatment of shingles. Research suggests that cannabinoids have anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving properties that may be helpful in treating shingles symptoms.

The best-known cannabinoid, CBD, has been found to have analgesic effects that can help reduce the pain and discomfort associated with shingles. Cannabinoids have an effect on the body to the functioning of the endocannabinoid system , through which they can modulate the immune system and ease the inflammation associated with shingles.

Additionally, cannabinoids may help reduce stress, which is often associated with an increased risk of developing shingles (7). Stress has been shown to weaken the immune system and make it harder for the body to fight infections. By reducing stress, cannabinoids can prevent the occurrence of shingles or reduce the symptoms caused by it.

Although the use of cannabinoids seems promising, more research is needed to determine the safety and effectiveness of use, especially for shingles.




Although the viral infection that causes shingles cannot be completely eradicated from the body, its symptoms can be alleviated with natural remedies, cannabinoids, and antiviral drugs. In addition, skin-soothing baths and creams are recommended for self-care. According to studies, cannabinoids can reduce pain, stress and inflammation, thus helping with the symptoms of shingles.



  1. Anneli Lauhio and Veli-Jukka Anttila. 2009. Duodecim. Shingles prevention and treatment. Referred on 16.01.2023
  2. Brother Jukka Anttila. 2021. Health Library . Shingles. Referred on 16.01.2023
  3. Healthline. 2019. Shingles natural treatment. Referenced 01/17/2023
  4. Mlost, J. et al. 2020. Polish Academy of Sciences. Poland. Cannabidiol for Pain Treatment: Focus on Pharmacology and Mechanism of Action Referenced 01/17/2023
  5. S. Giacoppo et al. 2017. Cannabinoid CB2 receptors are involved in the protection of RAW264.7 macrophages against the oxidative stress: an in vitro study . Referenced 01/17/2023
  6. J.R. Johnson et al. Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of THC: CBD extract and THC extract in patients with intractable cancer-related pain. 2010. Referenced 01/17/2023
  7. J. Henson et al. 2021. MDPI. Enhancing Endocannabinoid Control of Stress with Cannabidiol.. Referenced 01/17/2023
Experiences with CBD oil

Experiences with CBD oil

The use of CBD oil may be associated with uncertainties related to legality and e.g. to its possible intoxicating effect. Although the use of CBD is legal in most parts of the world, there is a strong stigma associated with it, which is based on the classification of hemp as a narcotic drug due to the cannabinoid THC present in it. Both the illegality and the intoxicating effect are both myths, which future generations will certainly have to do to disprove, and this article explains for what purpose people and animals use CBD oil and what experiences they have with it.

Hemp and CBD

Hemp is an ancient plant that has been used e.g. as a medicine for thousands of years. It is special in the sense that, in addition to its medicinal properties, you can actually make everything a person needs in life from it; food, fuel, building material, fabric and rope, paper, plastic, etc.. In addition to these properties, hemp is a very effective land improvement and land purification plant, which binds carbon dioxide from the air many times compared to a growing forest. The icing on the cake is its fast growth rate, because even in Finland, hemp grows to its full size in one summer, and in countries where it is warm all year round, it can grow several crops a year.

Hemp contains a huge number of different compounds, which together or alone form hemp’s possible properties that have a positive effect on health. Cannabinoids such as CBD and THC , more than 120 different types and other compounds such as terpenes are known, flavonoids etc. is more than 450.

Mainly the cannabinoids are what made hemp interesting and still interest both researchers and people suffering from various ailments. Cannabinoids and their effect on humans and animals have been actively studied since the 1940s until today.


How is CBD made?


CBDoccurs naturally in hemp, especially in inflorescences and leaves, from which it can be pressed and extracted into an easily usable form. Extraction using carbon dioxide is the safest and most popular way to make CBD products.

CBD can also be isolated from the plant in laboratory conditions into an almost pure crystal, which is called CBD isolate. Synthetic CBD is also produced, but its use still involves many questions and perhaps even risks, because CBD is not a streamlined cannabinoid that works in the same way for all humans and animals.


Non-intoxicating CBD


CBD oil is non-intoxicating as it is made from plants that do not contain the psychoactive substance called THC cannabinoids. In natural unprocessed hemp or hemp processed for seed and fiber use, THC is present in very small amounts at most. Those strains known to be intoxicating and highly medicinal have been bred to produce a higher amount of THC than strains that have been specifically bred CBD for production or so-called industrial hemp varieties from which CBD oil is most commonly produced.

Cannabis shop sign.

The use of CBD has been legal in many places even for decades and it has been used with good results for many different diseases and to relieve their symptoms.


CBD use in the world


CBD has been widely used around the world for years, so there has been plenty of experience to support the research results. For example, in Canada, where the use of hemp has been legal since 2002, CBD is used for mental challenges such as stress, depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder, as well as in the treatment of serious diseases such as cancer.

According to studies and user experiences, CBD has mitigating effects at least on the symptoms of MS, epilepsy and various cancer symptoms, as well as the side effects caused by chemotherapy. Challenges related to sleep and skin, pain and general physical and psychological well-being are also reasons why CBD oil used in the world. Dentists also recommend the use of oral care products containing CBD. In addition, CBD has been proven to have good effects on periodontitis and tartar.

Also, for example, in Israel, North America, Australia and some European countries such as Switzerland, Holland, Spain and the Baltic countries, CBD products are used successfully, although sometimes there may be some restrictions on its use, manufacture or sale.

CBD or hemp as a plant is of course not a cure-all miracle drug and is usually used both for the prevention of diseases and for treating and alleviating their symptoms, not for actual healing. The best effect is obtained from full-spectrum CBD oil , which contains all the active substances of hemp. CBD has been found to work best synergistically, i.e. in such a way that all the compounds are involved in supporting each other’s activity.

CBD oil, according to studies, is a mild but effective support for treating many diseases and it could be recommended in Finland too, e.g. doctors and therapists. As the general atmosphere is still a bit reserved, it is less often recommended to use it. CBD and many products containing it such as CBD candies, CBD cosmetics, CBD oil, CBD capsules and various extracts and tinctures offer the opportunity to find a suitable and pleasant way to enjoy CBD.


The potential benefits of CBD


Various diseases and the effect of CBD on them have been studied in a variety of ways, both with animal and human experiments. CBD oil does not necessarily work directly on the root cause of the disease, but on common side symptoms of various diseases such as insomnia , nausea and it might help the appetite. A few of the most common uses for CBD are listed below.


Symptoms of MS


MS and related side symptoms such as stiffness and tremors have been in the research field of CBD for a long time. According to studies, CBD slows down the progression of the disease, mitigates the side effects caused by drugs and calms the trembling, involuntarily moving body. More about MS and the effect of CBD on its symptoms can read here .


Epilepsy and CBD


The effect of CBD on epilepsy is perhaps one of the oldest and most studied equations. According to research and user experience, CBD affects both the number and intensity of seizures, and maybe one one of the most well-known CBD use experiences is the story of a child named Charlotte Figi’s epilepsy. Already as a baby, he had up to 300 strong epileptic seizures per week, the number of which decreased to 2-3 seizures per week after starting to use CBD oil. Charlotte’s development had practically stopped due to strong seizures, but soon it was able to continue and Charlotte learned e.g. to walk and talk.

Unfortunately, Charlotte’s life ended due to complications from the flu at the age of 13 in 2020, but her legacy lives on strong in the form of a CBD strain named after her (Charlotte’s web) and as an extremely important reminder of how powerful nature is in its healing power.

Read more about CBD and epilepsy .


Mind challenges and CBD


Diseases that affect mental health, such as depression and chronic or post-traumatic stress, have also been the subject of CBD research for a long time. CBD is a cannabinoid that calms the nervous system, which may have a very effective anxiety-relieving, mood-elevating and emotional memory erasing effect. Read more about the effect of CBD for depression here and stress here. On supporting post-traumatic stress disorder with CBD can read here.


Pain and CBD


According to studies, different types of pain can be alleviated by the effect of CBD oil. Especially for chronic or muscular pain, CBD may have effects and it is possible read more here .


The gut and CBD


According to studies, CBD also affects the functioning of the intestines. More about the effects of CBD oil on the gut can read here and about the user experience related to CBD capsules and their effect on intestinal challenges here .


Meditation and CBD


Meditation and yoga are globally known ways to calm the mind, relax the body and get closer to the deepest self. CBD may also have a positive effect on the practice and experience of yoga and meditation can read here .


A woman is happy on the beach under the clouds.

The use of CBD is becoming more common in the world and it is perceived as a well-tolerated support alongside other treatment.


CBD oil is also suitable for animals


CBD oil is used for pets for very similar reasons as it is for humans; to raise the mood, reduce inflammation in the body, calm down, improve appetite, relieve side symptoms of various diseases and calm the nervous system. According to studies, CBD is very suitable for animals, and it doesn’t seem to have any unpleasant side effects for them either. For animals, CBD is dosed according to the product and the animal’s weight, and according to experience, it has been used successfully at least for dogs, cats, rodents and horses. More on using CBD oil for animals can read here .




CBD is a very versatile, single-plant compound that is safe to use, especially when it is in its natural form together with hemp’s other active compounds. Hemp is guaranteed to be one of the oldest medicinal and useful plants, and the unnecessary labels associated with it have unfortunately only been born within the last century at the most. CBD oil is generally well tolerated and, according to studies, has several potential uses, including children and pets. Its use and research on it will hardly decrease, as treatment targeting the endocannabinoid system will become a significant part of the treatment of diseases.


CBD and blood pressure

CBD and blood pressure

High blood pressure is a big risk to your health, but fortunately, it can be positively influenced by small lifestyle changes. Blood pressure is often treated with medication, although it would be most effective to focus on the causes that raise blood pressure!

In this article, we will get to know blood pressure and the health challenges caused by its fluctuation, the endocannabinoid system behind this important function, CBD oil as a blood pressure regulator, and also whether there are any risks in the interaction of blood pressure medications and CBD.

What is hypertension?


Hypertension is usually referred to when the blood pressure is too high. This is a more common challenge associated with blood pressure, but sometimes blood pressure can also be too low. (1)

Fluctuations in blood pressure are natural and occur, for example, after exertion, such as exercise and sauna, in connection with tension and also at night, as blood pressure may drop by up to 20% during sleep.

