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CBD and blood pressure

CBD and blood pressure

High blood pressure is a big risk to your health, but fortunately, it can be positively influenced by small lifestyle changes. Blood pressure is often treated with medication, although it would be most effective to focus on the causes that raise blood pressure!

In this article, we will get to know blood pressure and the health challenges caused by its fluctuation, the endocannabinoid system behind this important function, CBD oil as a blood pressure regulator, and also whether there are any risks in the interaction of blood pressure medications and CBD.

What is hypertension?


Hypertension is usually referred to when the blood pressure is too high. This is a more common challenge associated with blood pressure, but sometimes blood pressure can also be too low. (1)

Fluctuations in blood pressure are natural and occur, for example, after exertion, such as exercise and sauna, in connection with tension and also at night, as blood pressure may drop by up to 20% during sleep.

Especially in older people, it is common, but not safe or healthy, for blood pressure to rise above the reference values. High blood pressure is a significant factor behind many diseases. (1)

Approximately one million Finns take blood pressure medication, and in addition, it is estimated that approx. one-fifth of Finnish adults have blood pressure levels that are not within normal limits. The causes of high blood pressure are largely lifestyle. (1,2)


Normal blood pressure and values


When measuring blood pressure, it is divided into two parts. Systolic, i.e. upper pressure, is the higher number on the meter, which describes the blood pressure at the moment the heart contracts. Diastolic, i.e. lower pressure, is the lower number shown on the meter and it describes the pressure of the resting phase of the heart.

The blood pressure measurement unit is millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and the value is measured at rest, sitting and not talking, in as stress-free conditions as possible.

Normal values are when upper pressure is between 130-139 and lower pressure between 85-89, but both upper and lower pressure can be normal when one of them is high or low. Young and middle-aged people usually have low blood pressure, while the elderly are more sensitive to high blood pressure. This is related to the elasticity of the blood vessel walls. (1,2)


Sphygmomanometer for measuring blood pressure.

The cause of high blood pressure is usually bad lifestyle.


Low blood pressure


Women’s blood pressure is naturally often a little lower than men’s, and the fact that the blood pressure is slightly below the reference value is not yet a sign of illness.

In young people and young adults, low blood pressure is less likely to be a problem, but in older people it usually indicates vascular or heart diseases. Too low blood pressure causes at least dizziness, often also headaches, even in younger people. They are the most recognizable symptoms. (1,2)

High blood pressure


Only a small part of hypertension is caused by disease. Elevated blood pressure is almost always caused by lifestyles that strain the circulatory system and heart function. The most important change associated with hypertension is an increase in the resistance of the peripheral circulation. (1,2)

The symptoms of high blood pressure are conspicuous by their absence until there is another reason, usually caused by high blood pressure, to go to the doctor. If there are risk factors associated with your lifestyle and situation, it can be good to monitor your blood pressure, because even a little high blood pressure can trigger other diseases or at least be a favorable basis for their development. Hypertension can e.g. damages arteries and predisposes to coronary artery disease, promotes heart failure and even causes stroke or heart attack. (1,2)

Dangerously high blood pressure that requires immediate treatment is when the upper pressure is 180 mmHg or the lower pressure is 110 mmHg. High blood pressure is between 160-180 mmHg and 100-110 mmHg, and more calmly monitored blood pressure between 140-160 mmHg and 90-100 mmHg. These readings are indicative only


Essential hypertension


Essential hypertension is the term for persistently high blood pressure. It is a multi-caused national disease that arises when important physiological functions fail. Essential hypertension is the transition of a regulatory system consisting of several functions to a new level of function, and its mechanism of action is not yet properly understood. (3)


Symptoms of hypertension


High, even dangerously high blood pressure usually does not cause noticeable or outwardly visible symptoms, at least at first. It is practically impossible to detect without measurement and for this reason it usually has time to cause problems before it is detected. The symptoms related to low blood pressure are clearer, because they are e.g. dizziness, headache and blurring of the eyes during sudden movements. (1,2)

Prevention, drugs and treatment


High blood pressure is usually caused by either illness or lifestyle, but prolonged stress has also been linked to cardiovascular diseases. It is possible to prevent high blood pressure with a healthy lifestyle. A balanced use of salt and fat, a diet rich in vegetables, berries and fruits and regular exercise are the basic pillars that make it possible to avoid numerous diseases, including high blood pressure. Avoiding excessive alcohol and quitting smoking are also important factors in lowering blood pressure. Factors affecting mental health such as stress, social relationships and quality of life have also been estimated to be behind high blood pressure.

