Alzheimer’s disease and CBD

Alzheimer’s disease and CBD

Alzheimer’s disease is a memory disease that has a strong impact on life, for which a curative treatment has not yet been invented. In this article, we will learn about Alzheimer’s disease, the endocannabinoid system behind it, and also whether CBD oil could help in its treatment or symptom management.

Alzheimer’s disease is a memory disorder

 

Alzheimer’s, a degenerative memory disease of the brain, is a disease of the older population, which is rapidly becoming more common and occurring in younger and younger people. It usually affects people over 80 years old, but today we see Alzheimer’s patients 60+ years old. In Finland, approx. 70,000 people and it is slightly more common in women than in men. Life expectancy is hopeful, as it can be up to 20 years from the onset of the disease.

Aloi Alzheimer, a doctor and researcher who lived in the 19th century, became interested in the pathology of the brain and wanted to find out the identification and characterization of the diseases behind clinical syndromes. He observed the first observations of brain degeneration at the very end of the 19th century, and this was the first step both in identifying Alzheimer’s and in acknowledging its existence. (1)

 

Memory disorders

 

Alzheimer’s belongs to the family of memory diseases. The most common are Alzheimer’s, vascular memory disease, Lewy body disease and memory diseases caused by degeneration of the frontotemporal lobe. Dementia is a syndrome in which there is at least one additional symptom in addition to the memory disorder, such as language weakness or impaired dexterity. (2)

 

Alzheimer’s causes

 

The root cause of the disease is not known. Small changes occur in the brain that damage nerve pathways and brain cells. The brain is affected by the accumulation of protein deposits (amyloid) and tau protein, as a result of which memory and information processing deteriorate. (3, 4)

In the background, there are also various risk factors and elements that promote the onset of the disease. Oxidative stress, excessive breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, brain injury, heavy metals accumulating in the body and brain are not the only culprits, but contribute to the onset of the disease.

Basically, it is brain degeneration due to the death of nerve and brain cells.

 

Is Alzheimer’s hereditary?

 

Alzheimer’s is partly hereditary, as it is caused by genes, but its onset is not dependent on them. Genes have the greatest influence on the development of Alzheimer’s disease apolipoprotein E allele e4, but the disease seems to be more common in some families, even if not everyone has the gene in question. (3)

 

An old man suffering from Alzheimer's disease recalls photographs.

The symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease are related to memory and difficulties in recognizing things.

 

Alzheimer’s symptoms

 

The symptoms of Alzheimer’s are similar for all sufferers, but there are also differences depending on the quality of the disease. Sometimes the symptoms focus on vision-related symptoms, such as recognizing things, etc. and sometimes more for memory loss.

Usually, the first clear symptom is a marked decline in memory. At first it may seem like a distraction, but as time goes on, challenges start to appear even in complex activities, such as traveling or managing money. (3)

A natural part of getting older is that you no longer remember everything the same way you did when you were younger. In Alzheimer’s disease, short-term memory weakens and learning new things becomes difficult earlier than average.

The symptoms also include psychological symptoms. Many people with Alzheimer’s can be aggressive and quick-tempered, as well as direct and rude in their words. The symptoms are not necessarily always continuous, but for a moment the functioning, memory and psyche can be as before the illness. (3)

 

Alzheimer’s diagnosis, medication and treatment

 

Alzheimer’s disease is usually diagnosed at an early stage because it is quite easy to recognize. The symptoms are quite clear, but structural images of the brain are usually taken in addition to neurological tests to make sure. Early diagnosis is also made possible by samples taken from the spinal fluid. (3)

Alzheimer’s disease is treated with drugs that aim to increase concentration, reduce psychological symptoms and improve functional capacity. At least for the time being, there is no drug that cures or stops the disease, instead medical treatment focuses on alleviating the symptoms and slowing down the progression of the disease. (5)

The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is central to neurodegeneration. It transmits messages between neurons and plays a significant role in memory formation and information retrieval within the brain. People with Alzheimer’s have been found to have lower levels of this neurotransmitter compared to healthy brains, and for this reason, drugs that prevent the breakdown of acetylcholine and improve its function have been developed especially for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. (3,4,5)

 

Risk factors and prevention

 

Alzheimer’s disease has several risk factors. i.a Lack of mental and physical challenge, alcohol, loneliness, and low educational background, as well as high blood pressure and cholesterol, insulin resistance, brain injuries, and brain-related circulatory disorders can contribute to the onset of Alzheimer’s.

Prevention is very much related to following a healthy lifestyle.

Today, there is a lot of discussion about the impact of the environment on health, from the cleanliness of food to air pollution. Heavy metals have been studied as particles that accumulate in the body and have negative effects, e.g. to the nervous system and skeleton. Avoiding them completely is almost impossible, but with some small actions in everyday life there is a chance to influence this. (6,7,8)

Heavy metals end up in the environment, i.e. food, water, soil and air, e.g. due to emissions from factories and cars, but also due to plant protection agents and chemicals used in water purification (6,7,8). Finnish tap water, food and air are clean compared to many other corners of the world, but this is no Lintukoto either. Cleanly produced food, a water filter in the tap and avoiding excess chemicals in cosmetics, household goods (e.g. plastic dishes) and detergents are ways that may reduce the risk of getting sick, e.g. to Alzheimer’s disease.

You should take care of your brain health. Their condition can be maintained with the help of a versatile clean diet and by giving them a suitable challenge even at the threshold of old age.

Endocannabinoid system underlying Alzheimer’s disease

 

The endocannabinoid system role in the background of Alzheimer’s has been studied to some extent. The system in question has been of interest to researchers for a long time, as its malfunctions seem to be the underlying cause of almost all diseases. The endocannabinoid system has been found in all the world’s mammal species, and improving its function is definitely one of the biggest goals of future drug development.

 

Cannabinoid receptors

 

The endocannabinoid system consists of the body’s own cannabinoid receptors, endogenous cannabinoids, and their disintegrating molecules.

There are two known cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2 receptors, and it seems that in Alzheimer’s disease the CB2 receptor is especially abundant, close to hardened protein deposits in the brain (9). The CB1 receptor occurs more in the brain and the CB2 receptor in the tissues responsible for immunity. Although each receptor has its own tasks and places, both receptors can be found almost everywhere in the body.

The CB1 receptor in the brain is associated with e.g. memory, learning, behavior and appetite. (9,10)

 

Endocannabinoids

 

Endocannabinoids are cannabinoids produced by the body itself, and they have many different tasks behind the well-being of the body, some of which target e.g. to memory. Changes related to the breakdown and function of endocannabinoids have been observed in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease. FAAH is the endocannabinoid system’s own enzyme that breaks down endocannabinoids, which may start to form too much if the system is not working properly. As a result, e.g. endocannabinoid anandamide production weakens in nerve cells and the enzymes that cause inflammation are allowed to multiply. Anandamide levels are lower in Alzheimer’s patients compared to healthy people, but no differences have been observed in the levels of another known endocannabinoid, 2-AG. (9,10)

 

Elderly people suffering from memory loss play chess.

Oxidative stress is related to the onset of Alzheimer’s disease. CBD is an antioxidative cannabinoid that reduces symptoms caused by oxidative stress. CBD has also been found to have a memory-enhancing effect.

 

Does CBD oil help with Alzheimer’s?

 

Full spectrum CBD oil is an oil obtained from hemp, into which all the active substances of the plant have been pressed. There are almost 500 different active substances in hemp and 120 different cannabinoids. Hemp has been known in herbal medicine for thousands of years and has been used successfully for a long time for various ailments. A few compounds that are especially important for Alzheimer’s disease have been listed below.

CBD (cannabidiol)

 

Oxidative stress is one risk factor in the development of Alzheimer’s disease. CBD is an antioxidative cannabinoid that reduces symptoms caused by oxidative stress. CBD is also a cannabinoid that calms the nervous system, which has been found in animal experiments to improve recognition memory. Agitation and aggression may also calm down under the influence of CBD. (11,12)

According to some studies, CBD has been recommended for the treatment of Alzheimer’s at a daily dose of 300 mg, either increasing or decreasing it depending on how it starts to work. The benefit can be seen as an improvement in general well-being and a slowing down of the progression of the disease, which of course can be difficult to notice.

 

CBG (Cannabigerol)

 

The better known and more researched CBD has its own effects on the functions underlying Alzheimer’s, but other cannabinoids have also been found to have therapeutic effects. Also called the mother of all cannabinoids Cannabigerol ( CBG) has been found to protect nerves, relieve inflammation and improve motor deficits. (14)

Terpenes

 

Terpenes, which are mainly responsible for the aromatic properties of hemp, have been found to have therapeutic effects either alone or at least as part of CBD oil synergy. There are many different types of terpenes and some of them have an effect preventing the breakdown of acetylcholine. Some terpenes, like CBD, have the effect of reducing oxidative stress and have been found to increase blood flow to the brain. (11,13)

 

A person suffering from memory disease (Alzheimer) listening to music happily.

Listening to music familiar to the patient has been found to be an effective way to rehabilitate Alzheimer’s patients. Music evokes feelings and memories that activate the frontal lobe of the brain, which is the last place the disease wreaks havoc.

 

Music in the rehabilitation of Alzheimer’s disease

 

The effect of music on people with Alzheimer’s disease has been studied more widely in recent years. Based on the results, it seems that Alzheimer’s patients literally come alive when they hear familiar music from their past. Familiar music revives old memories and activates cognitive functions.

According to experts, there is a special place in the brain where memories of music are stored for a very long time. Based on the experience of many people, listening to familiar music is one of the most effective ways to rehabilitate Alzheimer’s patients.

Music evokes memories and emotions and activates the frontal lobe area of the brain, which is the last place where disease wreaks havoc on tissues. Singing can also be of similar benefit in Alzheimer’s rehabilitation. (15) According to studies, people suffering from memory disorders benefit best when they sing songs they already know together (16).

Summary

 

Alzheimer’s disease is a untoward, usually lifelong disease that affects the performance of everyday chores. Short-term memory weakens and learning new things becomes difficult, before long familiar people become strange and a person may get lost on the way to the convenience store. The endocannabinoid system has its own part in the functioning of the brain, and future drug treatment for Alzheimer’s disease might be related to, for example, blocking the endocannabinoids that break them down. CBD oil may have therapeutic effects, e.g. in functions related to improving memory, reducing aggression and protecting the nervous system and thus it could be a potential gentle aid to support the treatment of Alzheimer’s.

 

Sources

 

  1. Haltia M.. 2014. Period book Duodecim. Alois Alzheimer and his many diseases. https://www.duodecimlehti.fi/duo11990. Referred on 1/11/2022.
  2. Memory Union. Memory disorders. https://www.muistiliitto.fi/fi/muistisairaudet/muistihairiot-ja-sairaudet/muistisairaudet. Referred on 1/11/2022
  3. Juva K.. 2021. Health Library Duodecim. Alzheimers disease. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk00699. Referred on 1/11/2022.
  4. Toivanen P.. 2014. University of Turku. Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology. Bachelor’s thesis. Protein accumulation in Alzheimer’s disease. https://trepo.tuni.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/117175/ToivanenPinja.pdf?sequence=2. Referred on 1/11/2022
  5. Rosenvall A., Hallikainen M. and Strandberg T.. 2018. Periodical Duodecim. Drug treatment of Alzheimer’s disease in different stages of the disease. https://www.duodecimlehti.fi/duo14668. Referred on 1/11/2022.
  6. Evira’s studies 2/2015. Evira. Risk assessment of Finnish children’s exposure to heavy metals in foodstuffs and household water. https://www.ruokavirasto.fi/globalassets/tietoa-meista/julkaisut/julkaisusarjat/tutkimukset/riskiraportit/riskinarviointi-suomalaisten-lasten-altistumisesta-elintarvikkeiden-ja-talousveden-raskasmetalleille.pdf. Referred on 1/11/2022.
  7. Studies 1/2020. Food Agency. Risk assessment of Finnish adults’ exposure to heavy metals and aluminum in foodstuffs and household water.
  8. Tuomisto J.. 2020. Health Library Duodecim. Are there still problems with heavy metals?. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/asy00220. Referred on 1/11/2022
  9. Koppel J. and Davies P.. 2010. Targeting the Endocannabinoid System in Alzheimer’s Disease. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2889705/. Referred on 1/11/2022
  10. Basavarajappa BS, Shivakumar M., Joshi V. and Shivakumar S.. 2018. Endocannabinoid System in Neurodegenerative Disorders. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5669051/. Referred on 1/11/2022.
  11. Aso E. and Ferrer Isidre. 2014. Cannabinoids for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: moving towards the clinic. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2014.00037/full . Referred on 1/11/2022
  12. Abate G., Uberti D. and Tambaro s.. 2021. Potential and Limits of Cannabinoids in Alzheimer’s Disease Therapy. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8234911/. Referred on 1/11/2022
  13. Uddin Md., Mamun A., Sumsuzzman D., Ashraf G., Perveen A., Bungau S., Mousa S., El-Seedi G., Bin-Jumah MN and Abdel-Daim MM. 2021. Frontiers of pharmacology. Promise of Cannabinoids for the Management of Pain and Associated Neuropathological Alterations in Alzheimer’s Disease. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2020.01097/full. Referred on 1/11/2022.
  14. Nachnani R, Wesley M, Raup-Konsavage and Vrana KE. 2021. The journal of Pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. The Pharmacological case for cannabigerol. https://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/376/2/204. Referred on 1/11/2022.
  15. Särkämö T. & Sihvonen A. 2018. Golden oldies and silver brains: Deficits, preservation, learning, and rehabilitation effects of music in aging-related neurological disorders. Cortex. Volume 109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2018.08.034. Referred on 21/11/2022.
  16. Nykopp J. 2015. Patient’s medical journal. Music helps to recover from brain diseases. https://www.potilaanlaakarilehti.fi/uutiset/musiikista-apua-aivosairauksista-kuntoutumiseen/. Referred on 21/11/2022
ADHD and CBD

ADHD and CBD

ADHD is a neurological disorder that causes hyperactivity, especially among children. It becomes common rapidly, and the symptoms do not necessarily subside even in adulthood. In this article, we find out what ADHD is and whether CBD oil could be helpful in alleviating the symptoms.

 

What is ADHD?

 

ADHD is short for attention deficit disorder. Today, almost every tenth child suffers from it. In adults, ADHD occurs in just under five percent, being more common in men and boys compared to the female population. Childhood ADHD sometimes calms down by adulthood, but approx. 70% have some level of symptoms throughout life. (1)

The background of ADHD is a disturbance in the development of the neural networks that regulate the brain’s attention and alertness. It is a partly hereditary syndrome, the origin of which is affected by certain genes, but its onset is not dependent on them (1). It has also been noticed that there is some degree of disturbance in dopamine production.

Although diet is hardly the sole cause of the onset of ADHD, deficiencies of certain nutrients have been observed in diagnosed children. Zinc, iron, magnesium and vitamin B6 deficiencies and an imbalance in omega fatty acids are typical. (2,3)

The Huminiqum product is a well-researched, high-quality and well-absorbed supplement that, in addition to its versatile vitamin content, contains fulvic and humic acids. You can familiarize yourself with the product and more detailed nutrient content better from here .

 

Symptoms of ADHD

 

The symptoms of ADHD are related to attention, concentration and vivacity. Some find it difficult to focus on lessons, storybooks or games, others do not learn things such as reading, and others have challenges related to an impulsive way of reacting to things. The symptoms can be really strong and really make life difficult for the sufferer. Often there are few of these symptoms in each area and sometimes only some of them occur. The spectrum of symptoms is wide and each ADHD patient is an individual entity. (1)

The child’s challenges often appear in kindergarten or at the latest in school, where one should remain quietly during the lesson, listen to instructions and still act according to them. Non-existent ability to concentrate can be seen in school grades and in the behavior of a restless troublemaker in lessons.