Especially in older people, it is common, but not safe or healthy, for blood pressure to rise above the reference values. High blood pressure is a significant factor behind many diseases. (1)

Approximately one million Finns take blood pressure medication, and in addition, it is estimated that approx. one-fifth of Finnish adults have blood pressure levels that are not within normal limits. The causes of high blood pressure are largely lifestyle. (1,2)


Normal blood pressure and values


When measuring blood pressure, it is divided into two parts. Systolic, i.e. upper pressure, is the higher number on the meter, which describes the blood pressure at the moment the heart contracts. Diastolic, i.e. lower pressure, is the lower number shown on the meter and it describes the pressure of the resting phase of the heart.

The blood pressure measurement unit is millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and the value is measured at rest, sitting and not talking, in as stress-free conditions as possible.

Normal values are when upper pressure is between 130-139 and lower pressure between 85-89, but both upper and lower pressure can be normal when one of them is high or low. Young and middle-aged people usually have low blood pressure, while the elderly are more sensitive to high blood pressure. This is related to the elasticity of the blood vessel walls. (1,2)


Sphygmomanometer for measuring blood pressure.

The cause of high blood pressure is usually bad lifestyle.


Low blood pressure


Women’s blood pressure is naturally often a little lower than men’s, and the fact that the blood pressure is slightly below the reference value is not yet a sign of illness.

In young people and young adults, low blood pressure is less likely to be a problem, but in older people it usually indicates vascular or heart diseases. Too low blood pressure causes at least dizziness, often also headaches, even in younger people. They are the most recognizable symptoms. (1,2)

High blood pressure


Only a small part of hypertension is caused by disease. Elevated blood pressure is almost always caused by lifestyles that strain the circulatory system and heart function. The most important change associated with hypertension is an increase in the resistance of the peripheral circulation. (1,2)

The symptoms of high blood pressure are conspicuous by their absence until there is another reason, usually caused by high blood pressure, to go to the doctor. If there are risk factors associated with your lifestyle and situation, it can be good to monitor your blood pressure, because even a little high blood pressure can trigger other diseases or at least be a favorable basis for their development. Hypertension can e.g. damages arteries and predisposes to coronary artery disease, promotes heart failure and even causes stroke or heart attack. (1,2)

Dangerously high blood pressure that requires immediate treatment is when the upper pressure is 180 mmHg or the lower pressure is 110 mmHg. High blood pressure is between 160-180 mmHg and 100-110 mmHg, and more calmly monitored blood pressure between 140-160 mmHg and 90-100 mmHg. These readings are indicative only


Essential hypertension


Essential hypertension is the term for persistently high blood pressure. It is a multi-caused national disease that arises when important physiological functions fail. Essential hypertension is the transition of a regulatory system consisting of several functions to a new level of function, and its mechanism of action is not yet properly understood. (3)


Symptoms of hypertension


High, even dangerously high blood pressure usually does not cause noticeable or outwardly visible symptoms, at least at first. It is practically impossible to detect without measurement and for this reason it usually has time to cause problems before it is detected. The symptoms related to low blood pressure are clearer, because they are e.g. dizziness, headache and blurring of the eyes during sudden movements. (1,2)

Prevention, drugs and treatment


High blood pressure is usually caused by either illness or lifestyle, but prolonged stress has also been linked to cardiovascular diseases. It is possible to prevent high blood pressure with a healthy lifestyle. A balanced use of salt and fat, a diet rich in vegetables, berries and fruits and regular exercise are the basic pillars that make it possible to avoid numerous diseases, including high blood pressure. Avoiding excessive alcohol and quitting smoking are also important factors in lowering blood pressure. Factors affecting mental health such as stress, social relationships and quality of life have also been estimated to be behind high blood pressure.

In the treatment recommendations, the most important factor is the correction of lifestyles before starting the medication. Lifestyles should be in order before medication is even considered, but the high sales figures for blood pressure medications belie the fact that lifestyle change has not always been either successful or was an actual condition for receiving the medication. Usually, drug treatment consists of two or three different combinations of drugs, because usually one drug does not yet achieve the desired result.

Instead of a curative effect, blood pressure medications only keep the symptoms under control and the actual causes behind high blood pressure still exist, causing other challenges such as insulin resistance and fatty liver. (1,2)

The most important element behind successful treatment is a change in lifestyle, if high blood pressure is not due to other causes such as kidney or heart disease. The symptoms may stay away with medication, but a permanent change in blood pressure can only be achieved through diet, exercise and a balanced mind!


The endocannabinoid system and blood pressure


The body’s watchdog, the endocannabinoid system, does its best to keep blood pressure in check, along with balancing other vital functions. It is an important system that is responsible for the functioning of all body processes and it consists of three basic pillars; about endocannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors and the molecules that break them down.

Endocannabinoids have numerous functions, together and separately with other lesser-known endocannabinoids, they have been thought to be involved in blood pressure at least in the functioning of the heart muscle and vascular system. The best known endocannabinoids are anandamide and 2-AG. Anandamide is behind the mechanisms that relax blood vessels, and other endocannabinoids also seem to have roles in producing the effect.

Endocannabinoids are also behind acute situations such as heart attacks.

Of the cannabinoid receptors, at least CB1 affects the function of the related heart muscle and blood vessels.

CBD oil and hemp leaf.

CBD has properties that positively affect health and blood pressure.


CBD and blood pressure


CBD is a cannabinoid compound found in hemp, which, according to research, has numerous properties that have a positive effect on health. It has been found to be beneficial to the circulatory system and animal studies show that CBD has similar to anandamide , it has a vasorelaxing effect (4).

CBD has been found to lower blood pressure and stabilize heart function (5).

It e.g. suppresses inflammatory changes in the coronary arteries caused by glucose, alleviates heart muscle dysfunction familiar to diabetics and keeps the endothelium of the retinal microvessels intact. (4)


Interaction of antihypertensive drugs with CBD


Although CBD has been found to be a safe and well-tolerated cannabinoid and the full-spectrum CBD oil, which includes all the active ingredients of hemp ( Entourage effect ), is suitable even for children and animals, there may be some interactions with medicines that should be taken into account.

An enzyme called cytochrome P450, which works especially in the liver, but also in other tissues, is responsible for the breakdown of some medicines. These cytochromes participate in the drug’s own metabolism by incorporating a water atom into the drug’s molecular structure, thus making it water-soluble and easier to filter by the kidney.

CBD has been found to inhibit cytochrome P450 activity by deactivating it. As a result of the reduction and slowing down of enzyme activity, some medicines may break down more slowly than usual and work a little differently compared to normal. This effect has not been observed at low CBD with doses and thus it is hardly likely, but the possibility exists.

There are several medications related to blood pressure, blood thinning and calcium blocking that are affected by high doses of CBD, and it is good to think carefully about compatibility before starting to use CBD oil. These drugs include e.g. medicines containing warfarin and valsartan. More incompatible medicinal substances and medicines, as well as information on the interaction of medicines and CBD can read more here .


Hemp seed oil may affect blood pressure


Hemp seed oil, which is obtained from hemp seeds and is also sold on grocery store shelves, contains plenty of fatty acids that are essential for the body. The fatty acids it contains, such as ALA, GLA and SDA, interact with each other and have a positive effect on general health. It is often said that vegetable oils are harmful, but when used in appropriate amounts, hemp seed oil in particular may have a favorable effect, e.g. cholesterol quality, blood pressure and skin health. (6)


High blood pressure is the underlying cause of numerous diseases and it is a real burden on the body. Blood pressure is mainly raised by unhealthy lifestyles, which are in principle easy to correct with small changes in diet and choices related to intoxicants. CBD may support the lowering of blood pressure and especially it may be useful for challenges caused by high blood pressure such as sleep difficulties and for making a change in life itself. At high doses, CBD oil may affect the action of blood pressure medications!


  1. Mustajoki P.. 2022. Duodecim health library. Low blood pressure. Referred on 12/12/2022.
  2. The working group set up by Duodecim of the Finnish Medical Society and the Finnish Venerpaineyhdistys ry. 2020. Valid treatment recommendation. Risen bloodpressure. Referred on 12/12/2022.
  3. Ruskoaho H.. 1999. Period book Duodecim. Essential hypertension – do we still know its cause? Referred on 12/12/2022.
  4. Stanley CP, Hind HW and O’Sullivan SE. 2012. Is the cardiovascular system a therapeutic target for cannabidiol? Referred on 12/12/2022
  5. Jadoon KA, Tan GT and O’Sullivan SE 2017. A single dose of cannabidiol reduces blood pressure in healthy volunteers in a randomized crossover study. Referred on 12/12/2022.
  6. Rodriguez-Levya D and Pierce GN. 2010. The cardiac and haemostatic effects of dietary hempseed. Referred on 12/12/2022.
CBD and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) + IBD

CBD and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) + IBD

Every tenth visitor suffers from some kind of intestinal disease. The thought stops you, because intestinal diseases cause troublesome symptoms, which are usually underestimated, despite the fact that they strongly interfere with life. This article explains what the different intestinal diseases IBS and IBD are, how the endocannabinoid system works behind them, and whether CBD oil could be of any help to them.


What are IBS and IBD?


Both IBS and IBD are both intestinal diseases that occur mainly in welfare states. IBS means irritable bowel syndrome and IBD includes inflammatory bowel diseases such as colitis, Crohn’s disease and microscopic colitis.

Dice with the letters IBS, which refers to irritable bowel syndrome.

IBS, i.e. irritable bowel syndrome, is the most common intestinal disease, the symptoms of which can be alleviated by e.g. with diet and CBD products.

IBS (Irritable bowel syndrome)


IBS, i.e. irritable bowel syndrome, is a disease that strongly affects life, and it is estimated that one in ten people in Finland suffers from it. It is more common in women than men and occurs mainly in young people and adults. IBS is a very unpleasant disease, but it is not dangerous or gets worse over time. Often, IBS symptoms are wave-like. (1)


IBD (Inflammatory bowel disease)


Inflammatory bowel diseases have become more common in recent decades. Colitis, i.e. ulcerative inflammation of the colon, is clearly more common than Crohn’s disease, while microscopic colitis is rarer than both of them..