In the treatment recommendations, the most important factor is the correction of lifestyles before starting the medication. Lifestyles should be in order before medication is even considered, but the high sales figures for blood pressure medications belie the fact that lifestyle change has not always been either successful or was an actual condition for receiving the medication. Usually, drug treatment consists of two or three different combinations of drugs, because usually one drug does not yet achieve the desired result.

Instead of a curative effect, blood pressure medications only keep the symptoms under control and the actual causes behind high blood pressure still exist, causing other challenges such as insulin resistance and fatty liver. (1,2)

The most important element behind successful treatment is a change in lifestyle, if high blood pressure is not due to other causes such as kidney or heart disease. The symptoms may stay away with medication, but a permanent change in blood pressure can only be achieved through diet, exercise and a balanced mind!


The endocannabinoid system and blood pressure


The body’s watchdog, the endocannabinoid system, does its best to keep blood pressure in check, along with balancing other vital functions. It is an important system that is responsible for the functioning of all body processes and it consists of three basic pillars; about endocannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors and the molecules that break them down.

Endocannabinoids have numerous functions, together and separately with other lesser-known endocannabinoids, they have been thought to be involved in blood pressure at least in the functioning of the heart muscle and vascular system. The best known endocannabinoids are anandamide and 2-AG. Anandamide is behind the mechanisms that relax blood vessels, and other endocannabinoids also seem to have roles in producing the effect.

Endocannabinoids are also behind acute situations such as heart attacks.

Of the cannabinoid receptors, at least CB1 affects the function of the related heart muscle and blood vessels.

CBD oil and hemp leaf.

CBD has properties that positively affect health and blood pressure.


CBD and blood pressure


CBD is a cannabinoid compound found in hemp, which, according to research, has numerous properties that have a positive effect on health. It has been found to be beneficial to the circulatory system and animal studies show that CBD has similar to anandamide , it has a vasorelaxing effect (4).

CBD has been found to lower blood pressure and stabilize heart function (5).

It e.g. suppresses inflammatory changes in the coronary arteries caused by glucose, alleviates heart muscle dysfunction familiar to diabetics and keeps the endothelium of the retinal microvessels intact. (4)


Interaction of antihypertensive drugs with CBD


Although CBD has been found to be a safe and well-tolerated cannabinoid and the full-spectrum CBD oil, which includes all the active ingredients of hemp ( Entourage effect ), is suitable even for children and animals, there may be some interactions with medicines that should be taken into account.

An enzyme called cytochrome P450, which works especially in the liver, but also in other tissues, is responsible for the breakdown of some medicines. These cytochromes participate in the drug’s own metabolism by incorporating a water atom into the drug’s molecular structure, thus making it water-soluble and easier to filter by the kidney.

CBD has been found to inhibit cytochrome P450 activity by deactivating it. As a result of the reduction and slowing down of enzyme activity, some medicines may break down more slowly than usual and work a little differently compared to normal. This effect has not been observed at low CBD with doses and thus it is hardly likely, but the possibility exists.

There are several medications related to blood pressure, blood thinning and calcium blocking that are affected by high doses of CBD, and it is good to think carefully about compatibility before starting to use CBD oil. These drugs include e.g. medicines containing warfarin and valsartan. More incompatible medicinal substances and medicines, as well as information on the interaction of medicines and CBD can read more here .


Hemp seed oil may affect blood pressure


Hemp seed oil, which is obtained from hemp seeds and is also sold on grocery store shelves, contains plenty of fatty acids that are essential for the body. The fatty acids it contains, such as ALA, GLA and SDA, interact with each other and have a positive effect on general health. It is often said that vegetable oils are harmful, but when used in appropriate amounts, hemp seed oil in particular may have a favorable effect, e.g. cholesterol quality, blood pressure and skin health. (6)


High blood pressure is the underlying cause of numerous diseases and it is a real burden on the body. Blood pressure is mainly raised by unhealthy lifestyles, which are in principle easy to correct with small changes in diet and choices related to intoxicants. CBD may support the lowering of blood pressure and especially it may be useful for challenges caused by high blood pressure such as sleep difficulties and for making a change in life itself. At high doses, CBD oil may affect the action of blood pressure medications!


  1. Mustajoki P.. 2022. Duodecim health library. Low blood pressure. Referred on 12/12/2022.
  2. The working group set up by Duodecim of the Finnish Medical Society and the Finnish Venerpaineyhdistys ry. 2020. Valid treatment recommendation. Risen bloodpressure. Referred on 12/12/2022.
  3. Ruskoaho H.. 1999. Period book Duodecim. Essential hypertension – do we still know its cause? Referred on 12/12/2022.
  4. Stanley CP, Hind HW and O’Sullivan SE. 2012. Is the cardiovascular system a therapeutic target for cannabidiol? Referred on 12/12/2022
  5. Jadoon KA, Tan GT and O’Sullivan SE 2017. A single dose of cannabidiol reduces blood pressure in healthy volunteers in a randomized crossover study. Referred on 12/12/2022.
  6. Rodriguez-Levya D and Pierce GN. 2010. The cardiac and haemostatic effects of dietary hempseed. Referred on 12/12/2022.