In adults, ADHD manifests as inner restlessness, perhaps a challenge in memory, concentration and planning, not so much as hyperactivity and behavioral disorders as in children. Maarit Virta and Anita Salakari have written a survival guide for adults with ADHD, which according to readers is a useful guide for adults suffering from ADHD symptoms!

 

Side effects

 

In addition to the typical symptoms of ADHD, both adults and children have side symptoms, e.g. insomnia, anxiety and challenges in social relationships. Problematic substance use is typical for adults and young adults.

with CBD oil has researched positive effects on the most common side symptoms of ADHD. CBD’s effect on sleep challenges can read here. You can read about anxiety, depression and the effect of CBD oil on them from here. There is an article on addictions and CBD from here .

 

Making a diagnosis of ADHD with the help of tests and examinations.

ADHD diagnosis is made with the help of various tests and examinations for both adults and children.

 

ADHD test, examination and diagnosis

 

In children, ADHD studies usually start based on the observations of parents or persons involved in education, such as teachers. Adults can take an indicative ADHD test online, and apply to a doctor’s office for further examinations based on the results and symptoms. You can find an ADHD test on the Internet from here (4).

Getting a diagnosis is a lengthy process, which ensures that there are enough symptoms and that they correspond to a large enough extent to the diverse symptom picture of ADHD. Since ADHD does not show up in blood tests or any other physical measure, making a diagnosis is based on various behavioral tests, tasks and conversations with a health history in mind. (1)

 

ADHD treatment and medications

 

According to Valvira, children’s ADHD is always treated non-medically first, and adults are also tried to be helped outside of medicine. The drugs used to treat ADHD are really strong and often cause strong side effects, and therefore they are mainly used to control the most difficult symptoms. (5) ADHD cannot be cured by drugs, but natural treatments such as diet, CBD oil and occupational therapy together, or without drugs, can get the symptoms well under control.

ADHD is therefore also treated with diet. In the case of ADHD, functional nutritional therapy focuses on the well-being of the intestines and digestion and ensuring that the body gets all the fatty and amino acids and nutrients it needs. A healthy, vigorous body is able to heal even difficult diseases by itself, and therefore supporting general well-being for all diseases and syndromes is of primary importance!

 

The endocannabinoid system and ADHD

 

The body of all mammals is balanced by an almost identical system. The endocannabinoid system is an ingenious system that influences the background of all body functions. It controls and monitors individual events with the help of endogenous cannabinoids, i.e. endocannabinoids. These endocannabinoids, as well as exocannabinoids from outside the body, respond to different receptors in the body. This system has its own receptors, the most studied of which are CB1 and CB2, but they also respond to other receptors in the body.

The endocannabinoid system closely interacts with dopamine production, which is one factor behind ADHD (6). Dopamine affects e.g. to the reward system and the feeling of motivation, and the challenges in experiencing these feelings significantly decrease a person’s willingness to do tasks, learn new things, etc., which usually results in feelings of success and pleasure.

The endocannabinoid system also plays a significant role in stress reactions, nervous system function , learning and memory.

 

Endocannabinoids

 

Endocannabinoids are produced in the body as needed and are everywhere in the body. Endocannabinoids are special in that they can be too little in one part of the body and too much in another. In the case of ADHD, the anandamide concentration in the blood is high compared to a healthy person, but in the brain, where dopamine production takes place, there is too little anandamide (6).

Anandamide is another of the most well-known endocannabinoids and one of its functions is to release dopamine and enhance its production. The underlying cause of the dysfunction of the dopamine system is thought to be too low anandamide concentration in the brain. Certain phytocannabinoids obtained from plants such as CBD increase the production of anandamide and prevent their breakdown.

A clinical dysfunction of the endocannabinoid system, which is thought to be at the root of all diseases, can be a system disorder just like this, where the body’s internal cannabinoid concentrations are out of balance.

 

Receptors

 

CB receptors have been found in every corner of the body, but they have their own specific areas of action. The CB1 receptor is mainly found in the brain and nervous system, and thus it is also largely involved in the functions underlying ADHD.

 

Does CBD help those diagnosed with ADHD?

 

There are still many opinions on the matter without consensus. It seems that there are effects associated with cannabinoids that can make symptoms worse for some. On the other hand, CBD oil soothes and is especially effective in controlling side symptoms.

Hemp has a huge number of different active substances. More than 120 different types of cannabinoids are known, and there are more than 450 active compounds in total. The effect of hemp is based on synergy, i.e. when all the effective active ingredients of hemp are used, the benefit is more complete than using only an isolate, i.e. using one or a few isolated cannabinoids. More about joint effects, i.e. the so-called The Entourage effect can read here .

In the case of ADHD, it has been noticed that the positive effect of CBD oil on the symptoms is a result of the action of several cannabinoids. Hemp terpenes have also been found to have an effect on alleviating ADHD symptoms. CBD (cannabidiol), CBN (cannabinol) and CBG (cannabigerol) affect the production of dopamine and CBD in turn helps the production of serotonin. (6,7)

Part of CBD oil’s effectiveness in treating ADHD is related to balancing the nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for e.g. from the emergence of a stress reaction, while the parasympathetic nervous system restores the body to balance after a stress reaction. CBD balances these two nervous systems, reducing hyperactivity and sympathetic overstimulation by calming and alleviating impulsivity.

According to user experiences, CBD oil is used with good results to manage the side symptoms of ADHD, such as insomnia, substance addictions and depression.

Peanuts, which contain Biochanin A, which can help with ADHD symptoms.

Disturbances in dopamine production have been observed in ADHD patients. Getting Biochanin A flavone from food can optimize dopamine production and help with ADHD symptoms. The flavone in question is found especially in peanuts, chickpeas and soybeans.

 

Other health balancing treatment

 

Since ADHD is a neurological challenge, its symptoms can and should be alleviated with ordinary health-supporting means. Both adults and parents of ADHD children have noticed that minimizing screen time alleviates symptoms. Computer games and violent programs seem to increase problematic behavior, while exercise, staying in the forest and a good long night’s sleep improve concentration and calm a restless mind.

The diet takes care of the condition of the intestines and digestion and improves nutrient levels in the body so that the body can function as optimally as possible. Biochan’s isoflavone A is a natural FAAH inhibitor, which in turn is a molecule that breaks down the endocannabinoid anandamide. Adding this flavone to the diet may improve dopamine production by preventing the breakdown of anandamide. Biochanin A is especially found in peanuts, chickpeas, red clover and alfalfa sprouts (8).

At home, you should get rid of all harmful chemicals such as laundry detergents, detergents and cosmetics and replace them with natural, non-toxic alternatives. The substances in chemicals are harmful to both people and the environment, and their negative effects on health have been studied for a long time.

 

In summary

 

ADHD is a growing syndrome for which there is currently no cure. The symptoms continue well into adulthood, and when drug treatment is the last resort, or at least that’s what is recommended, along with drug treatment, usual health-supporting measures such as diet, outdoor activities and minimizing screen time have been recommended. More research is still needed on the use of CBD oil for ADHD symptoms, but according to the current information, CBD oil can be effective in treating at least some of the underlying causes of ADHD, such as enhancing dopamine production and balancing the nervous system.

 

Sources

 

  1. Huttunen M. and Socada L.. 2019. Duodecim health library. ADHD (activity and attention deficit disorder). https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk00353. Referred on 9/8/2022.
  2. Riikka Torniainen and Noora Holopainen. 2014. Jam. Thesis. Consideration of nutrition in the occupational therapy of children with ADHD symptoms. https://www.theseus.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/79515/Holopainen_Noora%20Torniainen_Riina.pdf;jsessionid=2F2CB6A7E31F41925E6E9A6199C34623?sequence=1. Referred on 9/8/2022
  3. https://suomenravintoterapia.fi/adhdn-paras-vaihtoehtoinen-hoito-ravitsemus/. Referred on 9/8/2022
  4. Klaus Karkia. ADHD test. http://karkia.me/adhd/. Referred on 9/8/2022
  5. Valvira. Health care. ADHD and drug prescribing. https://www.valvira.fi/terveydenhuolto/hyva-ammatinharjoittaminen/laakehoidon-erityistilanteita/adhd-ja-laakkeiden-maaraaminen. Referred on 9/8/2022
  6. Dawson D. and Persad C.. Targeting the Endocannabinoid System in the Treatment of ADHD. https://scivisionpub.com/pdfs/targeting-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-the-treatment-of-adhd-1604.pdf. Referred on 9/8/2022
  7. Hergenrather JY, Aviram J., Vyotski Y., Campisi-pinto S., Lewitus GM and Meiri D.. 2020. Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal. Cannabinoid and Terpenoid Doses are Associated with Adult ADHD Status of Medical Cannabis Patients. https://www.rmmj.org.il/userimages/1036/1/PublishFiles/1038Article.pdf. Referred on 9/8/2022
  8. Manach C. 2018. FoodComex. Biochanin A (PC001057). https://foodcomex.org/foodcomex_compounds/PC001057. Referred on 28/08/2022
Toothache and CBD

Toothache and CBD

Toothaches have existed for thousands of years! It is definitely one of the most uncomfortable pain conditions and almost always a sign of the need for treatment. A toothache should always be taken seriously, but you can try to relieve it at home with natural means. In this article, we will learn about dental health and the possible effects of cannabinoids and CBD oil in the treatment of toothache!

What causes a toothache?

 

Usually, the cause of toothache is a hole caused by damage to the tooth enamel, which has progressed to the root of the tooth. Through the created hole, the root system and nerves can get into the pulp, which causes pain. There can be other reasons for cracking, for example a cracked tooth, a blow to the teeth or an infection at the root of the tooth. Tooth extraction also causes pain, as well as crooked or rubbing teeth can be painful and cause challenges, e.g. I bite. Nighttime teeth grinding may be accompanied by both toothache and stiffness and pain in the jaws, neck and temples. (1)

After various procedures, such as filling or tooth extraction, toothache is quite common. If it does not go away in a few days, it is necessary to contact the doctor treating the tooth again.

 

Toothache symptoms

 

The first feeling of a hole starting is a small tingling sensation caused by cold or heat, which passes in a moment. Slowly, if left untreated, the hole deepens and the swelling increases, eventually causing swelling in the jawbone. At this stage, it is usually a good idea to go to the dentist to treat the hole at the latest, because as it progresses further, the hole will drill all the way to the root, and food and drink reaching the nerve at the root will cause pain, which no painkiller can help with anymore. (1)

Inflammation of the sinus may radiate to the teeth as a throbbing pain. At its worst, the pain can cause insomnia and anxiety . A severe, unbearable toothache indicates an acute need for treatment, which is no longer worth treating only with home remedies. Then you should make an appointment with the dentist without delay and tell them about the need for immediate treatment.

Toothache can cause insomnia.

An unbearable toothache can cause insomnia and anxiety.

Backgrounds of dental health

 

Today, we are lucky to have the opportunity to correct even difficult oral problems with the help of dentistry. Effective anesthetics even offer a completely pain-free treatment experience, and regular check-ups help prevent the biggest challenges.

Things haven’t always been this good. Dental inspections only started in Finland at the end of the 19th century, and earlier information about human dental health comes mainly from archaeologists familiar with osteology and their studies. It seems that, at least during the last few centuries, human teeth have been in very bad shape already at the age of 20-30, and that is why the treatment of toothache has been one of the most important medical skills. (2)

 

Maintenance of dental health

 

Keeping your teeth in good condition is not simple, but in the end it’s all about the little things. The condition of the teeth is influenced by both genes and environmental factors, but also by your own way of caring for your teeth.

The quality of the food eaten is of great importance, and it already starts with the diet during pregnancy. Teeth need different minerals and trace elements to stay strong and shiny. When teeth are bones, they especially need calcium, magnesium, vitamins A, C and D (3).

Hunter-gatherers didn’t seem to have much of a problem with their teeth. It wasn’t until the introduction of grains to the dining table 10,000 years ago that teeth also started to change, and by no means in a positive direction. (2)

Dental care is an important part of the daily routine. In addition to brushing your teeth in the morning and evening and flossing once a day, regular oil brushing is a research-based treatment that promotes oral health.

Acid attacks, or actually the amount of them, is a significant factor behind dental health. Acid attack is caused by the reaction caused by the sugars and carbohydrates contained in the food eaten, where the bacteria in the mouth form acids that dissolve the minerals of the tooth enamel. Teeth can withstand 5-6 acid attacks a day and almost every food and drink causes them. From the point of view of the teeth, it is important to create a regular eating rhythm and stick to it, avoid constant snacking and eat treats immediately after food! (4)

 

Oil pulling with coconut oil is a popular way to clean the mouth.

Coconut oil for oil pulling. By adding CBD to the pulling oil, it can help e.g. for gingivitis, canker sores and mouth ulcers.

 

Oil pulling

 

Oil pulling is an ancient Indian Ayurvedic tradition of treating the mouth and teeth. The oil that ends up between the teeth and in the gum pockets cleans and cares for the teeth and gums, but also collects bacteria. The oil is carefully squirted in the mouth right after waking up approx. 20 minutes, after which it is spit out. (5)

For oil pulling, you should reserve an antibacterial oil, such as coconut oil. Sesame seed oil or a mixture of several oils is also often recommended. (5)

In Canada, several dentists recommend the use of CBD oil to promote dental health. Adding CBD oil to the pulling oil could be a very significant help for gingivitis, periodontitis, canker sores and ulcers, as well as promoting a good bacterial balance in the mouth. (5)

 

Drug treatment for toothache

 

A toothache can be relieved with common painkillers available at the pharmacy, but it is almost always good to find out the cause of the toothache. Sometimes the pain may be caused by food stuck between the tooth and the gum or slightly inflamed gums, but if the pain does not subside with natural means, with a standard mild painkiller or within a few days, the cause is probably something that needs to be fixed by a dentist. The medical treatment after the procedures is decided by the treating dentist!

 

Toothache home treatment

 

Toothache can also be relieved with natural means at home, but depending on the cause of the pain, it should be done carefully. Cloves are numbing, and gargling with clove water may relieve the pain, as can chewing fresh ginger. Gargling with salt water cleans the mouth and may calm swollen gums. Pressing a piece of ice inside the cloth against the cheek where the tooth hurts can also help!

According to studies, there are many ways to prevent a starting hole from growing. Gargling the mouth and teeth after eating cleans the mouth and between the teeth. Correcting the diet in a grain-free direction may help, as well as avoiding sugar and especially sugary drinks. Careful tooth brushing and interdental cleaning are the minimum requirement for healthy teeth and significantly reduce cavities, gum damage and periodontitis (inflammatory disease of the mouth caused by bacteria). (3)

By investing in home dental care, you can avoid visits to the dentist.

Regular tooth brushing and interdental cleaning significantly reduce cavities, gum damage and oral inflammatory diseases.

 

The endocannabinoid system in dental health

 

The endocannabinoid system is the body’s general regulator, which monitors the body’s functions and tries to keep everything in as good a balance as possible. The endocannabinoid system consists of endogenous endocannabinoids and their dispersing molecules, as well as cannabinoid receptors. The endocannabinoid system is also involved in the background of the functions that take place in the teeth, oral mucosa and gums.

Both cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) and endocannabinoids AEA and 2-AG are present in the mouth. A third cannabinoid receptor, GP55, has also been detected in teeth and oral mucosa. (6)

The best-known endocannabinoids are AEA or anandamide and 2AG, or arachinodylglycerol. In studies targeting the common dental disease periodontitis, it has been found that AEA has an anti-inflammatory effect on dental health, while 2AG seems to promote inflammatory processes (7).

 

CBD oil to support toothache and dental health

 

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) has been used especially in Asian medicine for thousands of years. It has been used for toothache and probably also for caries and to maintain general oral health. Based on current research, dental health is also affected by other active substances in hemp, such as terpenes. (6) This is called a synergistic effect and it can read more here .