Colitis (Colitis ulcerosa)


Ulcerative colitis, or colitis, as the name suggests, is an inflammation of the colon that causes ulceration of the colon. Colitis is a chronic disease that usually starts by the age of 35 or at the age of 50-60. Colitis is more common in men and is partly hereditary. Colitis is caused by challenges related to the intestinal microbiome, nutritional factors and environmental influences, the contribution of which to the onset of colitis is relatively little understood. (2)

Crohn’s disease

Burrill Crohn’s disease is the second most common inflammatory bowel disease. It occurs in people of all ages and the prevalence is approx. 2/1000 people. In Crohn’s disease, the entire intestinal area can be inflamed, and inflammation does not occur only on the surface of the intestine, but in all its layers. (3)

A man with a stomach ache is holding two rolls of toilet paper.

Intestinal diseases cause symptoms related to the function of the stomach, which strongly affect life.

IBS symptoms

Typical IBS symptoms are pains felt on different sides of the stomach, as well as variability of bowel function. Some are more prone to diarrhea and others to a hard stomach, but variability between these is also very common. The bowel may not empty properly, and in the evenings, abdominal swelling and flatulence are bothersome. (1)

IBD symptoms

The symptoms of IBD are slightly different depending on whether it is colitis or Crohn’s disease. Bloody stools and abdominal pain are common to these diseases.


The most obvious symptom of colitis is diarrhea lasting for weeks, which is usually bloody and mucous. Abdominal pains and increased need to defecate are also the most common symptoms. People with colitis may have a fever and general fatigue caused by inflammation in the body. Colitis is distinguished from Crohn’s disease by colonoscopy, which is used to find out whether the inflammation affects only the colon or the entire intestine. (2)

Crohn’s disease

Symptoms of Crohn’s disease include (bloody) diarrhoea, fatigue, weight loss, fever and rectal bleeding. People with Crohn’s disease often also have other diseases such as joint diseases, fatty liver, osteoporosis, eye infections, etc., which indicate that lifestyle may have an effect on the onset of the disease. (3)

CBD oil may have positive effects on both joint diseases and fatty liver .


Reasons behind intestinal diseases


IBS does not seem to have any specific underlying cause. The intestine works poorly and reacts strongly to many foods, but studies do not find any explanation for this. In people suffering from IBS symptoms, the intestinal microbiome is not as extensive as in a healthy intestine, but the reason for the loss of microbes is not known either. Sometimes IBS symptoms are associated with mental health challenges, such as anxiety or depression. (1)

In IBD, intestinal challenges are always caused by inflammation in the intestine. IBS and IBD are similar in symptoms, but they differ from each other precisely through inflammation, for which no explanation can be found in the studies either. The emergence of inflammation in the body is not something that happens overnight and is usually largely a result of lifestyle. (2,3,4)

Medicine does not always provide answers to questions related to the origin of diseases. It is understandable in the sense that not everything has been scientifically proven yet and many things may be just guesswork. However, it is fair to share information openly and give possible reasons for the outbreak of diseases, even if it is not yet written in stone. Today, information is easy to search and is available for and against almost everything possible, but within this flood of information it can be impossible to find out the possible reasons behind intestinal diseases. There are certainly many reasons, and since people are all different, there are certainly a number of different reasons behind every disease that breaks out. One-sided bad fats, additives, fillers, plant protection agents, chemical fertilizers, etc. containing food is certainly one of the reasons. The use of antibiotics that has crossed generations may play a role in this problem as well as the increased rush and stress.

Stress is thought to be one of the factors in the emergence of intestinal disease, and according to experience, the amount of stress is directly proportional to the incidence of irritable bowel symptoms. CBD oil can have an effect to stress and its mitigation.

IBS/IBD treatment


Intestinal diseases cannot be cured by medical means and are considered end-of-life diseases. It is true that intestinal disease recurs easily, but getting the intestines in good condition is not necessarily an impossibility. There is no curative treatment or medicine for these diseases, but with the help of diet, herbal products and exercise, the symptoms can even be completely relieved.


Irritable bowel treatment


If the IBS symptoms are mild and there is no blood in the stool, you can first try to treat the symptoms with home remedies (1), but if the stool becomes more permanent diarrhea, contains blood or the weight loss is severe, you should see a doctor. The aim is to treat the irritated intestine with the help of diet, because a healing medicine or treatment has not yet been invented. Medicines are used to relieve symptoms, such as laxatives and anti-depressants. (1,5)


Treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases


Ulcerative colitis is a disease that cannot be cured medically, but its symptoms are alleviated as much as possible with the help of various medicines. If the drugs are unable to cure the inflammation, an alternative is offered to cut a piece of the intestine.

Crohn’s disease is treated e.g. with the help of steroids and immunosuppressive drugs and sometimes also with surgery. Diet also plays an important role in the treatment of Crohn’s disease, as people with it are prone to nutrient deficiencies. (3)

Read about experiences of Crohn’s disease support treatment using CBD.


Natural treatment

Over the years, people suffering from various intestinal problems have tried many ways to make themselves feel better, because there is no curative treatment or medicine that removes the symptoms. Carbon tablets are an old way to treat the gut, because carbon absorbs impurities and other toxins that disturb the intestines. Carbon tablets are safe to use and are used by many health-conscious people after eating food that is not normally part of their diet. Before starting use, you should pay attention to the subject carefully and ask your nutritionist or natural health expert for advice.

Minimizing stress-causing factors in life is important. The use of lactic acid bacteria and the importance of suitable dietary treatment are also emphasized.

There is a lot of information available. For example, the Take care of your stomach site offers both tips on various methods worth trying to alleviate symptoms, as well as stories from others suffering from the same symptoms.

In the case of all intestinal diseases, it is good to consult a professional who is familiar with the situation, who can recommend a suitable diet, supplements and herbal preparations, taking the situation into consideration. It is possible to get rid of the symptoms!

Foods belonging to the Fodmap diet and FODMAP text on the table.

Diet plays an important role in the treatment of IBS and other intestinal diseases. The intestine is allowed to rest and recover while the body is nourished and e.g. with the help of diet therapy, it is possible to get rid of the symptoms completely.

The IBS/IBD Diet


Dietary treatment is always recommended for IBS symptoms. The basic building blocks are adding soluble fiber to the diet, consuming lactic acid bacteria and avoiding certain foods containing slow carbohydrates. The recommended diet is the FODMAP diet, which is followed for a few months. After that, you can gradually try to return to a normal diet, but if the symptoms return again, the intestines have not had time to calm down enough and the diet should be continued. In addition to FODMAP, e.g. a gluten-free plant-based diet, the elimination diet of functional nutrition coaches and the instructions of those familiar with the subject through experience may alleviate the symptoms or even eliminate them completely. (5,6)




The FODMAP diet means avoiding slowly absorbed carbohydrates and insoluble fibers. Slow-absorbing carbohydrates include e.g. cabbage, onion and legumes, sweets and products containing sweeteners such as xylitol, sorbitol and mannitol and lactose i.e. milk sugar.

It is recommended to add soluble fibers to the diet, such as psyllium and various lactic acid bacteria from flaxseed. (5)

The FODMAP diet is widely known and information about it is easy to find. Books, blogs, etc. have been written on the subject. and it is also known on the side of stores focusing on nutritional therapy and natural health.


Gluten-free, plant-based diet


The symptoms of many IBS are aggravated by gluten, even if the tests do not show celiac disease. You can try leaving out all grains and dairy products, eggs and red meat from your diet. You should also avoid everything processed and with additives and leave coffee, alcohol and soft drinks completely on the store shelf, at least for a while. If the gut microbiome is very weak, raw vegetables and fruits can cause stomach cramps and poorly digested food in the stool. In the beginning, you should eat so that the main focus is on cooked vegetables and add raw vegetables and fruits to your diet steadily. Being gluten-free and eating easily digestible foods may help both IBS and IBD sufferers.


Other good advice expensive


Biohackers, known as health experts, have also talked for a long time about the symptoms related to intestinal diseases and how to correct them with the help of diet. They offer e.g. 7-week course compiled by doctor Olli Sovijärvi for people suffering from various stomach problems. The course is called stomach in shape – online coaching and you can find it in the biohacker store.

Functional nutrition coaches have long experience in correcting intestinal-related challenges, and turning to them is also a good option.


The endocannabinoid system and IBS/IBD


The endocannabinoid system is a system that balances the functioning of the body, which is involved in almost all processes that take place in the body. It is a background influencer, an observer whose task is to make sure that everything goes as it should.

The endocannabinoid system sometimes gets disturbed, which manifests itself in various diseases and symptoms. In a way, it’s the other way around; no disease is caused by an imbalanced endocannabinoid system, but lifestyle, trauma, stress, etc. burden the body’s processes, which eventually also shows up in the functioning of the endocannabinoid system as a “disturbance”, a situation where endocannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors or their disintegrating molecules are produced or broken down either too much or too little. A condition in which there are too few endocannabinoids or cannabinoid receptors is called clinical endocannabinoid deficiency and is also thought to be the underlying cause of intestinal diseases. You can read more here of clinical endocannabinoid deficiency .

The endocannabinoid system regulates, among other things, the brain-gut axis. The cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, which belong to the endocannabinoid system, and a number of other receptors in the body, such as receptors belonging to the TRPV family, participate in the sensory transmission of external and harmful stimuli from outside the body. In the brain, the endocannabinoid system is responsible for e.g. from vomiting and from nausea. (7,8)




The endocannabinoid system includes several endogenous or endocannabinoids. The most famous of these are anandamide and 2-AG .

Endocannabinoids have many important functions in the gut. They have been shown e.g. reducing gastric acid hypersecretion, slowing down intestinal function and promoting the intestinal microbiome.(7,8)

Decreased levels of anandamide have been observed in people with intestinal disorders. (8)




CB1 receptor occurs e.g. in the enteric nervous system and intestinal epithelium. Activated CB1 receptor e.g. reduces the release of acetylcholine and adjusts the bowel function to suit digestion by preventing excessive muscle movement. (7,8)

The CB2 receptor has been found in the enteric nervous system, but it is mainly found in the immune cells of the gut. The CB2 receptor is involved in reducing the production of inflammatory cells in the intestinal immune cells, regulating intestinal motility and the speed of movement of goods moving in the intestine. (7,8)




CBD (cannabidiol) is a compound found in hemp called a cannabinoid. According to decades of research, cannabinoids have numerous therapeutic properties that positively affect the health of people and animals.

Intestinal diseases are complex and therefore challenging to treat, and CBD alone certainly cannot cure them. Changes related to diet and exercise are necessary and CBD can serve as a good support both psychologically during the changes and physically in the body’s healing process.