Hemp, or Cannabis sativa L. is one of the world’s oldest crops and also one of the first three crops in Finland, along with buckwheat and barley (1). Hemp is classified along with hops in the Cannabaceae, a family of hemp plants.

Hemp has been used as a medicinal plant and food for thousands of years. In addition to them, hemp has once become known as an important raw material, e.g. in the manufacture of textiles, ropes, paper, insulation and lamp oil. Today, hemp is used to make thousands of different products, from food to cosmetics and biocomposites etc. Until the 20th century, 75-95% of the world’s paper was made from hemp. Hemp produces excellent pulp and paper, which could still replace a much slower-growing forest today. (2)


Hemp in Finland


Hemp has been cultivated in Finland for thousands of years. The first signs of hemp cultivation in Finland date back to 4800 BC. The tradition has probably spread to Finland from China together with the skill of making buckwheat and earthenware. Hemp grows very well in the Finnish climate, as Finland’s dry spring, bright summer and suitable soil types promote hemp growth. (3)

In the past, most Finnish farms had their own field plot reserved for hemp. Hemp had such a significant value that during its heyday, e.g. In Häme and Savo, as much as a third of the field was hemp. Hemp was used as food and its fiber was used to make everyday commodities. Hemp seeds have also been used to make porridge in Finland. The seeds have been roasted and made into tahini-like paste and roasted rye or buckwheat flour has been added to the mixture.

The fact that according to the National Land Survey of Finland there are more than 100 places in Finland called hamppulampi (Hemp Pond) also says something about the prevalence of hemp. Hemp has been soaked in water bodies to facilitate fiber handling, and the names Likolampi and Liinalampi also refer to the historical use of hemp (and flax) in the area. (4)

Fiber hemp or cannabis sativa.

Industrial hemp, fiber hemp and oil hemp are all the same species of Cannabis sativa.


Industrial hemp, oil hemp or just hemp?


Especially in Finnish, terms referring to hemp can sometimes cause confusion. How are hemps different? The simple answer is that there are no differences and they all mean the same plant. There is only one term for hemp in Estonia and it is “kanep”, regardless of whether it is hemp or cannabis.

When we talk about hemp in general, it often means fiber hemp or so-called oil hemp, both of which are of the same species as Cannabis sativa. Fast-growing fiber hemp is grown for its fiber and lower-growing oil hemp for seed production. Oil hemp (Finola) blooms faster and its seeds have time to ripen even in the short summer in Finland.

Cannabis sativa is also used in industry as industrial hemp. The name is descriptive, as hemp can be used to make things like plastic, concrete, clothing, food, medicine, biocomposite, ropes, fabrics and more. Hemp is also an excellent soil improvement plant that cleanses the soil and sequesters carbon dioxide many times over the forest. The benefits of hemp are therefore incomparable and it is probably the most versatile plant of all that exists.

In fiber and oil hemp varieties, the intoxicating ingredient of hemp or THC(tetrahydrocannabinol) is very low or almost non-existent. Usually less than 0,2 %. With such a low THC content, the plant cannot be used for intoxication purposes. In contrast, these industrial Cannabis sativa plants often contain well over other cannabinoids such as CBD. CBD causes the opposite reaction to THC.

Cannabis is also hemp, although the intoxicating properties of hemp are strongly associated with the word cannabis. Cannabis indica, which is also used as a medicinal cannabis, can contain several tens of percent THC, which has strong intoxicating effects.


Hemp strains


Hemp is one of the most successful plants, as it thrives in a wide variety of climates and conditions. Different varieties of hemp are the most processed of all the world’s plants. Thousands of strains with unique characteristics can be found on internet sites listing hemp varieties. The different strains differ from each other e.g. growth pattern, size, effects, cannabinoid profile, odor, taste and color.

Strains are constantly being crossed at an accelerating rate. You can read more detailed information about the different varieties on the websites listing hemp strains.


Hemp species


Hemp is divided into three different subspecies: Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica and Cannabis ruderalis. When different hemp species are crossed, a so-called hybrid strains. Based on the appearance of hybrid varieties, it is difficult to deduce the characteristics and effects of the plant, as they can vary significantly. Indeed, the species of Cannabis indica, which grows low and has wide leaves, may have the exact opposite effect when crossed, as is generally the case in terms of growth and appearance.