CBD oil is not a miracle substance that removes toothache like a painkiller, but it may be helpful in general dental care and at the time of pain.

CBD is a cannabinoid found in hemp that has many properties that have a positive effect on health. CBD is e.g. anti-inflammatory (anti-inflammatory), antibacterial and tissue growth-promoting cannabinoid. It has also been found to have pain-relieving properties.

 

Cannabinoids

 

In addition to CBD (cannabidiol), many other phytocannabinoids have also been recognized as promoting dental health. One study compared the effects of cannabinoids and well-known toothpastes on plaque, and cannabinoids were the clear winner! The study involved CBD (cannabidiol), CBC (cannabichromene), CBN (cannabinol), CBG (cannabigerol) and CBGA (cannabigerolic acid). (8)

A study has also been conducted on mouthwashes which showed that cannabinoids are as effective or more effective than alcohol and chlorhexidine commonly used in mouthwashes (9).

CBD is also availabletoothpaste containing CBD toothpaste contains a full-spectrum hemp extract, which, in addition to CBD, also contains other hemp active substances and cannabinoids. About toothpaste and its more specific content, you can read more here.

 

summary

 

Taking care of your dental health is important, as bad teeth can even lead to a heart attack in the worst case scenario. The positive effect of CBD on dental health has been recognized, but more studies are still needed so that cannabinoids can be used even better and more widely in the future. Especially on the foreign market today, there are a wide variety of dental care products containing CBD, which may be of significant help in the prevention of various dental problems. However, the most important thing is to take care of a versatile diet and take care of your teeth daily!

 

Sources

 

  1. Könönen E.. 2021. Health Library Duodecim. Toothache. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk00810. Referred on 19/09/2022
  2. Kimari L.. 2016. Medical magazine. Witches did invaluable work in a time before dentists. https://www.hammaslaakarilehti.fi/fi/uutinen/noitamuorit-tekivat-korvaamamonta-tyota-aikana-ennen-hammaslaakareita. referenced on 19/09/2022
  3. Honkala S.. 2019. Health Library Duodecim. Structure and development of teeth. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/trv00003. Referred on 19/09/2022
  4. Finnish Dental Association. Healthy eating habits. https://www.hammaslaakariliitto.fi/fi/suunterveys/yleistietoa-suunterveydesta/ravinto-ja-suunterveys/terveelliset-ruokatottumukset#.Yy9MMi06pQI. Referred on 19/09/2022
  5. VKL Shanbhag.. 2017. Oil pulling for maintaining oral hygiene – A review. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5198813/#__ffn_sectitle. Referred on 19/09/2022
  6. Lowe H., Toyang T., Steele B., Bryant J., Ngwa W. and Nedamat K.. 2021. The Current and Potential Application of Medicinal Cannabis Products in Dentistry. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8466648/. Referred on 19/09/2022.
  7. Andrukhov O., Bantleon HP, Moritz A., Rausch-Fan X. and Özdemir B.. 2014. Endocannabinoids and Inflammatory Response in Periodontal Ligament Cells. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4165771/. Referred on 19/09/2022
  8. Stahl V. and Vasudevan K.. 2020. Comparison of Efficacy of Cannabinoids versus Commercial Oral Care Products in Reducing Bacterial Content from Dental Plaque: A Preliminary Observation. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6991146/. Referred on 19/09/2022
  9. Vasudevan K. and Stahl V.. 2020. Cannabinoids infused mouthwash products are as effective as chlorhexidine on inhibition of total-culturable bacterial content in dental plaque samples. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7819473/. Referred on 19/09/2022
Diabetes and CBD

Diabetes and CBD

Finland has the highest incidence of childhood diabetes in the world. In this article, we will get to know the topic of diabetes, the factors influencing its development, the endocannabinoid system behind diabetes and whether CBD oil could be helpful in managing symptoms.

 

What is diabetes?

 

Diabetes is classified as a group of metabolic diseases that involve pancreatic dysfunction and long-term elevated blood sugar. It is the seventh most common cause of death and is estimated to affect less than 10% of the entire world’s population. Type 2 diabetes in particular is rapidly becoming more common. Diabetes occurs in people of all ages, and its onset is not solely due to hereditary factors. (1,2)

Diabetes is a disease affecting the production and reception of insulin produced by the pancreas, and its different forms are numerous. The most common of them are type 1 and 2 diabetes and LADA diabetes.

 

Type 1 diabetes

 

Type 1 diabetes is a disorder of insulin production in the pancreas, where the pancreas eventually stops producing insulin completely. There is an autoimmune inflammation of the insulin-producing beta cells, which prevents the cells from functioning and eventually destroys them. Insulin replacement therapy is required for treatment. Usually, when type 1 diabetes is diagnosed, diabetes has already been present for months or years and less than one fifth of insulin-producing cells remain. (1,2)

 

Type 2 diabetes

 

Type 2 diabetes is largely a quality of life disease and its background is almost always overweight and unhealthy lifestyles. It is significantly more common than type 1 diabetes, as 75-80% of all people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes. (1,2)

In people with type 2 diabetes, the effect of insulin on its own receptors has been preserved, but numerous problems have been observed in intracellular signaling (3).

Years before the rise in blood sugar, the body has a condition called insulin resistance, which can be seen e.g. as waist obesity, fatty liver, high blood pressure and lowering of good cholesterol (1,2).

 

LADA diabetes

 

LADA-diabetes (Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults) is a sort of intermediate between the two above-mentioned types of diabetes. As the name suggests, it only breaks out in adulthood, approx. 40-60 years old, and is also an autoimmune inflammation occurring in the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas. In general, LADA is interpreted as slowly developing type 1 diabetes, and its symptoms can be easily controlled with a healthy lifestyle. (1,2)

 

Gestational diabetes

 

Gestational diabetes means elevated blood sugar for the first time during pregnancy. It is determined with a sugar stress test and monitoring continues at home by measuring blood sugar. Elevated blood sugars are e.g. in the background of preeclampsia.

Gestational diabetes is caused by an increased amount of fat and hormones to which insulin production does not respond sufficiently. (4)

 

The symptoms of diabetes are listed in the picture.

The most common symptoms of diabetes are increased thirst, fatigue, exhaustion, hunger and the need to urinate.

 

Symptoms of diabetes

 

The first symptoms of diabetes are quite clear, but not unequivocal because they can also be caused by other reasons. Weight loss, increased need to urinate, constant thirst and dehydration are typical initial symptoms, which are stronger in type 1 diabetes. Based on these, blood sugar is measured, and if it is over 11/mmol, further tests are started. (1,2)

Type 1 diabetes can be fatal if left untreated. Hypoglycemia is a condition related to low blood sugar that can also lead to death. Hypoglycemia is the result of too much insulin, which lowers blood sugar to a dangerous level. Low blood sugar is caused by eating too little, alcohol, exercise and too much injected insulin, also in relation to exercise, amount of food and alcohol. (5)

 

Insulin resistance

 

Insulin resistance refers to any abnormal response to insulin in its target tissues (4). It is also called metabolic syndrome and is the basis of obesity, fatty liver and cardiovascular health in addition to type 2 diabetes. (3)

The body uses insulin e.g. to transfer sugar (glucose) from the blood to the cells. In order for the sugar to move, the body uses more insulin and it temporarily raises blood insulin levels. In insulin resistance, the cells that produce insulin can no longer meet the increased need for insulin, which is caused by the reduced ability to absorb insulin caused by the accumulated fat around the organs. (6)

 

Diabetes and the equipment and medicines intended for its treatment.

Diabetes is often treated with medication, but the importance of a suitable diet also plays an important role in keeping its symptoms under better control.

 

Diabetes treatment and medicines

 

Diabetes is treated with both drugs and diet, which is actually the basis of all treatment. Type 1 diabetes requires insulin replacement therapy, i.e. a synthetic equivalent to the insulin produced by the pancreas, but diet is an important part of successful treatment. Special attention is paid to the diet of people with type 1 diabetes and the aim is to use carbohydrates to reduce it in such a way that blood sugar remains as even as possible throughout the day and weight control is easy. (1,2) The diet of type 1 diabetics must be planned together with their medical staff!

Type 2 diabetes is also treated with medication, but it can largely be prevented and treated by following a healthy lifestyle. At the latest at the point when the first symptoms of insulin resistance start to appear, it should be necessary to make changes to at least your eating habits. The food should provide a sufficient amount of nutrients in relation to the amount of food eaten and the use of bad fats, additives and industrial sugar should be as minimal as possible.

Type 2 diabetes and also gestational diabetes can be prevented and treated by eating food that does not raise blood sugar unnecessarily. Empty carbohydrates such as pasta and rice raise blood sugar and it would be good to replace part of their amount with vegetables. You should eliminate all unnecessary sugars, hidden fats, processed products and additives from your diet and eat plenty of vegetables, fruits and berries. Appropriate quality meat and, if desired, a reasonable amount of eggs. Clean food made from raw ingredients, adequate exercise and good quality clean water.

 

Diabetes and feet

 

Foot-related side effects of diabetes account for more hospital days than all other symptoms of diabetes combined. Foot challenges are usually basically caused by pain caused by the nervous system and reduced blood circulation. Even small wounds can become badly inflamed and in the worst case even lead to limb amputation.

Foot care and prevention of problems is important for diabetics. Good shoes, careful treatment of all kinds of wounds, good hygiene and good physical condition of the feet are small but important ways to prevent bigger problems.

Foot cream containing CBD stimulates blood circulation, soothes the skin, relaxes the feet and reduces swelling.

Endocannabinoid system underlying diabetes

 

The endocannabinoid system balances the functioning of the entire body and is e.g. in the background of vital functions affecting body weight regulation, insulin resistance, fat metabolism and appetite. The situation is therefore a little complicated, because it is also a system that takes care of life in the long term and thus knows how to take full advantage of abundant times. In other words, when food is readily available, the endocannabinoid system begins to direct the mind and body in the direction that fat is stored and energy accumulates in abundance…

Referring to the above, several studies support the theory that an overactive endocannabinoid system is the underlying cause of type 2 diabetes in particular.

As a result, the body stores more energy, fat and glucose metabolism weakens, and the effects that promote cell death also increase in the beta cells of the pancreas. (7,8)

The CB1 receptor is part of the endocannabinoid system a receptor that occurs mainly in the central nervous system, but also e.g. in the spleen, lymphocytes and reproductive system. They include e.g. in the reward system, metabolic systems and fatty acid synthesis and with these also the background of diabetes. (8)

 

Symptoms related to diabetes can be eased with the help of CBD oil. The picture shows CBD oil drops.

According to research and user experience, CBD can be of considerable help in the common symptoms of diabetes, such as weight control, improving appetite and treating wounds. CBD also has a positive effect on the well-being of blood vessels.

 

CBD and diabetes treatment

 

According to animal and human studies, CBD has been found to have many therapeutic effects in the treatment of diabetes. Vasodilatation, i.e. the expansion of blood vessels, is possible when CBD activates the CB2 receptor and the serotonin receptor (5-HT1A). CBD has been found to affect diabetic neuropathy, i.e. damage to nerve function. CBD also seems to heal wounds that occur in the thin cell membrane and nerve cells of the inner wall of the intestine. In addition, CBD counteracts the nitration of tyrosine, which is involved in the accumulation of glutamate and the death of neurons. (9)

CBD is a naturally occurring cannabinoid in hemp, which has been studied to have properties that have a positive effect on health. CBD is e.g. anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and tissue-protecting cannabinoid. In addition to the aforementioned properties, CBD has been found to e.g. improving mitochondrial function and could have a significant benefit in treating and preventing complications caused by diabetes. (8)

CBD cannot directly affect insulin production, but according to studies and user experiences, it can be useful for general symptoms such as weight control, appetite and wound treatment. CBD also has a positive effect on vascular health.

Cosmetics containing CBD can help with foot challenges such as nerve pain, skin condition and peripheral blood circulation improvement. A foot cream that contains CBD can be a product worth trying also as a preventive treatment.

 

Summary

 

Type 2 diabetes is becoming more and more common among younger people, and since it is largely a disease caused by lifestyle, prevention and treatment is quite possible and not at all difficult. Changing lifestyles requires persistence, but it’s not rocket science. CBD can be a good help, especially for the side symptoms of diabetes such as challenges related to the feet, but more research is still needed on how CBD affects diabetes overall and the factors behind it.

 

Sources

  1. Pirjo Ilanne-Parikka. 2021. Duodecim Health Library. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk00011. Referred on 30/08/2022
  2. Diabetes. Diabetes Association. https://www.diabetes.fi/diabetes. Referred on 30/08/2022
  3. Mäkinen S., Skrobuk P., Nguyen T. and Koistinen H.. 2013. Duodecim periodical book. Mechanisms of insulin resistance. https://www.duodecimlehti.fi/duo11275. Referred on 30/08/2022
  4. Diabetes Association. Diabetes.fi. Gestational diabetes. https://www.diabetes.fi/diabetes/raskausdiabetes. Referred on 30/08/2022
  5. Mustajoki P.. 2022. Doctor’s book Duodecim. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk00886. Referred on 30/08/2022
  6. Diabetes Association. Diabetes.fi. Metabolic syndrome. https://www.diabetes.fi/diabetes/tyypin_2_diabetes/metabolinen_oireyhtyma_mbo. Referred on 30/08/2022.
  7. Frisher M., White S., Varbiro G., Voisey C., Perumal D., Crome I., Khideja N. and Basford J.. 2010. The British journal of diabetes and vascular disease. The role of cannabis and cannabinoids in diabetes. https://bpspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/bph.13226. Referred on 30/08/2022.
  8. Gruden G., Barutta F., Kunos G., and Pacher P.. 2016. Role of the endocannabinoid system in diabetes and diabetic complications . https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4941127/. Referred on 30/08/2022.
  9. Atalay S., Jarocka-Karpowicz and Skrzydlewska E.. 2019. Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Cannabidiol. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7023045/#B25-antioxidants-09-00021 . Referred on 8/10/2022
Pregnancy, breastfeeding and CBD

Pregnancy, breastfeeding and CBD

CBD oil has been researched as a gentle and safe support for many ailments, but can it be used during pregnancy and breastfeeding?

In this article, we find out how the endocannabinoid system works during pregnancy and breastfeeding and whether the use of CBD oil is safe at that time.

The period of pregnancy and breastfeeding is very special

 

During pregnancy and breastfeeding, a woman is not only responsible for her own body and health, but also for the growth and development of the little person. During pregnancy, the baby is protected to some extent by the placenta, the purpose of which is to act as an intermediary between mother and baby by nourishing and filtering toxins. Although the placenta is an effective filter, it does not protect against everything. It has been found in animal experiments that CBD also passes through the placenta into the baby’s body, and therefore it is possible that its use during pregnancy and breastfeeding is not completely safe.

 

You can prepare for pregnancy and breastfeeding

 

You can and should prepare in advance for well-being during pregnancy, a gentle birth and successful breastfeeding.

During pregnancy, mental well-being, body care and high-quality nutrition take on a completely new meaning and it’s worth of investing in them. Pregnancy can be a roller coaster of emotions and constant vomiting until delivery. It may be a time of intense quieting down and deep introspection. It is perhaps also accepting a new life situation and probably a mixed bag of all this.

Preparing for birth can be challenging, because each birth goes in its own way, and nothing can really be determined in advance. The best thing is to strengthen your body connection and trust that a woman’s body was created to give birth. The body knows how to work properly together with the baby, when the birth is given peace, time and freedom to go with its own weight. Labor and birth is a powerful event for both the mother, the baby and the whole family, and it should be treated with deep respect and genuine encounter between the parents.