According to studies, CBD has numerous impressive properties, and in relation to the intestines, it e.g. relieves the inflammatory state of the body , reduces the activity of small muscles, giving food more digestion time and increases the production of the endocannabinoid anandamide.

CBD may also help with depression , anxiety , stress , sleep quality , and pain , which often appear as side symptoms of intestinal diseases.

Read here more about the effect of CBD on the intestines.




CBG (cannabigerol) is also a phytocannabinoid found in hemp, which according to research has effects on health and intestinal well-being. (9)

A dog in pain is lying on the grass.

CIE in dogs and cats is an inflammatory bowel disease similar to IBD. Its symptoms and causes are very much the same as in humans, and its symptoms may also be alleviated with the help of diet and CBD oil.

IBD in dogs and cats


Inflammatory bowel diseases also occur in pets and the causes are largely the same as in humans; deterioration of the quality of food, problems caused by the environment, such as abundant vaccinations, and finally, a sensitive intestine that starts to react to ordinary things, such as food.

The symptoms are also comparable to those in humans. Symptoms in animals include diarrhea, malaise, vomiting, stomach rumbling, weight loss and poor appetite.

Also, diet therapy is primarily used to treat animals. CBD oil has also been found to be suitable for treating animals such as dogs and cats. CBD has a similar effect on animals as it does on humans, so CBD oil could be a good support alongside diet therapy. (10)


Intestinal diseases are very unpleasant diseases and they cause symptoms that make life difficult. There are several different types of these diseases and they are roughly divided into two, inflammatory and other intestinal diseases. IBS, i.e. irritable bowel syndrome, is the most common of these, and the IBD diseases colitis and Crohn’s disease are rarer. It is possible to get the symptoms under control with the help of diet, herbal products and light exercise, in other words, with a change in lifestyle. CBD and CBG are cannabinoids that may be of significant help in supporting the treatment of these conditions.



  1. Reho T.. 2021 Duodecim health library. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Referred to on 1/30/2023.
  2. Tunturi S.. 2020. Duodecim health library. Ulcerative colon inflammation (Colitis ulceroca). Referred to on 1/30/2023.
  3. Fell S. 2020. Duodecim terveyskirjasto. Crohn’s disease (regional enteritis). Referred to on 1/30/2023.
  4. IBD and other intestinal diseases Ry. Referred to on 1/30/2023
  5. Antikainen A. and Männikkö R.. 2020. Duodecim health library. Nutritional treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Referred to on 1/30/2023.
  6. Referred to on 1/30/2023
  7. Brugnatelli V., Turco F., Freo U and Zanette G.. 2021. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Manipulating the Endocannabinoid System as First-Line Treatment. %20V% 5BAuthor%5D. Referred to on 1/30/2023
  8. Hasenoehri C., Taschler U., Storr M and Schicho R.. 2016. The gastrointestinal tract – a central organ of cannabinoid signaling in health and disease. %20U% 5BAuthor%5D , Cited 01/30/2023
  9. Borrelli F., Fasolino I., Romano B., Capasso R., Maiello F., Coppola D., Orlando P., Battista G., Pagano E., Marzo V. and Izzo A.. 2013. Beneficial effect of the non-psychotropic plant cannabinoid cannabigerol on experimental inflammatory bowel disease. Referred to on 1/30/2023
  10. Canine inflammatory bowel disease or CIE. Referred to on 1/30/2023
CBD and eating disorders

CBD and eating disorders

Young people are becoming increasingly susceptible to eating disorders. There are few things that the young person can ultimately decide for themselves and sometimes the nausea breaks out in the things that are in their hands; for eating and moving. This article discusses eating disorders, looks at how the endocannabinoid system works behind them and finds out whether CBD oil could be helpful in supporting the treatment of eating disorders.

Eating disorders


Eating disorders that especially affect young and young adult women are sometimes even life-threatening, so-called spectrum disorders, the symptoms of which are diverse and often imperceptible at first. The symptoms are related to eating, movement and psychological challenges, the existence and severity of which the sufferer himself is not always willing to admit. (1)

According to estimates, by adulthood, every sixth woman and every 40 the man has had an eating disorder of some degree. The vast majority of these cases heal on their own without professional help, but sometimes ward treatment in a hospital is needed. (2)

Eating disorders are associated with a strong distortion of body image. The patient’s thoughts revolve largely around food, the body, for losing weight and in matters related to movement, and as a result, many other activities that normally fill everyday life, such as hobbies and social relationships, receive less attention. (3)

The most common eating disorders are anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder.


Many factors trigger an eating disorder


An eating disorder is the sum of many factors. Its onset is promoted by heredity as well as self-esteem and trauma. Social and environmental challenges and pressures are also behind the emergence of the disease. (2,3,4,5)


Symptoms of eating disorders


Eating disorders are all different from each other, but within each disease they cause common symptoms, on the basis of which the disease picture is formed. Common to all eating disorders is an excessive judgment of body image and the challenges associated with eating and exercise caused by it.


Eating disorder test


Whenever you suspect that you or a loved one has an eating disorder, it’s a good idea to talk to a professional. However, the site also has a test (eating disorder screen) that allows you to assess your own eating and exercise behavior with a low threshold in relation to your own body image and weight.

The test related to eating disorder can be found behind this link; Eating Disorder Screener (SCOFF) | .




Thinness disorder or anorexia (anorexia nervosa) is one of the most common eating disorders. It is estimated that about one percent of young people suffer from it and it can lead to serious malnutrition problems, sometimes even death. Anorexia is basically a mental illness that is easy to diagnose but challenging to notice. Unfortunately, the disease picture often includes secrecy and covering up of symptoms, which complicates both the diagnosis and the detection of the disease. (4)

Anorexia is associated with a strong body loathing, which most often has nothing to do with reality. In addition, the disease involves extreme control and monitoring of weight, and even complete lack of food, resulting in physical and psychological symptoms related to malnutrition, such as severe weight loss, lack of concentration, brain fog, etc. are due to. Often, those suffering from thinness disorder are successful young people who demand perfection from themselves!

At its worst, anorexia can cause osteoporosis, diseases caused by malnutrition, and sometimes even death.

Anorexia is a serious mental health challenge that takes a long time to recover from. The person suffering from it needs understanding, support, presence and stopping. A conversation with an experienced expert can be life-changing, and a meeting with one is recommended for both the patient and his close circle. There is always hope.




Binge eating disorder (bulimia nervosa) refers to an eating disorder, the most obvious symptom of which is binge eating of unhealthy foods and vomiting or vigorous exercise very soon after eating.

A person suffering from bulimia momentarily loses a sense of control over their own eating and tries to correct the situation by vomiting or exercise, sometimes both. An attack is often the result of feelings related to shame, failure, etc., and these feelings may not necessarily have anything to do with food.

Binge eating disorder usually starts later than eating disorder, but is also more common. Bulimia is more a disease of young women, but it also occurs to some extent among young men. (5)

Tape measure around the fork.

Eating disorders do not only affect young people, but it can also affect adults, causing intense shame and insecurity.


Adult eating disorder


Unfortunately, an adult eating disorder often goes unnoticed, especially if the disease only starts at an older age. It is true that eating disorders are largely diseases of young people, but sometimes adults also have symptoms related to a distorted body image, which cause challenges with eating. Eating disorders such as bulimia and binge eating disorder are significantly more common in adults, and these symptoms are often accompanied by strong shame, which is why the matter is hidden even from one’s own family.

Eating disorder treatment


Healing from an eating disorder is a long process. The more serious the condition, the longer it takes to recover and usually the treatment is very much focused on therapy and rehabilitation. A multiprofessional team should be involved in the treatment, in addition to awakening the patient’s own desire for treatment and desire to heal. The most common reason for treatment failure is the patient’s own reluctance to accept help.


The endocannabinoid system behind eating disorders


The endocannabinoid system is behind all the body’s processes, making sure that everything works perfectly. The overall function of the endocannabinoid system is to take care of survival, i.e. the so-called survival of life. about basic things such as sleeping, eating and the processes behind them. One of the most important functions of the endocannabinoid system is to monitor functions related to energy intake, such as energy storage.

The underlying factor behind eating disorders is an imbalance in the signaling of the hormone leptin, which affects appetite and energy balance. The activity of this hormone is regulated by the brain’s hypothalamus, whose endocannabinoids are part of the nervous system that controls energy and leptin. (6,7)


The body’s own cannabinoids


The body itself produces cannabinoids when needed, where they are needed, and they are not stored goods. Several endocannabinoids work in the body, two of which are better known, anandamide and 2-AG .

Endocannabinoids have been found to regulate appetite in many different ways (6,7) and they affect the response in the background of eating disorders, the purpose of which is to increase appetite (8). On the other hand, among people who suffer from binge eating, endocannabinoids may also be involved in the factors that increase eating.

According to research, the anandamide levels in the blood of people suffering from anorexia are slightly elevated while the 2-AG levels are normal, but the endocannabinoid levels in the blood of people suffering from bulimia are normal compared to healthy blood. (7)


Cannabinoid receptors


Two cannabinoid receptors are currently known, but there are a few more candidates for these receptors, about which we will get more information as research progresses. The most well-known, CB1 and CB2 receptors, are receptors found throughout the body, to which endocannabinoids respond.

In eating disorders, there is no significant deviation in receptor function, but a slight increase in the CB1 receptor has been observed in both anorexia and bulimia. (7)

A happy woman eats porridge with blueberries from a bowl.

Healing from an eating disorder takes a long time and e.g. therapy, CBD oil and family support are a major contributor to the healing process.


CBD for an eating disorder


CBD (cannabidiol) is a natural compound found in the hemp plant, a cannabinoid that, according to research, has numerous health-promoting effects. Hemp and the compounds it contains have been studied for a long time and quite a number of them have already been identified. Cannabinoids alone, the most famous of which are THC and CBD, more than 120 different compounds have been found and other compounds such as terpenes, flavonoids etc. more than 450. CBD has been studied extensively for decades and has been found in several studies to be a safe and well-tolerated natural product.

To support the treatment of eating disorders, CBD oil is mainly used for its appetite-regulating effects, but CBD has other properties that may be useful for the patient. CBD has been researched to relieve anxiety and depression symptoms, helps to think outside the box and also improves appetite. It might have positive effect on sleep quality and it calms both the nervous system and the inflammatory state of the body .