Breastfeeding is a natural continuation of childbirth and, depending on the circumstances, it is certainly basically possible for all women who have given birth. Milk production is initiated by hormones, and the reason behind unsuccessful breastfeeding is often stress and insufficient breastfeeding support. The background of breastfeeding guidance is unfortunately often the rush and excessive monitoring of the baby’s weight gain, in which case breastfeeding may cause frustration and fear of its success. Fortunately, there is a lot of information on social media and the internet to support a successful breastfeeding experience, and in many places it is possible to get face-to-face help from volunteers for problems related to breastfeeding.

Mother is breastfeeding the child on the bed. Can CBD be used while pregnant?

Despite the fact that the endocannabinoid system is involved in the processes of pregnancy, it does not mean that the use of CBD during pregnancy is completely safe.

The endocannabinoid system in pregnancy

 

The endocannabinoid system monitors all body functions. Although the body’s different systems work independently, there is the endocannabinoid system plays a significant role as their balancer and supreme observer.

The endocannabinoid system is involved in several different functions during pregnancy. It plays a role in enabling pregnancy and is involved in e.g. in the attachment of the fertilized egg and the development of the placenta. (1) The endocannabinoid system affects the receptivity of the uterus, the regeneration of the placenta and the development of the embryo. (2) The endocannabinoid system is also involved in and about the functions related to the menstrual cycle you can read more here .

 

Cannabinoid receptors

 

There are two receptors of the endocannabinoid system, CB1 and CB2 receptors. The reproductive system generally has more CB2 receptors, but both have been found in the placenta and ovaries. The CB1 receptor seems to play a role in the normal duration of pregnancy. (1,2)

 

Endocannabinoids in pregnancy

 

The endocannabinoid system includes two natural cannabinoids produced within the body. Anandamide ( AEA) and 2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) have their own important functions during pregnancy, from conception to delivery. Anandamide levels have been found to be higher during early pregnancy than during the second and last trimesters, when they decrease until they rise sharply again just before labor begins. The actual significance of this event is not yet known, but it has been observed in both human and animal experiments. Anandamide is considered important in the interaction between the embryo and the uterus. (1)

 

Endocannabinoids in breast milk

 

Breast milk contains huge amounts of nutritious fatty acids, which are usually enough to cover the baby’s entire energy needs until the baby is 6 months old. The quality and quantity of fatty acids vary depending on how the mother eats. The dominant fatty acid is arachidonic acid, which is also a precursor to endocannabinoids.

According to one small sample study that measured endocannabinoid levels in breast milk, both anandamide and 2-AG were clearly present, although the 2-AG levels are significantly higher. The 2-AG levels may be affected by the breastfeeding mother’s overweight, as the concentrations of the cannabinoid 2-AG clearly varied between the breast milk of different weight categories.

The importance of endocannabinoids in breast milk is still unclear, but it is definitely an object that arouses interest. (3)

It has been found in animal experiments that the baby’s meals are possibly related to the activation of the CB1 receptor and that it plays a big role in the initiation of sucking as well as in early development. (3)

 

Breast milk that contains cannabinoids such as anandamide and 2-AG.

A baby gets its first cannabinoids from breast milk shortly after birth. Breast milk contains both endocannabinoids, anandamide (AEA) and 2-AG.

Use of CBD oil during pregnancy

 

Although the endocannabinoid system is involved in the initiation, progression and even delivery of pregnancy, it does not necessarily mean that CBD oil use during pregnancy would be completely safe. Cannabidiol ie CBD does not actually act through the body’s cannabinoid receptors, but through other receptors, and thus does not directly affect the functioning of the endocannabinoid system.

CBD is a naturally occurring cannabinoid in hemp that belongs to the large family of phytocannabinoids. There are many different types of them, and more than 120 different types have been found in hemp. Other active substances such as more than 450 terpenes and flavonoids have been identified, and the combined effect of all these ( Entourage effect ) creates hemp’s healing properties.

The use of the CBD oil understandably, there are quite a few studies on use during pregnancy. Some animal experiments have been done, and based on the results obtained from them, it is probably safe to leave hemp products containing CBD and other cannabinoids for less use in the early stages of pregnancy and to continue their regular and large-scale use only after the end of breastfeeding.

According to some animal experiments, using CBD, especially in the early stages of pregnancy, may cause behavioral disorders in childhood and adulthood.

CBDThe use of cannabinoids may also be involved in premature birth, low birth weight and early pregnancy miscarriages, but these research results may be affected by the fact that most studies focusing on cannabinoids and pregnancy/breastfeeding are based on the cannabis , i.e. psychoactive hemp, as well as the fact that the results have not taken into account other factors affecting the course of pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding, such as the mother’s health and diet.

 

Use of CBD oil during breastfeeding

 

CBD is a fat-soluble cannabinoid that is also excreted in breast milk. A child’s brain develops strongly in early childhood, and the effects of CBD as a fat-soluble cannabinoid may be similar to exposure to CBD during pregnancy.

CBD oil works as an anandamide reuptake inhibitor, meaning it increases the amount of anandamide available in the brain amount. In women prone to depression and anxiety, increased levels of anandamide in the brain can reduce the effects and possibly even the onset of postpartum depression.

In summary

 

Although CBD products are widely used and found to be safe, they should not necessarily be used during pregnancy and breastfeeding, at least not very regularly. Very little research has been done on the topic and it is still impossible to say what kind of dose could be safe. The endocannabinoid system plays important roles throughout pregnancy and endocannabinoids have also been detected in breast milk. CBD oil is a safe and versatile nature’s own nurse, whose regular use is safe to return to immediately after stopping breastfeeding at the latest.

Sources

 

  1. Kozakiewicz M., Grotegut CA and Howlett AC. 2021. Frontiers of endocrinology. Endocannabinoid System in Pregnancy Maintenance and Labor: A Mini-Review. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fendo.2021.699951/full. Referred on 17/10/2022
  2. Ezechukwu H., Diya C., Shrestha N and Hryciw D.. 2020. American journal of physiology. Role for endocannabinoids in early pregnancy: recent advances and the effects of cannabis use. https://journals.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/ajpendo.00210.2020. Referred on 17/10/2022.
  3. Datta P., Melkus M., Rewers-Felkins K., Patel D., Bateman T., Baker T. skea Hale T.. 2021. Human Milk Endocannabinoid Levels as a Function of Obesity and Diurnal Rhythm. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=Hale %20TW% 5BAuthor%5D. Referred on 17/10/2022.
  4. Health feedback. Endocannabinoids in human breast milk are important for human development, but not present in cannabis. https://healthfeedback.org/claimreview/endocannabinoids-in-human-breast-milk-are-important-for-human-development-but-not-present-in-cannabis/. Referred on 17/10/2022
Anti-inflammatory CBD

Anti-inflammatory CBD

One of the most well-known and researched properties of CBD is the reduction of inflammation. The body’s inflammatory reaction is very common and occurs with every small wound, but sometimes it contributes to the emergence of diseases! In this article, we will learn about different types of inflammation, the endocannabinoid system behind inflammation, and how CBD can reduce inflammation in the body.

 

What is inflammation?

 

Inflammation is the body’s natural reaction against an external pathogen, which originates from messages from the tissue level about dangerous situations. Activated immune cells produce both anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory mediators and this is regulated endocannabinoid system (1). The purpose is that the inflammatory reaction would only be a quick transient situation where the pathogen is eliminated, because if it continues for a longer time it causes damage to the tissues. (2)

There are huge numbers of cells in the human body that control the functioning of the body through messages through the nervous system, and inflammation alone is caused by dozens of different messengers and enzymes. CBD has been found to affect several different inflammatory pathways, while often drugs, for example aspirin, only affect one pathway (1).

 

What causes inflammation?

 

There are different types of inflammation and they can be caused by many different reasons. Next, we will go through slightly different types of inflammation.

Wound inflammation

 

The mechanism behind all inflammations is the same. A microbe enters the body, which causes a natural reaction. However, an inflamed wound is not the same as the inflammatory reaction associated with normal wound healing, which is essential for healing. If dirt remains or gets into the wound, or if it does not heal properly for one reason or another, the body starts to form an inflammation as a reaction, which may spread widely if left untreated. (3)

 

Local inflammations

 

Viruses and bacteria sometimes cause local inflammation, which is usually acute and sometimes resolves on its own. For example, in bronchitis, a bacterium causes inflammation of the mucous membranes of the bronchi and larynx, onychomycosis is caused by bacteria that got under the nail, and tendonitis is caused by stress.

Chronic inflammation in the elbow that CBD can relieve.

According to research, CBD can effectively reduce chronic or low-grade inflammation.

 

Low-grade or chronic inflammation

Low-grade inflammation in the body is also called chronic or silent inflammation and is mainly caused by bad lifestyles and lack of exercise. It is not an actual disease in itself, but a state of the body in which inflammatory mediators are secreted more than necessary. (4)

The background of chronic diseases is often elevated inflammatory markers and inflammatory mediators, and inflammation is the background of many long-term illnesses. These diseases and The effect of CBD on them has been extensively studied with positive results.

CBD and also other cannabinoids available from hemp have been found to have therapeutic effects on many inflammatory diseases (5). Such are e.g. psoriasis, MS and rheumatoid arthritis . Inflammatory intestinal diseases such as Crohn’s disease may also be relieved with the help of CBD. Today, it is known that inflammation also plays a role in the background of depression .

 

Symptoms of inflammation

 

Symptoms of wound inflammation include pain at the wound site, spreading redness and often suppuration of the wound. The inflammation may also raise the fever. An untreated inflamed wound can cause blood poisoning and, in the worst case, even amputation of a limb. (3)

Low-grade inflammation in the body causes both diseases and milder symptoms. This condition is often called silent inflammation because it does not cause the same visible and palpable symptoms as, say, an inflammation of a wound. Silent inflammation develops slowly and can exist for years before symptoms actually appear. Often mysterious skin problems, overweight, allergic symptoms without allergies, elevated cholesterol and blood pressure values give indications that there may be low-grade inflammation in the body. (4,6)

Local inflammations are associated with symptoms of inflammation that are very different depending on where the inflammation is located. Appendicitis is felt in the stomach, urethritis when urinating and tooth infection in the jaws. Many infections heal on their own, but if the symptoms continue for a long time, become intense or cause unbearable pain, you should find out with your doctor whether acute treatment is needed.

 

Symptoms of arthritis in the hands.

Slow-developing silent inflammation develops slowly and can exist for years before its symptoms begin to appear. Several skin problems, overweight, allergic symptoms, elevated cholesterol and blood pressure values point to low-grade inflammation.

 

The most common infections

 

Inflammation is a very common reaction and is also associated with many acute underlying diseases and viral infections. The most common ones are e.g. ear infection, kidney basin, gall bladder, inflammation, eyelid, tear duct and cornea infections, appendicitis, small intestine and colon infections. Common infections such as root canal and gingivitis also occur in the mouth.

 

Treatment of inflammation

 

Inflammations are treated in different ways, depending on what kind and where it is. Often the infections will heal on their own, but sometimes natural treatments or medicines are needed.

It is important to clean the wounds properly and protect them from dirt until they heal. A wound also needs oxygen to heal, so it is not good to cover the wound at least constantly, but to give it air when changing the bandages. In the treatment of a wound, pitch ointment has been found to be very good, as well as various herbal patches such as the leaf of the gardenia plant can speed up the healing of the wound. (3,7).

Depending on the inflammation, local inflammation can be treated with either home remedies or antibiotics. It is always good to treat a serious infection with a doctor, but mild and incipient infections may be treated, for example, with the help of various herbs and plants such as rosemary, elderberry and sage. Various infections are also treated successfully with homeopathy.

 

Medicines that reduce inflammation

 

Medicines that reduce inflammation can be found in both antibiotics and over-the-counter medicines at the pharmacy. Many common painkillers are also anti-inflammatory and reduce fever, while they affect the sensation of pain. Such drugs include e.g. Burana, Ibuxin and Aspirin. Medicines available without a prescription should not be used to treat the inflammation for more than a few days, especially if the symptoms continue to be severe. If necessary, the inflammation should be medicated and treated with the help of a doctor.

 

Diet and lifestyle changes

 

When the body is in good shape and the body feels good, even wounds heal faster and cleaner. Although correcting lifestyles contributes to the healing of chronic inflammation while also preventing it, the change in life has a positive effect on the entire immunity and thus also on susceptibility to illness.

Inflammation can also be alleviated with the help of diet. Foods that reduce inflammation include e.g. various berries (blueberries, strawberries, raspberries), fatty fish (salmon, herring), ginger, turmeric, dark chocolate, broccoli, avocado, green tea, chilies, peppers, grapes, olive oil, and many herbs.

 

Endocannabinoid system underlying inflammation

 

The endocannabinoid system is a body balancer system found in all mammals that monitors all body functions. In the event of an accident, the endocannabinoid system is the one that sends the necessary cells to the wound and points out that the wound has now been healed enough. It doesn’t actually do anything by itself, but is in the background monitoring and regulating various body functions so that the healing is as optimal, effective and fast as possible.

The endocannabinoid system is involved both in the creation of inflammation, but also in its prevention. Its functions as an anti-inflammatory are related to preventing cytokine production, preventing cell proliferation and regulating cell death. The endocannabinoid system regulates the inflammatory response by preventing excessive activation, proliferation and migration of immune cells in the body, and by activating the death of immune cells. Endocannabinoids regulate the inflammatory response at both the innate and adaptive immune levels. (1)

Endogenous cannabinoids, or endocannabinoids, prevent the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increase the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines throughout the inflammatory response. (8,9)

 

Anti-inflammatory CBD

 

Chinese doctors have already said thousands of years ago that hemp eliminates rheumatism. One way or another, different cannabinoids have been found to have anti-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory effects. Also with other cannabinoids such as for example CBG (cannabigerol) has been found to have both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.

CBDhas been studied extensively specifically in relation to inflammatory diseases. It does not actually affect our body through the endocannabinoid system’s own receptors CB1 and CB2, but through other receptors such as serotonin receptors. Inflammation involves the cooperation of CBD and the GRP55 receptor, as well as the interaction between the TRPV receptor and CBD. (1,8,9)

The antioxidant effects are related to CBD’s free radical blocking and transforming effects. CBD breaks their chain reactions, captures them and converts them into less active forms. (8)

CBD also supports the activity of antioxidant enzymes by preventing the reduction of trace element concentrations. CBD has been found to be an even stronger antioxidant than vitamins A and C. (8)

 

CBD oil bottles to treat inflammation.

CBD has been found e.g. reducing the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, preventing the proliferation of inflammation-related cells and promoting their death.

 

Does CBD oil help with inflammation?

 

In the case of inflammations, dosage probably plays a big role in terms of success, and inflammations are often treated with quite large doses.

The action of CBD oil in the body supports the activity of the endocannabinoid system and has been found to increase the endocannabinoid anandamide levels, which in turn affects cannabinoid signaling. This is also why CBD oil promotes anti-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects. (1,8)

Studies have shown that CBD oil reduces the levels of cytokines that promote inflammation, prevents the proliferation of cells associated with inflammation, promotes their death, and reduces the movement and activity of immune cells. (9)

 

in summary

 

Inflammation is a necessary and completely natural reaction, but sometimes inflammation can even cause long-term illnesses. It is possible to treat inflammations with gentle home remedies, but they are also treated with, for example, antibiotics and homeopathy.

CBD oil and CBD have been extensively studied for their anti-inflammatory properties and have been shown to have therapeutic effects. CBD oil is generally a well-tolerated and gentle form of treatment, which may be of significant help for severe inflammatory diseases such as MS and arthritis.