Eating disorders are strongly associated with a sense of power, which stems from controlling one’s own eating and appetite. CBD also affects reward behavior, which is an underlying process related to the satisfaction of the basic needs associated with eating.


Cannabigerol (CBG) is an appetite-stimulating cannabinoid


One of the numerous cannabinoids is CBG (cannabigerol) and it has been found in animal experiments to increase appetite as effectively as THC, but without any psychoactive effect. There has been some research into the use of CBG to treat anorexia and other eating disorders, and it appears to be a potential cannabinoid to both prevent anorexia and even promote the recovery process. (8)




Eating disorders are a serious mental health-based illness, the recovery of which can be a struggle of years, even for the rest of your life. These diseases are largely completely treatable and the earlier the disease is noticed, the easier it is to restore physical health. According to studies, CBD is a natural product with numerous health-supporting properties and may also have a beneficial effect on various eating disorders through various mechanisms of action. More studies are needed, but it seems that CBD oil could very well be a form of support for future eating disorder treatments!


  1. A working group set up by Duodecim of the Finnish Medical Society, the Finnish Children’s Psychiatry Association and the Finnish Psychiatry Association. 2014. Valid treatment recommendation. Eating disorders. Referred on 12/19/2022.
  2. Ruuska J.. 2022. Doctor’s book Duodecim. Eating disorders. Referred on 12/19/2022
  3. Information about eating disorders. Eating Disorder Association. Referred on 12/19/2022.
  4. Ruuska J.. 2021. Duodecim health library. Anorexia nervosa. Referred on 12/19/2022.
  5. Ruuska J.. 2021. Duodecim health library. Binge eating disorder (Bulimia nervosa).
  6. Monteleone P., Matias I., Martiadis V., De Petrocelis L., Maj M. and Di Marzo V.. 2005. Neuropsychopharmacology. Blood Levels of the Endocannabinoid Anandamide are Increased in Anorexia Nervosa and in Binge-Eating Disorder, but not in Bulimia Nervosa. Referred on 12/19/2022.
  7. Marco ME, Romero-Zerbo SY, Vivero MP. and Bermudez-Silva FJ. 2012. Behavioral Pharmacology. The role of the endocannabinoid system in eating disorders: Pharmacological implications. Referred on 12/19/2022.
  8. Referred on 12/19/2022
Rashes and skin care with CBD

Rashes and skin care with CBD



Skin care is a topic that touches everyone. Our lives are constantly exposed to various stressors and loads, which unfortunately is also reflected in the well-being of the skin. However, you can take care of your skin in many different ways, and it’s best to treat the rash in time to break a possible nasty cycle that untreated rash can lead to in the worst case scenario. In this article, the most common forms of eczema, their causes and skin care tips have been collected.


CBD Oil and Eczema


The popularity of CBD oils and CBD products in skin care has exploded in recent years. CBD and other cannabinoids are added to skin care products, not salt. Is CBD helpful in treating eczema and what kind of studies have been done on the matter? In this article you will get the answer to this and other basic questions related to the topic. First, however, let’s look at some basics about eczema and its different forms.


What is a rash?


Eczema is, at worst, a problem that makes life difficult. The background of the rash is very often some kind of inflammation and the common symptoms are dry scaly skin, itching and redness of the skin. Rash is also called eczema, which generally reflects skin diseases. Eczema can be chronic or acute and they are divided based on, among other things, their location, appearance and the individual’s background. (1)


Symptoms of acute eczema


Acute eczema is characterized by redness of the skin, various pimples and blisters. If left untreated, an acute rash can turn into a chronic rash, the treatment of which is more challenging. An acute rash can occur on the face, legs or the whole body. It is therefore always advisable to intervene in the treatment of acute eczema in time. (1)


Symptoms of chronic eczema


The typical symptoms of chronic eczema are peeling of the skin, redness of the skin and the so-called lichen planus, where the skin is rough and thick. Chronic eczema is usually associated with increased inflammation in the body. By preventing infections, even chronic eczema may stay away. (1)


Dry skin and its cause


Dry skin is a common problem that occurs especially in winter when the air is cold and dry. The symptoms of dry skin are certainly familiar to almost all Finns.

Excessive dryness of the skin layers causes inflammation and the skin can itch and feel rough. Symptoms of dry skin often also include peeling of the skin. (2)

The reason for dry skin is often that the water in the deep layers of the skin evaporates faster than normal. Normally, the fats (ceramides) in the stratum corneum slow down the excessive evaporation of water, but if there is not enough of the necessary fat, too much fluid is removed. It is known that e.g. heredity affects the amount of long-chain ceramides on the skin. (2)

As we age, the production of ceramides in the skin decreases, which causes inflammation, skin itching, peeling and cracking. Those suffering from dry skin also often have a tendency to atopic dermatitis. (3)


Dry skin treatment


In the treatment of dry skin, it is essential that after sweating sweat and all dirt should be washed off the skin. Therefore, washing the skin should not be avoided. However, you should avoid using strong detergents and a brush, as they can worsen the dryness. (3)

Generally, light water-based base creams are enough to keep the symptoms of dry skin away. The base cream is recommended to be applied to clean skin immediately after washing, as it moisturizes the skin and reduces its dryness. Choosing the right cream depends on the skin type and individual factors, and a good general rule is that if one or two creams a day do not help to maintain the skin’s moisture, then the inflammation should also be treated with other means. (3)

The sun can also help, because UV radiation makes the surface layer of the skin thicker, which slows down the evaporation of liquid. In addition, maintaining proper nutritional status helps keep the skin’s moisture balance in better condition. (3)

According to research, the use of CBD and cannabinoids can also help with dry skin symptoms. CBD can be helpful for dry skin both internally and externally. (4)


With the help of CBD, rash-free and healthy hands touch others.

Various rashes occur most commonly on the hands, feet, face, body and scalp.

Different forms of rashes


Rashes are divided into many forms and subcategories. Next, we look at the typical symptoms and treatment tips of various common rashes.


Allergic rash (contact rash)


Allergic dermatitis, or contact dermatitis, is a common problem and it is divided into two main types, slow and fast allergy.


Rapid allergic rash


A rapid allergic rash is usually detected within 20 minutes of contact with the allergen and is often accompanied by redness, itching and so-called hives. hives. Usually, the bumps disappear within half an hour of their appearance. If breakouts appear continuously, we can talk about long-term eczema. In general, certain roots and vegetables, latex, and the dander and hair of domestic animals such as dogs and cats cause rapid allergies. A quick contact allergy is diagnosed using a skin prick test. (5)


Slow allergic rash


The symptoms of a slow allergic rash are largely similar to other common symptoms of a rash, i.e. eczema. Slow allergic contact dermatitis is characterized by the fact that the body reacts visibly to allergens only a day or even a week after contact. Determining a slow contact allergy is done using patch tests. (5)

Typically, symptoms include oozing of visva, which is a clear or yellowish inflammatory tissue discharge. Scabs may also form in the area. Contact rash may also spread to other parts of the body. Often the symptoms recur and disappear on their own. (5)

Common causes of slow allergy are nickel, chromium and cobalt compounds, as well as preservatives and certain fragrances in cosmetic products. The substances used in rubber, adhesives and plastics can also cause an allergic reaction. (5)


Airborne allergy


You can also get an allergic reaction through the air, and probably then the allergen has already caused previous sensitization through contact. The symptoms of an airborne rash resemble the so-called photoacne and occurs where the skin is exposed. (5)

Common things that cause allergies through the air are chemicals, artificial resins, and mycelium-flowered plants such as chicory and aster plants. Chemical allergies are especially caused by sesquiterpene lactones. (5)


Common causes of allergic contact dermatitis based on location


Rash on hands and wrists
-> can be due to e.g. chemicals, tools, metal and leather.
Rash on legs
-> can be caused by rubber, glue, leather, metal, chrome and drugs.
A rash on the legs or thighs
-> can be caused by socks and rubber boots.
A rash in the armpit
-> often caused by chemicals in deodorants.
A rash on the neck
-> is often caused by conditioners and make-up (cosmetic products).
Rash in the buttock
-> can be caused by suppositories or creams. (5)


Pollen in the air that causes rashes from allergies.

Allergic rash and itching can also be caused by airborne pollen and allergens contained in flowering plants.

Treatment of allergic rash


The most effective way to avoid allergic contact dermatitis is to avoid exposure to the allergen. If that is not possible, it is good to at least protect the skin in an appropriate way.

When allergy symptoms appear, mild cortisone creams can help overcome the worst. Cortisone should only be used when necessary and for a short duration, for example 2 weeks at a time. (5)

If any substance or work-related factors cause a rash or make it worse, it is recommended to discuss the matter with a doctor. It is worth taking a serious approach, because an allergic rash can turn into a chronic rash in as little as 3 months. (5)

Allergy-related matters and questions should be discussed with operators specialized in allergies, such as allergy associations. Experts may have experience with exactly those symptoms and their causes that need help.


Sunburnt skin


Some burn more easily in the sun than others. Burning and tanning are caused by the sun’s UV radiation. An individual’s sensitivity to burning depends on the skin type and the intensity of ultraviolet radiation. In general, the same techniques help to treat sunburned skin as for other mild burns. (6)

The sun’s UV radiation damages skin cells, and in order to defend itself, the body increases pigment production, which gives time for tanning. The most common skin type in Finland is one that tans easily and sometimes burns. In addition to burning and damaging the skin, the sun’s ultraviolet radiation can increase the risk of skin cancer and cause skin aging. Although sunlight is used in the treatment of certain skin diseases, it can also be harmful to, for example, cold sores or rosacea. (6)


Treatment of sunburned skin


Moisturizing the skin, cold water, ice cubes or other cooling things can help in the first treatment of sunburned skin. It is also important to drink enough liquid. After a burn, the skin may be sensitive and reddened. These symptoms can be reduced by controlling the inflammation.

Thanks to its moisturizing and anti-inflammatory properties, CBD oil has also been used topically to help sunburned skin. Apply CBD oil directly to the burned skin or, if you wish, you can mix the oil with another cosmetic product of your choice.


Fungal rashes


Rashes caused by fungi, or fungal infections, are common and most often occur on the scalp, feet and hands, especially the nails. Fungal rashes are classified based on location and symptoms into athlete’s foot, nail fungus, ringworm of the scalp, ringworm in the groin, and ringworm of the body. Next, let’s take a closer look at the most common fungal rashes, their symptoms and treatment tips.