 

Sources

 

  1. Chouinard F., Flamand N., Lefebvre JS and Turcotte C.. 2015. Journal of Leukocyte Biology . Regulation of inflammation by cannabinoids, the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol, arachidonoyl-ethanolamide and their metabolites. https://jlb.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1189/jlb.3RU0115-021R. Referred on 8/10/2022.
  2. Hänninen A.. 2011. Period book Duodecim. Immunological regulation of the acute inflammatory response. https://www.duodecimlehti.fi/duo99721. Referred on 8/10/2022.
  3. Acute wound inflammation. Health village. https://www.terveyskyla.fi/haavatalo/tietoa-haavoista/akuutit-haavat/akuutin-haavan-paranemista-hidastavat-syyt/akuutin-haavan-tulehdus. Referenced 1/10/2022
  4. Uusitupa M. and Schwab U.. 2014. Period book Duodecim. Diet and mild inflammation. https://www.duodecimlehti.fi/duo11787. Referred on 8/10/2022.
  5. Henshaw FR, Dewsbury LS, K.Lim C, and Steiner GZ. The Effects of Cannabinoids on Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines: A Systematic Review of In Vivo Studies. 2021. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8266561/. Referred on 8/10/2022.
  6. Low-grade inflammation can underlie many diseases. Zip. https://www.puhti.fi/tietopaketit/matala-asteinen-tulehdus/. Referred on 8/10/2022.
  7. Lohi J., Jokinen JJ, Sipponen A., Mäki-Paakkanen J., Peltola R., Rautio M., Laakso T., Saranpää P., Papp A. and Sipponen P.. 2008. Period book Duodecim. Effects of spruce resin ointment on wound healing. https://www.duodecimlehti.fi/duo97315. Referred on 8/10/2022.
  8. Atalay S., Jarocka-Karpowicz and Skrzydlewska E.. 2019. Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Cannabidiol. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7023045/#B25-antioxidants-09-00021. Referred on 8/10/2022
  9. Lorena C ., Robaina C., Keir-Rudmana S., Hornimanb N. and Clarkson C.. 2021. The anti-inflammatory effects of cannabidiol and cannabigerol alone, and in combination. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1094553921000596. Referenced 1/10/2022
CBD and stress

CBD and stress

Stress is defined as any stimulus that upsets the body’s balance. The stimulus can be real or imaginary, and regardless of it, stress can be prolonged very easily and become a state of being that dominates life. In this article, we will consider stress, the mechanism of its occurrence, the most common symptoms and whether it could CBD oil can help relieve stress.

What is stress?

 

In the past, stress was mostly seen as negative distress, but today it is known that short-term stress is actually good and makes us strive for things (1). A demanding job that needs to be completed, overdue library books that need to be returned, an empty fridge that requires a trip to the food store. Things like this will be handled specifically with the help of stress; a person can’t get an undone task out of his mind and rather tackles it than constantly running the same thought over his mind. Also events related to survival, such as threatening situations, are often triggered by the “fight or flight” reaction caused by positive stress.

 

Chronic or prolonged stress

 

When there are too many challenges or burdensome things in life, a person experiencing stress can also notice physical symptoms. Challenges related to sleep, brain fog, problems related to concentration, forgetting things, etc. are symptoms from which it can be concluded that stress has been prolonged. With chronic stress, hormonal activity may change and go into a knot, and it may take a long time to recover from it.

Stressed woman reads books.

Stress can be short-lived and it can get unfinished business done. Chronic, i.e. prolonged, stress may, on the other hand, cause visible harm such as a stress belly, rashes and pimples on the face.

 

Stress on the body and mind level

 

Nothing in itself directly causes stress. Many things influence its experience, such as a person’s worldview, their current resources, tolerance and resistance, and their attitude to life (1). Not all stress is bad either; what matters is whether the stress is short or long-term and whether there are ways to alleviate it!

 

Stress affects several body systems and quickly causes changes in neurobehavioral processes. These changes cause symptoms of stress such as sweating, headaches or tension.

 

HPA axis

 

The first event of stress is the activation of the sympathetic nervous system, and the second is the activation of the HPA axis. The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis regulates the body’s stress response and is responsible for producing cortisol. The HPA axis is involved in the regulation of acute, chronic, psychological and physical stress.

 

Cortisol

 

Stress activates the hypothalamus in the brain, which sends signals to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands produce a steroid hormone called cortisol, which is also known as a stress hormone. The HPA axis is responsible for producing cortisol, and its function is regulated by the endocannabinoid system. The secretion of cortisol in a stressful situation is normal and necessary, and its amount naturally varies during the day. However, as a result of chronic, prolonged stress, cortisol production may be disturbed and it may cause e.g. insomnia, immune system disorders or even heart disease and diabetes .

 

Stress and the endocannabinoid system

 

The endocannabinoid system, and the system’s signaling, extends to all body functions, including the brain, where stress also occurs. The endocannabinoid system is one of the most important regulators of the stress response; it restores the HPA axis and facilitates the habituation of the stress response to repeated stress experiences (2,3). The endocannabinoid system also regulates the stimulating and balancing effects of neurotransmitters. In addition to these, the endocannabinoid system also affects stress at higher levels such as emotional and cognitive levels. (3)

 

Endocannabinoids from a stress perspective

 

There are two known endogenous cannabinoids in the body, anandamide and 2-AG ( 2-arachidonoylglycerol). Studies show that the concentration of the cannabinoid 2-AG increases in the hypothalamus of the brain during stress, while the amount of anandamide decreases. A decrease in anandamide activates the HPA axis and contributes to the generation of stress. Correspondingly, an increase in the amount of 2-AG prevents stress and calms the HPA axis. (2,4)

The insufficient presence of endocannabinoids is caused by the accelerated activity of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). FAAH is a molecule that breaks down cannabinoids and its activity accelerates in the almond nucleus up to 24 hours after a stress reaction.

 

Cannabinoid receptors in a stress situation

 

CB1 receptor activation is essential as a negative feedback provider of the stress response in addition to its neuroprotective properties (3,4). It has also been suggested that the CB1 receptor is responsible for the ability of the endocannabinoid system to suppress the HPA axis (2).

 

Symptoms of stress

 

The symptoms of stress can really be anything. There is no clear, specific kind of pimple or one and only feeling that defines the body as a state of stress, but anyone suffering from chronic stress will certainly feel the symptoms of stress and notice if it has been prolonged.

The most typical physical symptoms are e.g. headache, stressed stomach, skin rashes , palpitations, nausea, flu cycle and sweating. Mental symptoms include irritability, anxiety , depression , tension, memory problems, fatigue and insomnia . Stress can also affect relationships, e.g. as the isolation of the stressed (5).

 

Headache caused by stress

 

Headache may even be the most common physical symptom associated with stress. Headache occurs as a symptom of both acute and chronic stress and is also caused by unconscious stress.

 

A person suffering from stress stomach and symptoms of stress keeps his hands on his stomach.

A stressed stomach is a common symptom of stress. Prolonged stress can cause challenges for the stomach’s function and it can also appear as a rash.

 

Stressful stomach

 

As a result of stress, the body’s protective mechanisms may be weakened and the result may be sensitization of the nervous system and disturbance of the sense of pain. Although a stressed stomach is not a physical problem, studies show that stress has real effects on bowel function and the feeling of stomach pain. Symptoms of a stressed stomach include, for example, bloating, flatulence, constipation/diarrhea and abdominal pain. (5) CBD has positive effects bowel function and you can read more about it here .

 

Stress pimples and stress-related rashes

 

Stress can also cause rashes. Even a short-term stressful situation can raise pimples on the chest and face. Pimples are caused by rapid hormonal changes in the body caused by stress. As a result of prolonged stress, the skin may start to develop lines, acne and various rashes. by the effect of CBD oil you can read about eczema and other skin symptoms here and here.

 

CBD oil can relieve stress

 

CBD is a versatile cannabinoid. It has been found to have a relatively weak direct effect on the known cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, but it also affects other targets in the body. CBD seems to prevent stress-induced changes related to the serotonin receptor (5-HTA1) and promotes receptor signaling (2,3,4). CBD also has an alleviating effect on stress-related neuroinflammation, and it appears to bind to stress, depression and to anxiety contributing TRPV1 receptor. (2,3,4)

It has been shown that CBD:n one of the most significant tasks in relation to stress would be to increase the activity of CB1 and CB2 receptors by preventing the breakdown of anandamide (2). CBD can help reduce acute stress-related anxiety, but also normalize abnormal stress reactions. (3,4)

 

Natural treatment for stress

 

Fortunately, however, there are many natural and easy ways to relieve stress quickly. During difficult times, you should remember your own well-being and take care of versatile, nutrient-rich food and a sufficiently long, restful night’s sleep. Silencing smart devices, taking a sauna and walking in nature are simple but effective ways to calm down. It is essential to try to prevent stress, and it can be made easier by getting to know your own resources and finding suitable ways to deal with acute stressful situations.

CBD oil dosing for dogs.

The symptoms of stress in dogs are similar to those in humans and can be alleviated with CBD oil.

 

Pets also experience stress

The stress of other family members, such as a dog or other pet, can also cause concern and cause similar symptoms of stress, which personal challenges can also cause. Domestic animals and pets are easily stressed by big changes in their living environment. Traveling and loneliness in particular can cause stress. CBD oil is also given to dogs, cats and other household pets. Read more about the dosage of CBD oil for pets .

 

In summary

 

The body’s balancing endocannabinoid system is a fascinating multifaceted entity that is present everywhere, but not solely responsible for anything. It is even involved in the creation and calming of stress, embodying that reaction caused by the senses that strongly affects peace of mind. CBD oil has been in several studies, and in connection with the studies, it has emerged as an effective and safe aid for many physical and mental symptoms caused by stress!

 

Sources

 

  1. Duodecim ; Stress. 2022. Mattila A.. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk00976. Referred on 23/05/2022
  2. Functional Interactions between Stress and the Endocannabinoid System: From Synaptic Signaling to Behavioral Output. 2010. Hill M, Patel S, Compolongo P, Tasker JG, Wotjak C, Bains JS.
  3. Enhancing Endocannabinoid Control of Stress with Cannabidiol.. Henson J., Viettää L., Quezada M., Hall S.. https://www.mdpi.com/2077-0383/10/24/5852/htm. Referred on 23/05/2022
  4. Neurobiological Interactions Between Stress and the Endocannabinoid System. 2015. Morena M, Patel S, Bains JS, Hill MN. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=Hill%20MN%5BAuthor%5D. Referred on 23/05/2022
  5. Bee ; Stress. https://www.mehilainen.fi/mielenterveys/stressi. Referred on 23/05/2022
CBD and epilepsy

CBD and epilepsy

Epilepsy, which causes uncontrolled bursts in the electrical activity of the brain, is the most common of the disorders related to brain activity. It’s a challenging, life-affecting disease for which you can’t always find a suitable medicine, at least not a very easy one. In this article, we explore epilepsy, the endocannabinoid system behind it, and whether it could CBD oil can be helpful in the treatment of epilepsy.

 

What is epilepsy?

 

Epilepsy is a chronic brain disease that affects the brain’s electrical activity. It is the most common of the serious neurological diseases and occurs more in men than in women. Epilepsy also occurs in children and animals such as dogs and cats. Globally, the diagnosis of epilepsy is approx. percent of people.

Epilepsy involves both a disorder of the brain’s electrical activity and inflammation of the nervous system in the brain. (1)

A disturbance in the electrical activity of the brain is either excessive discharge or synchronous activity of neurons (1). Inflammation of the nervous system is believed to be part of the cause of epileptic seizures because it occurs both before and after seizures (2). Inflammation of the nervous system is a normal, natural reaction of the body, but it seems that there is an overreaction in the sick brain. The endocannabinoid system is involved in inflammatory pathways and is involved in both the activation of the inflammatory response and its extinguishment (2,3), CBD oil has been found to alleviate inflammation (4,5) .

 

Epilepsy symptoms

The symptoms of epilepsy are clear and very similar in almost all sufferers. Epilepsy is accompanied by episodes of unconsciousness or loss of consciousness, during which the body can convulse violently. The symptoms vary slightly depending on the type of epilepsy and the patient, but the characteristic features are very similar to each other.

Epilepsy can occur in connection with another disease, such as a brain tumor, and sometimes a brain tumor or another neurological disease can cause an epileptic seizure. A seizure, which is the clearest and first symptom of epilepsy, is often a frightening experience for both the person having the seizure and their loved ones. After the first seizure, other possible seizure-causing diseases are ruled out, and if there are more than one seizures and no reason for the seizure is found, it is always treated as epilepsy. (1)

 

Epilepsy with local onset causes premonitory symptoms

 

Localized epilepsy occurs in the brain only in the neurons of the other hemisphere, usually very locally. These attacks are characterized by premonitory symptoms, which appear as sensory hallucinations such as auditory and visual hallucinations. Soon after, the consciousness becomes blurred, and the person no longer reacts to external stimuli. Limbs may jerk and make uncontrollable movements, and the others did not have any of this. Seizures of local onset usually last a few minutes and may progress to a convulsive attack. (6)

 

Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy

 

Adolescent myoclonic epilepsy (Janz’s epilepsy) is often difficult to detect. To get a correct diagnosis, an EEG study that measures the electrical activity of the brain and an in-depth picture of the disease are always needed. Adolescent myoclonic epilepsy usually starts between 13 and 16 years of age and is characterized by mild absence seizures and especially morning muscle twitching. Video games, sleep deprivation and heavy alcohol consumption increase myoclonic symptoms. (7,8)

Epilepsy is caused by bright and flashing lights and can be alleviated by CBD.

Bright and flashing lights may trigger epileptic seizures or symptoms typical of epilepsy, even if epilepsy has not been diagnosed.

 

An epileptic seizure

 

An epileptic seizure can happen to anyone. One in ten people will have a one-time epileptic seizure during their lifetime, but a single seizure is not yet actually a sign of the disease. An epileptic attack is the result of too large an electrical discharge in the neurons of the brain (1) and they are classified according to the types into three; focal, generalized and unknown seizures.

An epileptic seizure is characterized by violent spasms of the body and twisting of the limbs. Often during an attack, a person bites their tongue and may also defecate underneath. Foam may form at the mouth and there is a risk of suffocation. The attack usually passes within a few minutes, but the confusion and fatigue can continue for hours after the attack. (1,10)

CBD oil seems to reduce seizures even surprisingly effectively. Studies have shown that depending on the dose, type of epilepsy, etc. depending, the seizures clearly decreased in almost half of the participants in the studies. (4,5,12)

 

A long history of epilepsy

 

Epilepsy has existed among humans and animals since the beginning of time. It was originally believed that epilepsy was a demon sent by the moon god and the two even had the same name; Puppet. Later, more demons were added to the list of culprits, and for a long time epilepsy was believed to be of supernatural origin. Epilepsy was treated with exorcism spells and magic, but also with hemp extracts. By the time the attack was over in a few minutes, as it happens today, false notions arose that belief treatments such as spells had made the patient more effective and cured. Today, it is no longer believed that epilepsy was caused by a demon, but its birth and origin is still as big a mystery as it was thousands of years ago (9).

Epilepsy of a child

 

The reasons behind a child’s epilepsy can be very diverse. It can be a structural defect, brain damage at birth or hereditary sensitivity. Sometimes no explanation can be found. In children, epilepsy is slightly less common than in adults, but the seizures are very similar. On the other hand, children often have more seizures than adults and they can be very violent. They include loss of consciousness or blacking out, as well as muscle and body twitching and convulsions. The quality, number and type of scenes may vary, but their basic features are very similar.