Foot fungus


Athlete’s foot, or athlete’s foot, is the most common form of fungal rashes. Ringworm is caused by dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum. Athlete’s foot occurs more in men, athletes, older people and especially in people with diabetes. (7)

You can be exposed to athlete’s foot in shower rooms and on the floors of public areas such as the gym. Children rarely get athlete’s foot. Tight footwear and sweaty feet can increase the likelihood of getting a fungal infection. (7)


Symptoms of athlete’s foot


Typically athlete’s foot appears between the little toes and its symptoms are redness, blisters, scaling, and broken skin. Ringworm may also move from between the toes to other parts of the foot. If the thickest areas of the sole of the foot are covered with dandruff, then we are talking about moccasin ringworm. Typical places for it are the big toe, heel and balls of the feet. Itching and blisters may also occur on the fingers and palms. At worst, athlete’s foot can become a severe mixed infection when certain bacteria act together with a fungus. (7)


Treatment of athlete’s foot


Athlete’s foot is usually treated with fungal creams, which are used topically for one to two weeks, applied to dry and cleansed skin. On the other hand, the treatment of moccasin ringworm often requires antifungal drugs that are used internally as a cure. Treating athlete’s foot is recommended because broken skin on the toes increases the risk of infection for more challenging infections caused by bacteria. (7)

In most cases, athlete’s foot is easily renewed and therefore it is worthwhile to take good care of hygiene and wash and dry your feet carefully every day. It is also recommended to change the socks daily and wash them at 60 C. In public showers and gyms, it is recommended to protect your feet from infections. If athlete’s foot keeps coming back over time, it’s worth thinking more about what’s causing it. (7)

On the Internet, you can find people’s experiences in various discussion forums where athlete’s foot has been treated naturally with the help of oyster vinegar capsules. Oyster vinegar might therefore be a natural product worth trying to treat athlete’s foot.


Nail fungus or ringworm


Onychomycosis is a common fungal infection of the nail and is caused by ringworm. Nail fungus is more common in men and is more common in older people. (8)


Symptoms of nail fungus


Nail fungus occurs more often on the nails of the toes than on the fingers and is characterized by a yellow and brown color. Onychomycosis makes the nails thicker than normal, stringy and weakly structured. Symptoms may include nail shedding and destruction of the entire nail. (8)

According to research, various diseases (e.g. diabetes ) and trauma may increase exposure to nail fungus. Nail fungus causes the skin to break and it can also expose you to other bacterial infections, so it is recommended to take good care of hygiene. The presence of nail fungus can be associated with disorders in the peripheral blood circulation and the immune system. (8)

Healthy hands where the nail fungus does not grow.

Taking care of nail health can help keep nail fungus at bay.

Treatment of nail fungus


Before starting the treatment, it is recommended to do an examination to get confirmation of a possible nail fungus infection. Nail fungus can be diagnosed using mushroom cultivation or genetic engineering. (8)

Usually, nail fungus is treated with an internally ingested antifungal medicine as a course lasting several months. Antifungals are effective in about 50 percent of nail fungus sufferers. Other methods of foot care professionals can also increase the chance of curing nail fungus. Such methods include grinding the nail, soaking it in urea and lacquer treatment. Onychomycosis can be prevented in the same way as athlete’s foot, i.e. with sufficient basic care and hygiene. (8)


Stress and eczema


It is almost impossible to avoid stress, but it is important to find the right balance. Stress is not just a bad thing. However, long-term stress can be dangerous and the body may show symptoms in many ways, such as a rash on the skin.


Skin symptoms caused by stress


Common skin symptoms caused by stress are pimples, itching, red spots, peeling skin and increased sebum production. A stress-related rash often appears on the neck and between the breasts at times of tension. The rash is caused by adrenaline and stress hormones. (9)

In addition to rashes, common symptoms of stress include irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and headaches. The importance of the intestine for well-being, skin and the mind has been studied a lot. It would seem that by taking good care of the well-being of the intestines, one can comprehensively treat the physical and mental side of a person, including stress and rashes. In Finland alone, more than 500,000 people struggle with stress stomach, and it is also a worldwide phenomenon. (9)

Read more about how CBD can affect the well-being of the intestines .


Take a stress test


You can test your own stress levels with various stress tests, which can also be found on the internet. Take a quick free stress test .




Psoriasis is a common and really annoying form of skin rash. According to a study published in 2021, approximately 7.5 million American adults suffer from psoriasis. According to statistics, psoriasis is most common in white-skinned people. About 3.6% of all Caucasians suffer from psoriasis. (10)

According to research, psoriasis is also linked to the following health problems:

  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
  • type 2 diabetes
  • Heart failure
  • Anxiety
  • Depression

Different forms of psoriasis


Lumpy capsular psoriasis


Plaque psoriasis is the most common form of psoriasis and is characterized by a variety of thick, scaly patches that usually appear on the hands, knees, back, and scalp (scalp). Patches can be of different sizes, from half a centimeter to fist-sized or larger areas. (11)


Arch psoriasis


The fold psoriasis that occurs in Taipei is a subtype of patchy psoriasis and appears most often in skin folds and folds such as the groin, earlobes, navel, genitals, buttock and under the breasts. The patches are often reddish and thin, and do not scaly in the same way as plaque psoriasis. Scalp psoriasis can also appear moist, which is why it can be difficult to distinguish it from the fungal infection that occurs in Taipei. (11)


Pustular psoriasis


Pustular psoriasis forms small, small-sized pustules on the skin, which are yellowish in color and itch strongly. Blisters appear on the legs and hands, but sometimes in severe cases also on other parts of the body. (11)


Drops rapsoriasis


Driprapsoriasis is characterized by spots less than 1 cm in diameter all over the body. It is typical that tear psoriasis breaks out after having angina. (11)


Nail psoriasis


Nail psoriasis is common and its symptoms typically include deformed nails such as thickening of the nails, peeling of the nails, and spot-like pits and oil-spotted changes on the skin. Nail psoriasis is especially common in those who suffer from psoriatic arthritis or skin psoriasis. You can get help with the problem from basic nail care. (11)

Erythrodermic psoriasis


The rarest form of psoriasis is erythrodermic psoriasis, which causes extensive reddening of the skin all over the body. The symptoms also often include a deterioration in general well-being, chills and fever. Erythrodermic psoriasis is a severe form of psoriasis that is recommended to be treated together with dermatologists. (11)


Psoriatic arthritis


On average, 10 to 30 percent of people suffering from psoriasis suffer from psoriatic arthritis. Classified as a long-term inflammatory joint disease, psoriatic arthritis often forms in joints such as small joints in the limbs. Psoriasis of the joints can also be found in the spine. Psoriasis of the joints doesn’t always include a visible rash, but rather joint symptoms. (11)


Psoriasis treatment


Although psoriasis cannot be completely cured, the symptoms associated with it can be eased and even reduced completely. The effective treatment is aimed at curbing inflammation and reducing increased cell division. (12)

Vitamin D has been found to have beneficial effects in the treatment of psoriasis, as vitamin D suppresses skin cell division and is an important ingredient for the normal functioning of cells. Vitamin D also promotes cell differentiation and apoptosis in the squamous cell layer of the skin. (12)

With proper and regular local treatment, most people with psoriasis can keep their symptoms under control. In the most serious cases, it is recommended to turn to hospital care and specialists. (12)

The primary goal of the treatments is to minimize the symptoms, improve the quality of life and maintain the ability to function and work. Getting good results can require a variety of experiments and persistence, which is why it is important that the person suffering from psoriasis actively participates in making a treatment plan and following it. The treatment should be smoothly coordinated with the psoriatic patient’s life situation, so that it does not cause more stress and inconvenience. It has been noticed that finding a good, reliable treatment relationship between the patient, the nurse and the doctor is important for the success of the treatment. (13)

Psoriasis rash on the hand and its treatment with natural products such as CBD can ease the symptoms.

Dry skin and itching are common symptoms of rashes (e.g. atopic dermatitis and psoriasis)

Atopic dermatitis


If you have atopic dermatitis, you have most likely already tried different creams and fats to treat it. If they have not been of significant benefit, you should think about it from a new perspective.

Atopic dermatitis can be an unpleasant problem that may also affect a person’s self-esteem. For example, atopic dermatitis on the face and hands may cause shame and thus make life significantly more difficult, because most often the face and hands are exactly the area that people can see from the outside. It is very common for people with atopic dermatitis to also suffer from anxiety and depression, which makes the situation even more difficult. This is also the reason why it is recommended to start treating eczema in good time and to nurture a balanced healthy lifestyle. (14)


Causes of atopic dermatitis


The reasons for the appearance of atopic dermatitis are linked to the structure of the skin and the properties of the body’s immune system, as well as heredity. The importance of environmental factors such as climate can also affect the onset of atopy. (14)

One important function of the skin is to protect the body from unwanted stimuli. Stimuli can be divided into physical, chemical, pathogens and allergens. Physical stimuli can be e.g. scratching or rubbing the skin. Chemical irritants are various substances such as detergents and soaps. Pathogens are classified into viruses, bacteria, fungi and microorganisms. Substances containing allergens can cause hypersensitivity. (14)

In most cases, the skin barrier of people with atopic dermatitis does not work as it should. If the skin’s permeability barrier does not work normally as desired, then different stimuli affect the whole body and thus the well-being of the skin. If the stimuli penetrate the permeability barrier, the body’s cells wake up to defend themselves against the stimuli, which may trigger an inflammatory reaction. The inflammatory reaction may cause rashes, as the infections worsen the skin’s insufficient permeability barrier and increase skin symptoms, creating a nasty cycle. According to research, the most important building block of the permeability barrier is flaggrin, and the most common gene error predisposing to eczema has been found in the flaggrin gene of people suffering from atopic dermatitis. (14)

The sun can help treat atopic dermatitis. Child and mother on the beach.

UV light from the sun can be helpful in such forms of dermatitis as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis.

Treatment of atopic dermatitis


People with atopic dermatitis may want to cover their skin, but it’s not always a good idea. According to research, the ultraviolet radiation of the aurigo can have beneficial effects in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. The benefits of UV radiation seem to be individual because it is also known that in some atopics sunlight can also worsen the rash and symptoms. (14)

The potential benefits of UV radiation may also be overshadowed by increased sweating due to heat and the sun, as sweating may further irritate the skin inflammation. The cold of winter, dry air, stress and certain detergents may also cause the symptoms of atopic dermatitis to worsen. (14)


Ringworm (rash)


Ringworm is a rash, which is a very common skin disease classified as an autoimmune disease and is associated with inflammation of the skin or mucous membranes. Red lichen rash is divided into so-called to common skin lichen and mucosal lichen. Its cause is not yet known. (15)

On average, ringworm occurs in people between the ages of 30 and 60 and is more common in women. The rarer forms are red lichen of hair follicles and red lichen with thick scabs. Autoimmune disease is a life-threatening disease in which the body of those suffering from it attacks the body’s own tissues (15).

The symptoms often appear as small (approx. 1 cm), slightly raised, blue-red and itchy spots on the skin. In addition to these, the mucous membranes can also show changes. Ringworm occurs most often on the lower back, wrists and ankles symmetrically at the same time on both sides of the body or limbs and they are angular in shape. Sometimes blisters may also appear in connection with spots. (16)

The cause of red lichen is not yet known, so it is challenging to prevent it. Red lichen present in the mucous membranes is considered an autoimmune disease, where the body attacks its own tissues. The outbreak of ringworm is associated with stress, and it is known that at least increased stress may make it worse. Ringworm is not a contagious disease. (16)

In general, ringworm is treated with cortisone, and its treatment requires persistence, as it may take months to years for the symptoms to disappear, depending on the situation. Eczema symptoms can be eased by controlling inflammation. Red lichen may disappear on its own in a couple of years and it may also come back. (16)


Skin care and cosmetic products


Skin care means taking care of the well-being of the skin both internally and externally. After all, the skin is the largest human organ and it is important to take good care of it.

Comprehensive skin care is based on a suitable diet, sustainable lifestyles and taking care of the skin internally and externally. Support for skin care and eczema can be obtained from various oils, creams, fats, facial cleansers and skin exfoliation. It is worth adding good-quality omega fatty acids to the diet, which many people suffering from eczema have found helpful.

Most of the skin care products on the market contain a variety of additives and, frankly, completely unnecessary ingredients that can even worsen the condition of the skin and increase the rash. Excipients are added to cosmetic products to improve the composition and shelf life, but this should not happen at the expense of well-being. So the product may ease the situation temporarily, but worsen the situation with long-term use, thus creating a nasty cycle.

The best skin care product is often the simplest, such as two-ingredient CBD oil, which usually contains, in addition to CBD extract, a good quality oil such as hemp seed oil or MCT oil from coconut.

CBD cosmetic products that can relieve dry atopic dermatitis and psoriasis.

CBD oil can be of significant benefit in the treatment and prevention of eczema.


How can CBD help with skin care?


Almost all of us have skin challenges at some point in our lives. For some, they are short and for others they shadow them throughout their entire lives. Now, many skin care professionals have turned their eyes to CBD products, because the versatile CBD is a delightful and relief option for many. More and more positive experiences and information based on studies are being told about the health benefits of CBD.

From countries where the use of CBD products has become widespread and mainstream, we hear a lot of experiences about how CBD-containing products have effectively provided relief in the treatment of various rashes and symptoms. The most common of these are psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, dry scaly skin, skin itching, redness, acne and various pimples.

CBD products can support the well-being of the skin both internally and externally. When applied topically, CBD oil directly affects the cannabinoid receptors in the layers of the skin, which may be the best way to go. CBD can also be dosed internally, for example in capsules or in the form of oil.

CBD has effects that support the well-being of the intestines, and according to the latest research, the well-being of the intestines has a direct effect on the condition of the skin and general well-being. Read more about the effect of CBD on the well-being of the intestines.


The benefits of CBD in skin care


There are always more officially approved health claims for CBD cosmetics . Currently, there are many scientific studies available on the benefits of CBD in skin care.


CBD has been found to help in at least the following ways:


  • Soothes irritated skin (4).
  • Relieves itching (4).
  • Slows down skin aging and prevents wrinkles and fine lines (17)
  • Reduces skin redness (18).
  • Controls inflammation (18).
  • Prevents the formation of pimples like acne (19).
  • Contributes to the healing of damaged skin (4).
  • Treats dry skin (20).

CBD products can be used even if the skin is sensitive, dry and easily blocked. CBD balances oil production on the skin and helps the skin stay properly moist.


Good bad cortisone


You must have heard a lot of good and bad about cortisone creams. Cortisone-containing products can provide relief in acute skin problems such as eczema and inflammation with short use, but with continuous use, its disadvantages increase and the benefits may be outweighed by the disadvantages (21).

Cortisone can be used to control skin inflammation thanks to its inflammatory properties. However, for infections caused by viruses, cortisone is not useful, and for bacterial infections, the use of cortisone is even harmful and makes the situation worse.

CBD also has researched anti-inflammatory effects and it is an officially approved health claim in CBD cosmetics. CBD, on the other hand, can be used for all kinds of rashes and in the treatment of skin problems, regardless of whether it is of viral or bacterial origin.


How to choose the best product for skin care?


A good starting point for choosing a natural skin care product is to use a product that could theoretically be used internally as well. The ingredients are also absorbed into the body through the skin and end up in the bloodstream in the same way as when eaten. You certainly don’t want anything extra in your bloodstream. A good rule of thumb is to think about it so that what you wouldn’t eat, you don’t necessarily want to put on your skin either.

You should be careful when choosing, because cosmetic manufacturers may make all kinds of health claims about their products related to individual ingredients, but the rest of the product’s content and entirety may still be unsuitable for skin care.

Prefer 100% natural preparations and, if necessary, try adding CBD oil to it to increase its effectiveness and anti-inflammatory effects . You can order CBD oils from the online store.




  1. Kristiina Airola. 2021. Doctor’s journal Duodecim. Rash (eczema). . Referred on 15/03/2022.
  2. Sanna Poikonen. Pihljalinna. Care tips for dry skin. . Referred on 24/03/2022
  3. Kristiina Airola. 2019. Medical book Duodecim. Dry skin. . Referred on 23/04/2022
  4. Kinga Fanni Tóth et al. 2019. Molecules. Cannabinoid Signaling in the Skin: Therapeutic Potential of the “C(ut)annabinoid” System. . Referred on 23/03/2022
  5. Allergy, Skin and Asthma Association. 2020. Contact rashes. Referred on 23/03/2022
  6. Health village. 2021. Sunburnt skin. %C3% A4ivystäymen/itsehoito-ohjeet- %C3% A4killisiss %C3% A4-terveysongelmissa/auringon-polttama-iho . Referred on 23/03/2022
  7. Health village. 2018. Ringworm. . Referred on 24/03/2022
  8. Health village. 2018. Onychomycosis. . Referred on 24/03/2022
  9. Mehilä Stress. . Referred on 23/03/2022
  10. April W. Armstrong et al. 2021. Jamanetwork. Psoriasis Prevalence in Adults in the United States. . Referred on 23/03/2022
  11. Different forms of psoriasis. . Referred on 03/22/2022
  12. Good treatment. 2012. Psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Finnish medical association Duodecim. . Referred on 03/22/2022
  13. Psoriasis treatment. . Referred on 03/22/2022
  14. 2021. What causes atopic dermatitis? . Referred on 15/03/2022.
  15. Kristiina Airola. 2021. Doctor’s journal Duodecim. Red lichen. . Referred on 15/03/2022.
  16. Terhi Mäkinen. 2015. The cause of ringworm is unknown. . Referred on 23/03/2022
  17. Kerstin Iffland and Franjo Grotenhermen. 2017. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. An Update on Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol: A Review of Clinical Data and Relevant Animal Studies. . Referred on 23/03/2022
  18. Christelle M. Andre. 2016. Front Plant Sci. Cannabis sativa: The Plant of the Thousand and One Molecules. . Referred on 23/03/2022
  19. Attila Oláh et al. 2014. J Clin Invest. Cannabidiol exerts sebostatic and anti-inflammatory effects on human sebocytes. . Referred on 23/03/2022
  20. Tamás Bíró et al. 2019. Trends Pharmacol Sci. The endocannabinoid system of the skin in health and disease: novel perspectives and therapeutic opportunities. . Referred on 23/03/2022
  21. Aki Rovasalo. 2006. Duodecim. Psychological adverse effects of corticosteroids. . Referred on 03/24/2022


Anandamide: the happiness molecule for your brain

Anandamide: the happiness molecule for your brain

In the late 1980s, receptors for THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), the primary psychoactive component of cannabis, were discovered in the brain. But since THC does not occur naturally in the body, the existence of these receptors puzzled scientists. The mystery was solved a few years later, when arachidonylethanolamide was discovered, which was later called anandamide.


Anandamide is a neurotransmitter produced by the brain that binds to THC receptors. It has been called the “happiness molecule” from the Sanskrit word Ananda according to which means joy, bliss or happiness. It has been considered an endocannabinoid – a substance produced by the body that binds to cannabinoid receptors.


Before long, anandamide was found to do much more than produce a happier state of being. It is synthesized in areas of the brain that are important for memory, advanced thinking and movement. It plays a significant role in regulating pain, appetite and fertility. It also prevents the proliferation of cancer cells.


By increasing neurogenesis – the creation of new nerve cells – anandamide appears to have both anti-anxiety and anti-depressant properties. Anandamide, like all neurotransmitters, is fragile and breaks down quickly in the body, which is why it does not produce a constant state of bliss.


Anandamide, cannabis and memory


Dr. Gary L. Wenk is a leading expert on chronic brain inflammation and Alzheimer’s disease. For years, he has researched whether smoking cannabis can prevent memory loss caused by both normal aging and Alzheimer’s disease. He has been surprised and excited to discover that cannabis seems to protect against memory loss that comes with aging.


According to Dr. Wenk, the high number of anandamide receptors indicates the importance of that neurotransmitter in regulating brain function. He has discovered that by stimulating the brain’s cannabinoid receptors, the brain can be protected by reducing inflammation and increasing neurogenesis. He argues that in later life, cannabis may actually help the aging brain rather than harm it.