Epilepsy in children is usually treated quite well with medication, and only about a third need more than one medication. (10)

Medicines do not work for epilepsy in about a third of patients. Children often have more severe forms of epilepsy and their treatment with CBD has been studied surprisingly much. For example, Epidiolex®, a product containing CBD isolate approved by the FDA for epilepsy in 2018, has been studied and also used as a medicine, either alongside other treatments or individually. It is prescribed from the age of 1 and has been found to be both suitable and has a good effect on children. (5,13)

 

Charlotte’s web

 

Charlotte Figi, an American girl born in 2006 (d. 2020), who suffered from genetic childhood epilepsy from the age of 3 months deserves a special mention. Charlotte had up to 300 strong epileptic seizures every month, which of course eventually affected her age-appropriate development as well. Charlotte’s epilepsy was drug-resistant, meaning that the seizures could not be controlled with existing drugs, and finally Charlotte’s parents decided to try CBD oil as medicine. The rest is history, as Charlotte’s Web is a cannabis strain renamed after Charlotte. CBD oil made from that variety contains very little THC relative to and when CBD is present full spectrum oil, it is more effective than isolate in its treatment. Charlotte’s seizures lessened CBDwith the use of , to 2-3 nocturnal seizures per month and his development was able to continue. Slower than his twin sister, but he learned to talk, walk and eat independently. Charlotte’s story of the relief brought by CBD was widely covered in the media and has greatly contributed to the research of CBD and epilepsy. (11)

Cannabinoid receptors and the neural network of the brain, epilepsy and cbd.

Researchers have noticed that the number of cannabinoid receptors in the brain of people with epilepsy is clearly lower compared to healthy people. Activation of cannabinoid receptors reduces inflammation in the nervous system and protects against possible damage from an epileptic attack.

 

The endocannabinoid system and epilepsy

 

The endocannabinoid system is central to neurological function. It has been found in several different studies to be an observant regulator of all the body’s different systems and to be involved in epilepsy as well. A disturbance in the functioning of the endocannabinoid system is essentially related to the emergence of epilepsy. During an epileptic seizure, the state of discharge of the resting voltage of neurons can lead to the activation of the endocannabinoid system, and the activation reduces the inflammation of the nervous system. This notion is supported by observations that the amount of endocannabinoids in tissues increases after seizures. (2,3,5)

 

Endocannabinoids

 

The amount and quality of endocannabinoids is one factor that seems to vary between a healthy and a sick person, both in epilepsy and in many other diseases. Cannabinoids have been reported to have regulatory properties related to the occurrence and severity of epileptic seizures, which is probably related about the factors affecting the neuroinflammation of the endocannabinoid system .

It seems that the regulation of the rise and fall of the cannabinoid 2-AG is critical for the anti-epileptic effect. 2AG levels and the amount of the enzyme that synthesizes this endocannabinoid are lower in people with epilepsy than in healthy people, but the amount of 2AG has been found to increase immediately after an epileptic attack.

Anandamide levels are also lower in people with epilepsy, which is apparently caused by an increase in the FAAH enzyme that breaks down cannabinoids. CBD acts on anandamide reuptake and increases its amount in the brain while increasing the levels of CB1 receptors. These have been speculated to be part of the antiepileptic effect of CBD. (2,3)

 

Cannabinoid receptors

 

The number of cannabinoid receptors is also reduced in epilepsy patients compared to healthy ones. Changes have been noticed e.g. in the hippocampus of the brain. (2) The activation of the endocannabinoid system caused by an epileptic seizure directs the endocannabinoids to respond to the CB1 receptor, which both reduces the inflammatory reaction of the nervous system and mitigates and protects against the damage caused by the seizure (12).

 

TRPV, serotonin and other receptors affecting epilepsy

 

The TRPV receptor is not actually a receptor of the endocannabinoid system, but it has its own big role in epilepsy. It is involved in the regulation of seizure and epilepsy and CBD affects the TRPV receptor, sensitizing its functions. CBD has been found to affect the epilepsy-related functions of the TRPV receptor by inhibiting them, but this is still open to interpretation as so little research has been done on the subject.

The serotonin receptor, which is divided into five different classes, is also involved in epilepsy, and CBD has been found to have a good response to the receptors of the serotonin family. It is thought that dysregulation of the 5-HT2 receptor responsible for neurotransmitters in the brain is one of the factors behind epilepsy.

CBD also affects the opioid receptor OR and the GRP55 receptor responsible for regulating neurotransmitters.

CBD seems to affect all of these receptors, calming the neurotransmitters in their nerve connections, and it is thought that part of CBD’s antiepileptic effects arise from this interaction. (5)

Treatment and prevention of epilepsy

 

Successful treatment of epilepsy is not always simple, and according to the current understanding, it cannot be completely cured. Epilepsy is mainly treated with an individually selected drug, of which there are many different ones available. In one third of the patients, the attacks continue despite drug treatment, one third need more than one drug and one third the drug treatment works well. The best natural treatments are a sufficient amount of sleep, a healthy, varied diet and a life as smooth and stress-free as possible. (1,10)

Especially in situations where the patient has drug-resistant epilepsy, good results have been obtained from the use of CBD oil in all age groups. Epilepsy treatment CBDis not always successful either, and the treatment plan must be made carefully with possible medicines incompatible with CBD. Studies have reported surprisingly high rates of mild side effects, even though the reduction in seizures has been significant and clearly noticeable. It has been speculated that mild side effects such as diarrhea, nausea, intestinal problems, etc. could be treated with transdermal dosing, as the doses used to treat epilepsy are quite large. (5,13)

Since the exact origin of epilepsy is not known, it is difficult to say how it could be prevented. Blows to the head could be prevented by using a helmet in situations where it could be useful and it would be good to avoid heavy alcohol consumption, as it has been found that alcoholics have epileptic seizures other than after heavy blows to the head.

The symptoms of epilepsy in dogs can also be treated with CBD.

Epilepsy in dogs can also be treated with CBD oil in the same way as in humans.

 

CBD oil for dog (canine) epilepsy

 

Epilepsy in dogs is very similar to epilepsy in humans. If no reason for the seizures is found and the seizure does not remain unique, they are always treated as genuine epilepsy. Epilepsy attacks can also be caused by an illness in animals, such as a brain tumor, liver inflammation or metabolic disorders. Genuine epilepsy rarely occurs in old dogs, usually it appears already at 1-5 years of age. (14) Treating dogs with CBD oil has been studied and tried to some extent. In general, about the dosage and use of CBD oil for dogs, you can read more here.

Feline epilepsy is also similar to human epilepsy, but it occurs in percentages slightly more in cats, approx. 3% of cats get a true diagnosis of epilepsy. Even in cats, an epileptic seizure can be a single one, and only when two seizures have occurred within 24 hours, it is started to be examined and possibly treated. (15)

 

In summary

 

Few diseases have been around as long as epilepsy. It has remained almost unchanged since the beginning of time, but still no sure working method has been found for its successful treatment or improvement. The quality and intensity of epileptic seizures varies from case to case, but in their main features, epilepsies are similar to each other. The endocannabinoid system also has a strong effect on the background of epilepsy, and CBD oil has had very good results in mitigating or even completely eliminating convulsions.

 

Sources

 

  1. Atula S.. 2019. Duodecim ; Epilepsy in adults. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk00012. Referred on 12/06/2022
  2. Cheung KK, Peiris H., Wallace G., Holland O., Mitchell M.. 2019. The Interplay between the Endocannabinoid System, Epilepsy and Cannabinoids. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6929011/. Referred on 12/06/2022.
  3. Kerna N., Merz I., Brown T.. 2018. Medcrave. An alternative medicine perspective on the role of the endocannabinoid system in the treatment of epilepsy. https://medcraveonline.com/IJCAM/an-alternative-medicine-perspective-on-the-role-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-the-treatment-of-epilepsy.html. Referred on 12/06/2022.
  4. Melody R.. 2020. Cannabidiol in epilepsy : The indications and beyond. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7653733/. Referred on 12/06/2022
  5. Silvestro S., Mammana S., Cavalli E., Bramanti P., Mazzon E.. 2019. Use of Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Epilepsy: Efficacy and Security in Clinical Trials. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6514832/. Referred on 12/06/2022.
  6. The working group established by Duodecim of the Finnish Medical Association and the Finnish Neurological Association. 2020. Good treatment. Epilepsies (adults). https://www.kaypahoito.fi/hoi50072. Referred on 12/06/2022.
  7. Kai Eriksson, Tapani Keränen and Matti Koivikko. 1997. Duodecim magazine. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. https://www.duodecimlehti.fi/duo70324. Referred on 12/06/2022
  8. Mikael Ojala, Pekka Tani and Marja-Liisa Granström. 1997. Duodecim magazine. Adolescent myoclonus epilepsy: Do you recognize a common syndrome?. https://www.duodecimlehti.fi/duo70333. Referred on 12/06/2022
  9. Larsen A.. 2007. Journal of Duodecim. The hand of God – what a Babylonian doctor knew about epilepsy. https://www.duodecimlehti.fi/duo96922. Referred on 12/06/2022.
  10. Metsähonkala L.. 2021. Duodecim. Epilepsy of a child. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk00121. Referred on 12/06/2022.
  11. Charlotte’s Web. https://www.charlottesweb.com/blog/charlotte-figi-the-girl-who-changed-the-world. Referred on 12/06/2022.
  12. Medeiros D., Cota V., Oliveira A., Moreira F., Morares M.. 2020. Frontiers. The Endocannabinoid System Activation as a Neural Network Desynchronizing Mediator for Seizure Suppression. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnbeh.2020.603245/full. Referred on 12/06/2022.
  13. Metsähonkala E., Linnakivi T.. 2018. Medical journal. Cannabidiol in the treatment of epilepsy. https://www.potileanlaakarilehti.fi/site/assets/files/0/51/22/296/sll502018-3007.pdf. Referred on 12/06/2022
  14. Go N.. Get dog. Epilepsy. https://www.hankikoira.fi/koirateitoa/koiran-terveys/koiran-sairaudet/epilepsia. Referred on 12/06/2022.
  15. Pääkkönen T.. 2021. Vetcare. Epilepsy in cats. https://www.vetcare.fi/kissojen-epilepsia/. Referred on 12/06/2022.
CBD for migraines and headaches

CBD for migraines and headaches

Headaches and migraines, both are painfully familiar to people today, and CBD oil may even be a significant help in alleviating the various symptoms. In this article, we look at whether CBD oil could reduce the symptoms or even stop headache and migraine attacks completely!

 

Headache is a regular occurrence for every second patient

 

Different types of pain in the head area, which are not caused by an accident, injury or illness, have touched almost every person’s life. It is estimated that about every second person in the world experiences frequent headaches, and the reasons for this are manifold. It can be caused by, for example, stress, drinking too little water, lack of minerals in the body, too much staring at the screen, lack of oxygen to the brain, noise, menstrual cycle, caffeine addiction… Almost anything!

 

The things that bring relief are individual

 

Since a headache can be caused by so many factors, it is quite clear that there is no single treatment for this problem. The use of the CBD oil to relieve various types of headaches has been studied somewhat and may help in some cases. User experiences show that it has beneficial effects, especially for migraines, but for occasional headaches, CBD oil only helps in some situations, perhaps depending on the cause.

Whatever the underlying cause, headaches, like migraines, are associated with overactivation of the trigeminovascular pathway and suppression of neural activity (1,2).

A man experiences a headache and holds his hand to his forehead.

On average, every second person suffers from a headache.

There are many ways to relieve headache symptoms

 

If headache symptoms occur often, it is good to stop and think about the causes, so that you can learn to control and ease the pain attacks. It is important to take care of daily outdoor activities and to try to calm everyday life and work in such a way that they do not cause too much stress. Adequate intake of minerals and trace elements relative to the amount of food consumed, as well as a good night’s sleep, reduce the possibility of headaches. A grateful and confident quality of mind is also suitable for reducing stress and thus also for preventing pain attacks.

 

CBD oil is a versatile helper

 

In some cases, CBD oil may reduce headaches if they occur without apparent reason. In this light, it is important to think about why the head hurts in order to be able to find out whether CBD oil could help. The active ingredients of hemp cannabinoids, flavonoids and terpenes affect the endocannabinoid system, which also affects the occurrence, quality and frequency of headaches (3).

 

Migraine with aura is surprisingly common

 

Migraine, with or without aura, is a surprisingly common condition that involves a debilitating headache along with other symptoms. What makes migraine interesting is that women are three times more likely to suffer from it than men. On average, one in ten suffer from migraines. Its symptoms include a severe, throbbing headache lasting up to three days on one side, photophobia, nausea and visual disturbances (4).

Despite the long and extensive research history, very little is known about the origin of migraine. Today, it is assumed that migraine is a gradually progressing neurological syndrome affecting the brainstem (5).

According to user experiences, migraines really get easier and the attacks decrease with regular CBD oil as a result of consumption. Since in addition to the external causes of the affected body, there is also a chronic lack of endocannabinoids, it is obvious that exocannabinoids could balance the functioning of the endocannabinoid system (2).

CBD oil and hemp leaf. For headaches and migraines.

According to research, CBD can help with headaches and can reduce the number of migraine attacks, as well as ease other migraine symptoms.

 

CBD oil reduces the number of seizures

So far, no cure has been found for migraines, but an attack can be prevented by avoiding the things that usually trigger them. Hustle and bustle, bright sun with a spring breeze, incorrect work posture, bad night’s sleep, etc. are for many almost certain triggers for migraines. In addition to avoiding, also full-spectrum CBD oil can reduce the number of attacks and ease other symptoms of migraine (1,3), as CBD has been found to e.g. stress-relieving, nausea-reducing and anxiety-relieving effects.

 

Contribution of the endocannabinoid system to headache and migraine

 

The endocannabinoid system is essentially related to all bodily functions, including headaches and migraines. Studies have found that during migraines, the gene encoding the CB1 receptor is reduced and the production of endocannabinoids is disturbed (1,2).

 

In the background, the rapid breakdown of anandamide

The endocannabinoid anandamide overproduction of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which is responsible for breaking down, has been observed especially in women with migraines. Overproduction of FAAH reduces the amount of endocannabinoids produced in the body, because FAAH breaks down the cannabinoids produced by the body too quickly (1). Cerebrospinal fluid and platelet studies have shown that migraine sufferers have a clear deficiency of anandamide, and increased activity of endocannabinoid transporters (EMT) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) (1,3). Migraines may also be caused by the excessive release of serotonin from blood platelets. Cannabinoids have been found to balance platelet function and prevent the release of serotonin from platelets during migraines. (1)

The effects of endocannabinoids on the neurological and vascular systems show that they affect the regulation of several functions responsible for migraine.

 

Clinical endocannabinoid deficiency

 

Endocannabinoid system has been studied extensively and for a long time. Based on the findings, it has been suggested that the underlying cause would almost always be a chronic disease endocannabinoid deficiency or dysfunction of the endocannabinoid system. This condition in the body is called clinical endocannabinoid deficiency and the theory was put forward by long-time cannabis researcher Ethan B. Russo.

The basis of the theory is both research on the subject and also the fact that exocannabinoids have been found to have a positive effect on e.g. for migraines, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), fibromyalgia and other chronic diseases. (2)

 

Finally

 

Although headaches and migraines are researched topics, neither of them has yet been found a completely preventive or curative medical treatment. A headache is often relieved by a painkiller and a migraine may be suppressed with migraine medication, but it does not remove the root cause of the problem and therefore only brings temporary relief. CBD oil is a product worth trying that may surprise you with its effectiveness. With the likely cause being a clinical endocannabinoid deficiency, CBD oil can be a key factor in reducing headaches, e.g. by increasing the amount of cannabinoids in the body.

 

Sources

 

  1. The Use of Cannabis for Headache Disorders. 2017. Lochete B.C., Beletsky A., Samuel N., Grant I.. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5436334/. Referred to 8.5.2022.
  2. Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency Reconsidered: Current Research Supports the Theory in Migraine, Fibromyalgia, Irritable Bowel, and Other Treatment-Resistant Syndromes. 2016. Russo E.B.. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5576607/. Referred to 8.5.2022.
  3. Medical Cannabis, Headaches, and Migraines: A Review of the Current Literature. 2021. Poudel S., Quinonez J., Choudhari J., Au Z., Paesani S., Thiess A., Ruxmohann S., Hosameddin M., Ferrer G., Michel J.. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Quinonez%20J%5BAuthor%5D&cauthor=true&cauthor_uid=34589318. Referred to 8.5.2022.
  4. Terveyskirjasto; Migreeni. 2019. Sari Atula. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk00047. Referred to 8.5.2022.
  5. Facultas; Krooninen päänsärky. 2008. Haanpää M., Kauppila T., Eklund M., Granström V., Hagelberg N., Hannonen P., Kyllönen E., Kyro M., Loukusa-Nieminen T., Luutonen S., Telakivi T., Ylinen A., Pakkala I. https://terveysportti.mobi/dtk/tyt/avaa?p_artikkeli=fac00020#s5. Referred to 8.5.2022.
CBD, Immunity and Autoimmune Diseases

CBD, Immunity and Autoimmune Diseases

Autoimmune diseases are increasing rapidly. There are more than 100 different autoimmune diseases and it is estimated that around five percent of the population has an autoimmune disease. Autoimmune diseases are often challenging to treat, and there is not always an effective medicine for them. In this article, we look at immunity, autoimmune diseases and whether CBD has an effect on them.

 

Natural immunity

 

Immunity is a natural synergistic ensemble of the body’s defense systems, which includes all defense and protection systems that protect us from various physical external harms, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites and harmful microbes. The most important function of the immune systems is to divide the elements moving in the body into own and foreign, threats and safe.

Immunity builds up strong already during childhood forest trips. It is important to be exposed to microbes as widely as possible from early childhood, because the phenomenon called the hygiene hypothesis can already be seen. The hygiene hypothesis means that people who grew up in too clean an environment are more prone to allergies and e.g. for asthma because they have not had enough contact with different microbes and pathogens so that the body could have created a strong immunity when encountering them (1).

Immune system dysfunction

 

The body has two ways to fight pathogens; lymphocytes, i.e. lymphocytes, circulate in the blood destroying pathogens, or cells specialized in fighting diseases produce antibodies circulating in the blood, which can neutralize pathogens by their action. Sometimes the functioning of the immune system can be disrupted. It can be mild, in which case the systems only work overactively, and as a result, e.g. asthma, allergies or skin symptoms such as atopic dermatitis. A more serious disorder in the immune system causes autoimmune diseases. (1,2)

 

What is an autoimmune disease?

 

The background of an autoimmune disease is always a malfunction of the immune system that causes inflammation in the body. For some reason, the body’s defense mechanisms do not work as they should, and they no longer separate pathogens from the body’s own cells and tissues. Defense and protection systems turn against the body itself as an inflammatory reaction. (2)

Autoimmune disease is caused by low immunity, an external pathogen, and in some cases also a hereditary factor. (1) According to the current understanding, there is no preventive treatment, but immunity can be strengthened by many means.

Joint pain is a common symptom of autoimmune disease.

Rheumatoid arthritis is a very common autoimmune disease in which the structures of the small joints have a continuous tissue-damaging inflammatory state. Other common autoimmune diseases include celiac disease, various allergies, asthma, psoriasis and thyroid disorders.

There is a long list of autoimmune diseases

 

More than 100 different forms of autoimmune diseases are known. All of them have in common the difficulty of being medicated and a large number of questions. Although there is a theory about how autoimmune diseases break out, their origin is still largely a mystery. The most common autoimmune diseases are thyroid dysfunction and rheumatoid arthritis. Asthma, allergies, celiac disease, chronic fatigue syndrome and psoriasis are also diseases classified as autoimmune. Rarer autoimmune diseases include e.g. adrenal gland dysfunction and myasthenia gravis causing muscle weakness. MS disease is also classified as an autoimmune disease and due to CBD oil’s effect on it, can read here.

 

Autoimmune rashes

 

Eczema and skin diseases that can be classified as autoimmune diseases include e.g. red lichen, vitiligo affecting the skin’s pigmentation and erythema multiforme with many symptoms. Many autoimmune diseases have several different symptoms. Rashes and skin symptoms are not associated with all diseases, but in some they are a significant factor. Psoriasis is a well-known skin-related disease based on immune defense. The symptoms of autoimmune diseases that appear as a rash may be relieved by CBD oil, and from that possible effect, you can read more here.

 

Endocannabinoid system behind immune defense

 

The endocannabinoid system is also part of the function of the immune response. It has an effect on the background of all body systems and, balancing, regulates the body’s immune defenses. The endocannabinoid system has been found to be present in some way in all cells of the body and their functions, including cells of the immune system. It also plays an important role in communication between these cells. (3,4,5)

Endocannabinoids activate the immune response

 

With endocannabinoids AEA (anandamide) and 2-AG (2-arachidonoylglycerol) have many important functions in the functioning of the immune system and can be considered effective immunomodulators. They e.g. both activate and inhibit immune system function and inhibit cytokines that cause inflammation. (5) Cells of the immune system have been found to have cannabinoid transport and degradation mechanisms and express both cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2).

Red blood cells and chronic inflammation due to autoimmune disease.

Autoimmune disease involves inflammation in the body, which CBD can help with. CBD has an anti-inflammatory effect.

 

The CB2 receptor prevents inflammation

 

The primary location of the CB2 receptor in the body is the organs and tissues responsible for immunity. CB2 receptors are found in the cells of the immune systems approx. 100 times more than the CB1 receptor and that makes the endocannabinoid system a significant research target in the treatment of autoimmune diseases (5). The CB2 receptor is activated in the immune system and it has been noticed e.g. as an anti-inflammatory in various diseases such as inflammatory pain and liver infections. When activated, CB2 receptors also regulate the migration of immune cells in the body and their number increases during inflammatory pain (6)

 

The well-being of the immune system

 

Strong immunity is a basic pillar of health. The good immunity acquired as a child is the basis throughout life, but it can also be strengthened in adulthood. Immunity can be weakened, for example, due to stress, antibiotic courses or chronic illness. Also smoking, heavy alcohol use, lack of vitamins, etc. decrease the body’s ability to resist external pathogens. It is known that in addition to a healthy lifestyle, the immune response is also positively affected by the well-being of the mind.

Twice Nobel laureate Dr. Linus Pauling has said:

“You can trace every sickness, every disease, and every ailment to a mineral deficiency.”

A lack of micronutrients can weaken the normal function and effect of enzymes and vitamins in the body. A lack of vitamins can be avoided with well-absorbed supplements such as capsules containing humic and fulvic acid, which promote the normal functioning of the immune system (vitamin C, iron, copper and selenium). Humic substances enhance the absorption of minerals and thus help increase energy production and support immunity. You can order humus capsules from Hamppumaa’s online store.

 

CBD oil for autoimmune diseases

 

People with autoimmune diseases often use immunosuppressive treatments, i.e. treatments that lower immunity, because the immune system is overactive and needs to be calmed down.

CBD has been found in studies to be both immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory. These properties are significant when considering the treatment of autoimmune diseases, as CBD can both slow down and stop an overactive immune system.

All autoimmune diseases differ from each other, which means that the guilty cells are also individual in each form of the disease. The contribution of endocannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system to immunity and autoimmune diseases is so significant that one could develop their own cannabinoid preparations for the diseases according to the purpose. While waiting for them, CBD oil might be of great help.

 

CBD oil dropper bottle and hemp plant in the background.

CBD has significant properties for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. CBD can slow down an overactive immune system.

 

​​

CBG (cannabigerol)

CBG or cannabigerol is a phytocannabinoid that has an anti-inflammatory or inflammation-reducing effect. It affects the function of immune cells and their neurotransmitters. CBG also acts as an anandamide reuptake inhibitor. (6).

 

Effect of terpenes

Terpenes are one of the less talked compounds in hemp. Terpenes are part of the therapeutic effect of hemp and they are involved in full-spectrum CBD oil. Carophyllenes have been found e.g. antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. 46D-limonene can be anti-inflammatory and Gamma-terpinene has an effect on cytokine activity. (6)

 

In summary

Autoimmune diseases are common, but despite all the research, still largely unknown. It is very possible that in the future, effective specific drugs from cannabinoids will be developed for autoimmune diseases.

 

Sources

 

  1. Anttila V-J.. 2021. Duodecim. Elimistön Vastustuskyky. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk01150. Referred to 5.6.2022.
  2. Mustajoki P.. 2018. Duodecim. Autoimmuunisairaudet. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk00010. Referred to 5.6.2022
  3. Nichols J. ja Kaplan B.. Immune responses regulated by cannabidiol. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=Kaplan%20BL%5BAuthor%5D. Referred to 5.6.2022.
  4. Almogi-Hazan O., Reuven O.. Cannabis, the endocannabinoidsystem and immunity – the journey from the Bedside to the bench and back. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7352399/. Referred to 5.6.2022.
  5. Pandey R., Mousawy K., Nagarkatti M., Nagarkatti P.. 2009. Endocannabinoids and immune regulation. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3044336/. Referred to 5.6.2022.
  6. Giorgi V., Marotto D., Batticciotto A., Atzeni F., Bongiovanni S., Sarzi-Puttini P.. 2021. Cannabis and autoimmunity : Possible mechanisms of action. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8313508/. Referred to 5.6.2022
CBD oil to support cancer treatments

CBD oil to support cancer treatments

According to the World Health Organization, cancer is the second most common cause of death in the world, and currently around every third person will get it during their lifetime. CBD and the endocannabinoid system have been widely studied in relation to cancer. This article examines the endocannabinoid system in the context of cancer, what cancer is and whether CBD oil could help manage cancer or cancer-related symptoms.

What is cancer?

Cancer is an umbrella term for a large number of different diseases. People with uniform cancer only have an uncontrolled distribution of cells in the body, otherwise the cancer can be anywhere, any kind and with a wide spectrum of different symptoms.

Cancer is especially a disease of the elderly, but it occurs in people of all ages, from babies to adults. Today, the prognosis for survival and recovery is good, and more and more people are making a full recovery as treatments develop. Nevertheless, it is thought that in the next few years, cancer will overtake even heart diseases in the death statistics. (1)

A benign tumor remains in place, grows moderately and is usually easy to treat. A malignant tumor forms metastases and the dividing cells spread to other parts of the body, becoming part of the body, while a benign tumor remains as its own separate body, isolated from itself by the body’s healthy cells and tissues.

 

The most common types of cancer

 

There are many different types of cancer and they are named according to where they originate. Prostate cancer is the most common in men, breast cancer in women. Cervical tumors also occur in women. Lung cancer is one of the most common, and colon and rectal cancer are the most common intestinal cancers. Less common, but common are e.g. bladder, kidney and esophageal cancer. (2)

 

Where does cancer start?

 

Tumor growth starts from a single cell, which begins to divide uncontrollably. It is usually a slow chain of events in which the information the cell inherits about cell growth and division is damaged. (1)

Genes located on chromosomes are behind everything. Human hereditary factors, i.e. genes, control the functioning of the cell and sometimes mutations occur in genes. When there are enough of these mutations in the same area of the body, they start to form a tumor. (1)

Gene activity is influenced by environmental factors such as the air we breathe, the food we eat and the atmosphere we live in. (1)

The acidity of the body is one factor in the development of cancer. The body is strongly alkaline when a child is born and it slowly becomes acidic towards old age. Acidification is natural, but it happens faster due to the influence of the environment, such as as a result of drinking a lot of coffee and unhealthy food.

 

Cancer and its many symptoms

 

The symptoms of cancer can actually be anything depending on its location. In all types of cancer, the symptoms are also different among patients, but usually they appear in the area of the body where the tumor is located. In skin cancer there are changes on the skin, in brain tumors there are disturbances in the body’s functions, in lung cancer there may be cough and breathing difficulties, in intestinal cancer bloody stools or digestive problems, etc. (1,2)

Common symptoms of cancer include e.g. pains, general weakness and loss of appetite. In addition to cannabinoids have been studied in terms of tumor eradication, their use has also been extensively studied to treat general symptoms.

 

Symptoms of the final stage of the disease

 

When it has been determined that the cancer cannot be treated medically, palliative treatment is usually used, i.e. treatment that relieves symptoms and improves quality of life. It includes alleviation of pain and symptoms, and e.g. fulfilling psychological, social and spiritual needs.

However, there is always hope. The most touching healing stories can be found on social media and blogs on the internet. People who received a death sentence from a cancer diagnosis share their own experiences of how they have miraculously recovered from cancer. Others say they drank conifer extract drink, others carrot-apple juice. Some have healed themselves with diet and supplements, and some even with fasting. What all these happy ending stories have in common is that these people sincerely trusted in their own healing. They have had hope, faith and gratitude for life and the power of healing.

According to user experiences, CBD oil is a good supportive treatment alongside palliative care, as it has been found to help precisely those symptoms that occur most often.

 

In the picture, a cancerous tumor in the lungs modeled on a computer.

Cancer can be diagnosed with a combination of different research methods, such as blood tests, imaging and test pieces. The image shows lung cancer modeled on a computer.

 

Does cancer show up in blood tests?

 

Cancer research has developed enormously in recent decades. The tumor is verified with a combination of research methods, including blood tests, scanning and taking samples.

Blood tests are already taken at the stage when cancer is suspected and cancer type markers are looked for, possible elevated kidney and red blood cell values are examined, and the concentration of blood storage iron, or ferritin, is measured. (1)

 

The endocannabinoid system and cancer

 

The endocannabinoid system is the body’s security system, whose task is to monitor and balance all the functions that take place in our body. It is present in almost all animals and humans in the world, and its malfunctions are thought to be somehow involved in all diseases of both body and mind.

In several studies, the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the origin and development of cancer has been demonstrated. Endocannabinoids and their receptors have been noticed to increase during cancer, which of course does not mean that the endocannabinoid system is actually involved in the worsening of cancer. Rather, the more endocannabinoids and receptors there are in a tumor, the more aggressive the tumor is. Endocannabinoids and the receptors that receive them are, as it were, in a larger group resisting this disease that consumes the body. (3,4)

The endocannabinoid system and its communication has been found to be involved in the regulation of cell survival, movement and death. (3,4,5)

 

Cannabinoid receptors

 

Cannabinoid receptors are everywhere in the body. CB1 receptors are mainly found in the brain, while CB2 receptors are common in tissues responsible for the immune system. Both receptors are present in tumors, but the regulation of cancer progression seems to be mainly controlled by the CB2 receptor. (4)

On a general level, we could say that both CB receptors (CB1 and CB2) and their endogenous ligands increase in tumor tissues. Their overexpression is directly related to the aggressiveness of the tumor, and the levels of the receptors can be used to predict e.g. probability of survival. (4,7)

 

Other body receptors

 

Almost all functions in the body go through receptors. There are many different types and they all have their own important tasks. A few receptors that are essentially related to cancer have been raised here.

 

TRPV receptors

 

TRPV channels are common receptors in the body. This family includes six different channels and they are numbered TRPV1, TRPV2, etc.

TRPV receptors are strongly associated with CBDand in its antitumor activities. In different types of cancer, cell death occurs through different pathways, but usually it is dependent on the activity of one of the TRPV channels. Depending on the location and quality of the tumor, some kind of combination of receptors is usually used. It has been noticed that sometimes CBD uses, for example, CB1, CB2 and TRPV1 receptors, while in the case of another tumor it uses CB2 and TRPV2 receptors. This is a great demonstration of the complexity of how the endocannabinoid system works! (3,6)

 

GRP55

 

GPR55, also called the third CB receptor, and its amount in the body is related to the rapid proliferation and movement of tumor cells in several types of tumors (4,6). In general, the effect of CBD depends on the combination of these receptors.

 

Endocannabinoids

 

Endocannabinoid levels vary greatly between different tumor types.