Usually we don’t think cannabis is good for our brain, and especially not for memory,” Wenk points out. “How could a drug that clearly impairs memory in people under its influence protect the brain from the effects of aging? The answer probably has to do with the functioning of young and old brains and a host of age-related changes in brain chemistry. When we are young, we influence the formation of new memories by stimulating the brain’s cannabinoid receptors. However, later in life, the brain gradually shows increasing evidence of inflammation and a dramatic reduction in the production of new neurons, which are important in the development of new memories.”


Another factor in determining whether cannabis has a beneficial or detrimental effect on memory is dosage. Apparently, very little cannabis is required to improve memory in old brains. Dr. Wenk’s colleague summed it up in the phrase “one smoke is enough”, as it is enough to significantly improve memory in older people.


How to add anandamide – the happiness molecule to your brain


The existence of anandamide clearly has many general health and mental health benefits. Here are a few ways to increase levels naturally.




Chocolate is one of the most loved foods on the planet. It’s rare to meet someone who doesn’t enjoy chocolate. Chocolate is loved for its taste and creamy texture, and for its ability to make you instantly happy. Chocolate is known to contain more than 300 chemical compounds and scientists have been diligently trying to find out the biochemical origin of its appeal.


It is well known that chocolate contains caffeine, which improves mood, and phenylethylamine, called the “love molecule”, which stimulates the feeling of love. It also contains theobromine, a substance comparable to coffee, which acts as a relaxant rather than a stimulant. It has been hypothesized that theobromine causes the brain to produce more anandamide.


Chocolate is supposed to contain both anandamide and components that slow down its degradation (N-acylethanolamines). This gives the net result of anandamide, which is responsible for the temporary feeling of happiness that follows eating chocolate.


However, anandamide has been hypothesized to be the reason why chocolate is the primary food for cravings. It used to be believed that women in particular craved chocolate because of its relatively high magnesium content, but there may be another, more strongly influencing factor. According to a study conducted at the San Diego Neuroscience Institute in California “Chocolate contains pharmacologically active substances that have effects on the brain similar to cannabis, and these chemicals may play a role in certain drug-induced psychoses associated with chocolate cravings.”


To get the most anandamide from chocolate, one should prefer to eat dark chocolate instead of milk chocolate. Or what’s even better, you should eat cocoa beans, which are the raw material used to make chocolate. Cacao beans are significantly less processed than the best chocolate, contain no sugar, and are a more concentrated source of chocolate’s beneficial components.




Until recently, chocolate was believed to be the only food that contained anandamide. The perception changed when a group of Italian scientists discovered that black truffles (Tuber melanosporum) also contain it. Interestingly, this fungus produces anandamide, but does not contain receptors for it, which would presumably trigger some sort of biological effect. Because of this, researchers believe that truffles would produce anandamide as a mechanism to attract animals to eat them, thus promoting the spread by releasing fungal spores.


Truffles are in high demand among top chefs around the world, but they are difficult to cultivate, so most are found in the wild thanks to truffle hunters and their accompanying truffle-seeking dogs. Traditionally, the use of truffle-seeking pigs is prohibited, as they not only eat the truffles but also trample and damage their growing medium.

The presence of the happiness-producing anandamide explains why truffle-hunting animals seek out the mushroom with such ecstatic enthusiasm!


Unless you’re independently wealthy or have your own secret truffle-growing stash, you may want to stick to chocolate or other anandamide-rich foods like celery, broccoli, and tea. Truffles are so expensive that it can shock you permanently. Black truffles currently go for $95 an ounce, but are a bargain compared to white truffles that cost almost twice as much!


Flow mode


What is something you love to do so much that time seems to disappear? This state of heightened attention, super-focus and peak performance is called being in the “zone” or “flow state”. Flow is defined as “the optimal state of consciousness where we feel our best and perform our best.” During the flow state, the brain releases large amounts of feel-good chemicals such as serotonin, dopamine, endorphins and anandamide.




If you are a runner, you may have experienced “runner’s high”. Although often associated with endorphins, this theory is beginning to lose popularity. One reason is that endorphin molecules are too large to cross the blood-brain barrier and enter the brain. A study conducted at the University of Arizona found that endocannabinoids, including anandamide, are more likely to cause “runner’s high.”


Cannabis? Perhaps


Smoking cannabis might seem like a logical option if you want to experience more happiness, since THC clearly attaches to the same receptors as anandamide. But is smoking cannabis the right choice to relieve anxiety, increase happiness or improve memory to everyone? Probably not.


When anandamide binds to cannabinoid receptors, it has a calming, anti-anxiety effect on most people to people, but almost 20 percent of the population reacts differently. There is a naturally occurring enzyme called FAAH that deactivates anandamide. Some people have a genetic predisposition to less FAAH, which means they naturally have more anandamide in their brains. These people are generally less anxious and, interestingly, less likely to like cannabis. According to Richard A. Friedman, professor of clinical psychiatry at Weill Cornell Medical College, those with the FAAH gene variant experience happiness decreasing while they smoke cannabis. His position is that when there is more anandamide naturally, there is less need for cannabis.


Dr. Friedman, an expert in neurobiology and the treatment of mood and anxiety disorders, has also found that cannabis can be harmful to those suffering from anxiety. “Psychotropic drugs, therapies and relaxation techniques are not for everyone, so what’s wrong with using cannabis to relieve anxiety? The problem is that cannabis overwhelms the brain’s cannabinoid system, and there is evidence that chronic use may not only relieve anxiety, but interfere with learning and memory.”, he notes in a New York Times article.


Anandamide is a relatively new discovery and there is still much to learn about how it affects the brain and mood in both healthy people and those with mental or brain disorders. But there is certainly no harm in exercising, being in the “zone” and eating a little chocolate.

*However, if you want to benefit from the cannabinoids in the cannabis plant without the effect of intoxicating THC, you can easily order CBD oil online through a Finnish- language online store .


This article was translated from the original by hemp partner Juuso.

The original article can be found here:



The endocannabinoid system is a functionally versatile, complex and wide-ranging system whose purpose is to balance and monitor all the processes that are going on in the body. The system ensures that everything from menstruation to wound healing happens on time and correctly, and it can be found in almost all living things.

Studies have found that the background of almost all diseases is some degree of disturbance in the functioning of the endocannabinoid system. This is called, somewhat erroneously, clinical cannabinoid deficiency because it is not always a matter of a lack of endocannabinoids, but sometimes also of their overproduction. (1)

The endocannabinoid system consists of three components. About endogenous cannabinoids, i.e. endocannabinoids, their corresponding receptors, i.e. cannabinoid receptors, and the disintegrating molecules of these two.


What the heck is 2-AG?


2-AG, or arachidonoylglycerol, is another of the most well-known endocannabinoids. It is composed of various membrane phospholipids and is a derivative of the polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid. Arachidonic acid is formed in the body from linoleic acid and can be obtained as such from products of the animal kingdom. (1,2,3)

2-AG acts as an endogenous ligand for cannabinoid receptors and is a full agonist for both CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors. (1,2,3)

Endocannabinoids are formed in one or more enzymatic steps and are then released outside the cell to attach to CB1 and CB2 receptors, as well as other receptors in the body. (1,2,3)


Is 2-AG a neurotransmitter?


Neurotransmitter is a general name for neurotransmitters in the brain. They are chemical molecules whose task is to transmit messages between neurons in the brain.

2AG is a signaling lipid in the central nervous system and a primary regulator of neurotransmitter release. (1,3)




Since endocannabinoids are formed from essential fatty acids, their precursors are always available on the lipid membrane of the cell. Endocannabinoids are not stored in the body, but are made as needed where they are needed.

Endocannabinoids are everywhere in the body, but they are especially abundant in the brain. (1)



2-AG is mainly broken down by one, but at least three enzymes in total. The main decomposer is an enzyme called MAGL (monoacylglycerol lipase) (1,2,3).

Excess 2-AG endocannabinoids are broken down into arachidonic acid and glycerol (3).


2-AG’s duties


Being part of such a significant system, 2-AG naturally has many tasks in different parts of the body. On a general level, the endocannabinoid system balances all the basic functions of the body, such as appetite, sleep, memory, learning, etc., but both endocannabinoids have their own important functions in these processes. (1)

Mainly 2-AG affects the central and peripheral nervous system, where it is involved in e.g. to nerve flexibility and nervous excitability, but the activation of CB1 and CB2 receptors by 2-AG is also involved in several physiological processes. Among other things, inflammation, learning and memory, nerve protection, pain sensation and mood as well as stress, anxiety, addictions and reward behavior are dependent on CB1 and CB2 receptors activated by 2-AG. (2,3)

2-AG has also been found to be essential for the circulatory system.



  1. Lu HC. and Mackie K.. 2015. An introduction to the endogenous cannabinoid system. Referred on 9/11/2022.
  2. Zou S. and Kumar U.. 2018. Cannabinoid Receptors and the Endocannabinoid System: Signaling and Function in the Central Nervous System. Referred on 9/11/2022.
  3. Baggelaar MP, Maccarrone M. and Stelt M.. 2018. 2-Arachidonoylglycerol: A signaling lipid with manifold actions in the brain. Referred on 9/11/2022.
CBD and depression

CBD and depression

The use of CBD oil to alleviate symptoms caused by depression is safe and, according to user experiences, also effective. Depression is a very common state of mind and when it becomes chronic, it makes life difficultugh.

In this article, we look at the factors behind depression and whether CBD oil or CBD capsules could help with the symptoms caused by it.


Depression causing low energy


Depression is at the same time one of the most underrated and the most common mental health disorders. Many depressed people must have heard that they are just a lazy, tired or boring guy who never goes anywhere. In fact, he is really exhausted and down, and may not even be able to cook, let alone go to the store. In Finland, there are approx. 6% of the population and the main symptoms are similar; the person experiences a strong decrease in interest and the feeling of pleasure, as well as deep feelings of depression (1).


Chronic depression is often a co-morbidity


Chronic depression is often a co-morbidity, but it also affects people who do not have any underlying long-term illness. Studies show that depression is partly hereditary, especially in those cases where a person comes from challenging circumstances (1,2). Despite numerous studies, the origins of depression have not been reached, it is only possible to assess which factors influence its origin and what happens in the body when a person experiences depression.


The endocannabinoid system plays a role in the background of depression


Depression, like everything else that happens in the body, is influenced by the endocannabinoid system. That important system balances all body functions and tries its best to keep us healthy! The background of depression is especially affected by the CB1 receptor and endocannabinoid