The levels of the most well-known endogenous cannabinoids AEA (anandamide) and 2-AG (2-arachidonylglycerol) have been found to be either lower or higher in tumors compared to healthy tissue (4,7). Endocannabinoids also work in pairs or groups and thus create an interactive effect. For example, the combination of anandamide and oleamide inhibits cell proliferation. (7)

 

Endocannabinoid system in cancer treatment

 

It has been stated several times in studies that treatments targeting the endogenous cannabinoid system are the future. According to many studies, the background of all body imbalances manifested as diseases is some degree of disturbance in the endocannabinoid system, which is why specific treatments aimed at it could be very effective. However, more research is needed, because there are always questions, especially with synthetic single endocannabinoids and exocannabinoids. Hemp has been found to work best synergistically i.e. so that all the beneficial substances in the plant such as cannabinoids, terpenes, flavonoids, etc. are used by the body.

Synthetic, i.e. man-made preparations that mimic endocannabinoids have brought good results in drug tests, despite the fact that their mechanism of action is a complex mystery. They have been reported to reduce tumor growth and aggressive metastasis. Synthetic inhibition of MAGL and FAAH enzymes, the natural degraders of endocannabinoids, has also shown anticancer activity. (3,4,6,7)

 

CBD oil to support cancer treatment. Image of bottle of CBD oil.

CBD, one of the most studied cannabinoids, has been found to have strong effects on cancer cells, as well as the ability to prevent the formation of metastases.

 

Cannabinoids in cancer treatment

 

Several studies suggest that cannabinoids are able to suppress inflammatory responses by reducing the production of cytokines and chemokines and increasing T-regulatory cells. Similar results were also obtained with endocannabinoids.

The effect of cannabinoids on inhibiting tumor growth has been demonstrated in both benign and malignant tumors. Cannabinoids can induce natural cell death and prevent the tumor’s own blood vessels from forming. (7)

Cannabinoids have been found to be effective e.g. you can read more about the treatment of insomnia here. They may also help with various pains, which you can read more about in the article Pain and CBD oil.

CBD

 

CBD (cannabidiol) is one of the most studied external cannabinoids in the body. CBD has been found to have strong proapoptotic effects. Apoptosis is the natural death reaction of cells, as a result of which cancer cells also die. CBD is also antiproliferative, meaning it prevents cells from multiplying. (3,6,8)

As an antiangiogenic CBD prevents the formation of new blood vessels in the tumor area, and as it is also anti-metastatic, it prevents the formation of metastases. (3,6,8)

The use of CBD shows, in the light of research, that it increases the possibility of survival, and mitigates several side effects of different cancer and cancer treatments.

CBN, CBC and CBG

 

The lesser-known cannabinoidsCBN (cannabinol), CBC (cannabichromene) and CBG (cannabigerol) have been found in studies to destroy cancer cells.

 

CBD oil to support cancer treatments

 

CBDhas been studied a great deal. It has been found in several studies to alleviate cancer-related symptoms, as well as to interfere with tumor growth (3,6,8). In general, CBD oil is very well tolerated and is suitable as a medicine or to support other treatment for children, adults and even animals.

Cannabinoids have been found to sensitize tumors, e.g. for chemotherapy. The body may develop drug resistance to the tumor, and cannabinoids apparently break down this tumor’s own resistance. (4)

 

Cancer treatment

 

Cancer is treated with many different methods. Chemotherapy, radiation treatments and numerous different drugs make it possible to treat even difficult cancers, but they are often followed by a wide variety of life-threatening side effects. The most common of these are probably loss of appetite, nausea and various mood challenges.

 

The selenium in Brazil nuts can

Like CBD, selenium is an antioxidant that promotes cell death. Selenium can be obtained e.g. Brazil nuts and it is in a highly absorbable form, e.g. also in Huminiqum products.

 

Natural treatment and possible prevention

 

A healthy, well-being body is the best and actually the only possible tool against cancer. Avoiding diseases is challenging, because today’s rhythm of life is extremely hectic, goal-oriented and stressful. Due to the impoverishment of the soil, we no longer get the nutrients we need from food, and the amount of pesticides and preservatives used in the cultivation of plants (including animal feed) is high. These affect the body’s resistance.

Certain vitamins have a negative effect on tumors. One of the most effective is selenium, which, like CBDis a mineral that promotes cell death. Selenium can be obtained e.g. Brazil nuts and it is in a highly absorbable form, e.g. also in Huminiqum capsules .

Selenium also has a positive effect on DNA damage, hormone production and challenges such as chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. There is only very little selenium in the Finnish diet, so the dose of selenium that protects against cancer is often missed. (9) The safe daily dose of selenium is 20-300 micrograms (µg) per day and it should be taken into account that selenium can cause poisoning when the dose is more than 4 milligrams, i.e. 4000 µg per day (10).

In addition, sulforaphane, especially found in bean sprouts and raw broccoli, is also good for cancer patients, as are foods rich in vitamin C such as oranges, rose hips and citrus fruits.

Good quality, versatile food contains plenty of different nutrients that the body needs, and because the body is wise, it knows how to heal itself and always strives to function optimally. In order to heal, the body needs time, rest and sufficient quality food with possible supplements. Clean drinking water is an important element, as is a sufficient amount of fresh outdoor air.

 

In summary

 

Cancer is often a challenging, life-stopping disease, at least momentarily. Treatment methods have increased and improved enormously in the past decades, but there is still no miracle pill for cancer treatment that would simply erase the symptoms without side effects. Researched drugs targeting the endocannabinoid system, making CBD oil a part of life and healthy optimized lifestyles are the cancer treatment of the future and support comprehensive well-being.

Sources

 

  1. All about cancer. https://www.kaikkisyovasta.fi. Referred to 20.7.2022
  2. Duodecim terveyskirjasto. Cancer. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/haku?q=syöpä. Referred to 20.7.2022
  3. Barbara Dariš B., Tancer Verboten M., Knez Z., Ferk P.. 2019. Cannabinoids in cancer treatment: Therapeutic potential and legislation. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6387667/. Referred to 20.7.2022
  4. Fraguas‐Sánchez A., Martín‐Sabroso C., ja Torres‐Suárez A.. 2018. Insights into the effects of the endocannabinoid system in cancer : a review. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6003657/. Referred to 20.7.2022
  5. Bifulco M. ja Di Marzo V.. 2002. Nature Medicine. Targeting the endocannabinoid system in cancer therapy: A call for further research. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Maurizio-Bifulco/publication/11330003_Targeting_the_endocannabinoid_system_in_cancer_therapy_A_call_for_further_research/links/00b4951dc3c337696a000000/Targeting-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-cancer-therapy-A-call-for-further-research.pdf. Referred to 20.7.2022
  6. Seltzer E., Watters A., MacKenzie D., Jr. Granat L. and Zhang D.. 2020. Cannabidiol (CBD) as a Promising Anti-Cancer drug. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=Zhang%20D%5BAuthor%5D. Referred to 20.7.2022.
  7. Velasco G., Hernandez-Tiera S., Davila D. ja Lorente M.. 2016. Science direct. The use of cannabinoids as anticancer agents. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278584615001190.Viitattu 20.7.2022
  8. Moreno E., Cavic M., Krivokuca A., Casadó V., ja Canela E.. 2009. Frontiers. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2019.00339/full. Referred to 20.7.2022
  9. K. Jaakkola. Terveyskirjat.fi. Erikoislääkäri Kaarlo Jaakkolan vastaanotolla: Selenium fights cancer. https://terveyskirjat.fi. Referred to 09.08.2022
  10. H. Jalonen. Selenium. https://www.bonusapteekki.fi/Apteekkarin-neuvot/Seleeni. Referred to 09.08.2022.
CBD oil and insomnia

CBD oil and insomnia

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CBD oil and insomnia (insomnia) go hand in hand, for most CBD benefit users take CBD oil just in the evenings to calm down, relax, and get a better deep sleep. In this article, we examine the factors that affect sleep and what kind of effect endocannabinoid system and CBD has insomnia.

 

One third of life is a dream

 

We sleep an average of a third of our lives. So it is quite clear that what happens during that time has a big impact on how we can stay active. Sleep is a vital function during which the brain rests, the mind calms down and the body is cleansed. (1).

Sleep quality is affected by many different factors such as wakefulness, stress, health, bedding, and bedding. The endocannabinoid system, which maintains the balance of the whole body, also plays a role in the background.

A restful restful sleep should be obtained 6-9 hours a night and during it the body has a huge number of small and large tasks with which it prepares us for the new day. During the night you learn and rest, cleanse and balance. According to the population survey, about a third of Finnish adults suffer from various sleep problems and the same amount worldwide. Sleep problems are either short-lived or chronic and range from long-term insomnia through night sweats to nightmares (1). There are already good therapies for the treatment and symptoms of insomnia and other various sleep problems, both in Western medicine and in complementary therapies, but the interesting and well-proven CBD with therapeutic effects is still a potentially unknown potential sleep aid.

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a therapeutic compound that is not intoxicating. Its relaxing properties are well known and it is already widely used to treat anxiety, pain and depression. Studies have shown that it is also helpful in promoting alertness and reducing drowsiness during the day. So CBD oil can help with sleep problems.

 

Endocannabinoids are part of the circadian rhythm

 

Endocannabinoid system is, as it were, a backbone that is not actually responsible for anything, but affects everywhere. There is hardly a single physiological activity in which it would not be involved. Thus, it also plays a very important role in sleep quality and sleep cycle regulation. Not necessarily directly but through the various functions of the body. The endocannabinoid system affects sleep e.g. by regulating the sleep-wake rhythm. (2)

It appears to be responsible for the stability of the sleep-wake cycle, rather than a single function (3). Daily variations of anandamide could play a significant role in the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle. Studies in rats have shown endocannabinoids in biological samples taken e.g. spinal cord, hippocampus, and hypothalamus. In spinal fluid samples, anandamide concentrations increased during the light period and correspondingly decreased during the dark period. It has been suggested that anandamide would accumulate as a nitrogen cell in the dark and then be released when light enters the spinal cord at those sites that regulate sleep (4). The endocannabinoid system also indirectly affects sleep through knowledge of other bodily functions such as stress levels, metabolism, and pain (5).

Endocannabinoids are a lipid-based network of mediators that act by activating cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. There are receptors almost everywhere in the body. The two most potent cannabinoids, Anandamide and 2-AG, are able to be produced by almost all cells themselves, so there are a huge number of places in the body and brain where the endocannabinoid system can affect sleep (5). The location of cannabinoid receptors in the brain in areas of sleep regulation potentially activates cholinergic neurons. Anandamide – an activated cholinergic neuron expressing the CB1 receptor is known to promote the release of the mediator acetylcholine. Acetylcholine affects e.g. learning and remembering and is released most during deep sleep. This activation could trigger thalamic neuronal activity, which in turn enhances cortical desynchronization. Studies have shown that the function of the brainstem as well as the basal brain in relation to the thalamus is an important element in the regulation of sleep (4).

Fatty acids acting on cannabinoid receptors are known to show diurnal variations in nervous tissues and appear to follow a circadian rhythm (3). It has also been observed that they could act as zeitges, i.e. affect our internal clock (5). When these findings are combined with the knowledge that the endocannabinoid system maintains the body’s general equilibrium and regulates various bodily functions in the direction of equilibrium, it is clear that transient or chronic cannabinoid deficiency or endocannabinoid imbalance is inevitably reflected in sleep quality.

 

CBD oil to support sleep

 

Our body produces the necessary cannabinoids on its own, but we can help balance the cannabinoid system by utilizing plants such as hemp, which are naturally rich in cannabinoids. Hemp is known to have more than 100 different cannabinoids and the best known and most studied of these are THC and CBD . Different hemp varieties produce different amounts of different cannabinoids that respond to the cannabinoid receptors in our body. (6)

Psychoactive THC mainly responds to the CB1 receptor. The topic has been extensively studied in cannabis and sleep research since the 1970s, although it was not yet a direct study of the cannabinoid receptor (5). It has been observed that long-term cannabis (THC) users experience sleep problems, especially during weaning, and that THC use easily becomes a twist specifically related to sleep (6).

Non-intoxicating CBD responds to the CB2 receptor. It has been said that CBD has many positive effects on us. It lowers the inflammatory state of the body and, if necessary, also acts like pharmacological drugs, e.g. as an anti-acceleration and antiemetic drug. In the absence of solid evidence for the role of CBD in sleep regulation, the following hypothesis has been put forward; CBD enhances c-Fos gene expression in the hypothalamus as well as in the Raphe nucleus, both of which play a significant role in sleep production (7). Dosage appears to play a very important role in the success of treatment of sleep problems. A low dose accelerated subjects and made sleep more difficult, whereas at a higher dose, sleep problems were significantly alleviated (8). CBD is non-intoxicating, so it has a calming and stress-reducing effect on us.

 

Studies on how CBD helps with insomnia

 

There has been relatively little research on cannabinoids and sleep alone. Research on the CBD’s help with insomnia has only begun to attract researchers in recent years. Cannabis and sleep have been studied again since the 1970s, but cannabinoids and sleep only after 1990. Cannabis-related research has provided an excellent basis for more sophisticated research into the endocannabinoid system today (5). The results of research on cannabinoids and sleep have been obtained mainly in connection with other studies, but the relationship between cannabinoids and sleep itself has also been studied to some extent.

Research has been done in both humans and English bulldogs (6), but the results obtained with rats and other rodents help us better understand the effect of cannabinoids on sleep. The sleep of rodents is very similar to that of humans and samples and information can be collected from them at all stages of the sleep cycle (6). A study of sleep apnea in rats found that cannabinoids play an important role in achieving autonomic balance during sleep. Rats were given two cannabinoids (THC and Oleamide) and serotonin, all simultaneously and separately. These cannabinoids were also found to have an effect on the development and treatment of sleep apnea (5).

It is possible that studies with both different CBD products and THC preparations will give a placebo effect on the results due to the awareness of the medicinal effects of cannabis. Nevertheless, several studies have shown that CBD products in particular, when found in the right dose size, are highly effective, well tolerated, and safe. Studies have not shown any bad side effects and as a general rule, those treated have found CBD products pleasant and favorite to use!

 

Summary and concluding remarks

 

There has been so little research on the endocannabinoid system, cannabinoids and sleep that it is not yet possible to say for sure how it will affect the treatment and symptoms of insomnia, but what is certain is that it is of great importance. The results are contradicted by the fact that there are more than 100 different cannabinoids and that the individual effect of all of these is not yet known. Most studies focus mainly on THC and CBD cannabinoids and the effect of these on us is very different. However, it is undeniable that the endocannabinoid system plays a very important role in sleep and sleep quality through many different functions. A more holistic understanding of it would make a significant contribution to the treatment of many diseases and open up more to the subtle functioning of the human body. Experiences in human use and research findings on the positive effects of CBD on sleep are a gratifying perspective on the ever-increasing variety of insomnia symptoms.

 

Source list:

 

  1. Current care recommendation. Published 6/26/2020 https://www.kaypahoito.fi/hoi50067 Referred to 31.3.2021
  2. Russo, E. 2015. Introduction to the Endocannabinoid System. PHYTECS. https://www.phytecs.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Russo-Introduction-to-the-Endocannabinoid-System-corr-January-2015.pdf Referenced on March 31, 2021
  3. Kesner AJ & Lovinger DM 2020. Cannabinoids, endocannabinoids and sleep https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnmol.2020.00125/full Referenced on March 31, 2021
  4. Murillo-Rodriguez E. 2008. The role of the CB1 receptor in the regulation of sleep https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18514375/ Referenced 5.4.2021
  5. Babson KA & Sottile J. & Morabito D. 2017. Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and Sleep: a Review of the Literature https://www.med.upenn.edu/cbti/assets/user-content/documents/s11920-017-0775-9.pdf Referenced 5.4.2021
  6. Carley DW & Paviovic S. & others. 2002. Functional role for cannabinoids in respiratory stability during sleep https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12071539/ Referenced 31.3.2021
  7. Murillo-Rodriguez & others. 2014. Potential effects of cannabidiol as a wake-promoting agent https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4023456/ Referenced 31.3.2021
  8. Shannon S. & others. 2019. Cannabidiol in anxiety and sleep: a large case series https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30624194/ Referenced 31.3.2021
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