Cannabis sativa


Cannabis sativa, which grows as an annual, long and thin-leaved, ripens slowly and has a much longer growing season than Cannabis indica. It likes heat and needs a lot of light. Sativa has been widely cultivated in the equator and grows to an average height of 3 meters, but at its best the species can grow up to 7 meters. It can take up to 3-4 months for the inflorescence to mature and the flowers are, on average, considerably smaller and less dense than in the indica species. Sativa is lighter in color than Indica and has an energizing effect. Cultivation of Cannabis sativa has been popular, especially in Mexico, Africa, Thailand and Colombia. (3)

Hemp has been grown in Finland since at least the Iron Age. Ancient hemp pollen has been found in the bottom sediment of Lake Huhdasjärvi in Kouvola, which is 2500-4800 BC.

Studies show that the yield of fiber hemp varies. On average, fiber in Finland produces about 4000-8000 kg of dry matter per hectare. At certain latitudes, a peak of 7000-15000 kg per hectare has been reached at best. However, less fiber is obtained, on average 1000-2000 kg / ha.

Cannabis indica hemp specie.

Cannabis indica has leaves that are clearly wider than sativa.

Cannabis indica


Cannabis indica is a low-growing hemp species that thrives in barren soils. It is characterized by thick leaves and rapid flowering. It is darker in color than sativa. Indica is grown e.g. for the manufacture of medicinal cannabis and hashish. It was originally cultivated in Afghanistan, Tibet and Morocco, from where it has spread all over the globe. (3)

Indica usually stays less than 2 meters tall and its flowers can mature in as little as 6-8 weeks. The inflorescences are larger and denser than Cannabis sativa and have a good resin on their surface to protect the plant from the harsh environment. The effects of indica can be described more as a bodily and calming experience than sativa. (3)


Cannabis ruderalis


Wild hemp Cannabis ruderalis grows wild in the roadsides of Ukraine and Russia. Ruderalis is characterized by its small size, stiff and short stem, and the light green color of the leaves. The size of the ruderalis is usually less than half a meter or even shorter. (3)

Ruderalis is crossed with indica and sativa species, as ruderalis is a so-called autoflower, ie it blooms automatically regardless of the length of the light cycle. By crossing, Cannabis ruderalis with indica or sativa you will get automatically flowering hemp varieties with indica and sativa effects and yield.

Usually the ruderalis starts flowering as early as 3-4 weeks after germination and its inflorescence matures in 10-12 weeks. Other hemp species also need a dark phase to begin flowering, but ruderalis blooms even when the plant is always in the light. (3)

A house built of hemp concrete (hempcrete).

Hemp concrete can be used to build an ecological house. Only three raw materials are needed to make hempcrete.



Carbon-neutral hemp construction is becoming more common in the world. The use of ecological hemp concrete has also become more common in Finland in recent years, as it is a versatile and incomparable building material that is easy to manufacture. All you need is water, lime and hemp fiber.

Hemp concrete (hempcrete) is made from the head of the fibrous hemp, ie the woody interior of the plant. The lime and water are mixed in and the result is a very breathable, light, concrete-like structure. The mixture does not need any other binders. Hemp concrete is also a much more ecological alternative to ordinary concrete. Hempcrete naturally insulates and evens out humidity and temperature fluctuations in buildings. (5)

Hemp bricks or hemp concrete.

Bricks made of hemp concrete are light but very durable.

Benefits of hempcrete:


  • carbon neutral
  • energy efficient
  • breathable
  • mold resistant
  • non-toxic
  • lightweight
  • fireproof
  • water resistant
  • pest resistant
  • good insulation
  • lasts 100 years


Fiber hemp


Hemp has been cultivated for millennia and its use has almost disappeared, at least in Finland. The cultivation of hemp and also the use of hemp fiber have seen new growth in Finland in recent years. Globally, hemp is currently experiencing a new era of prosperity and new commodities of hemp are constantly entering the market.

Fiber from hemp is utilized in industry e.g. in reinforced plastics, biocomposites, in addition to which it replaces many synthetic substances. Hemp is also used for energy production, as a cover and as a bedding.

In Central Finland, a particularly large amount of hemp was once cultivated even when flax came and displaced hemp in different parts of Finland. Later synthetic fibers displaced by the rest of the textile industry, which uses hemp as a raw material.

Fiber hemp flowers and leaves contain cannabinoids such as cannabidiol (CBD). CBD has the opposite effect to THC, i.e. it is antipsychotic, which is why burning fiber hemp does not cause intoxication (6).

Hemp rope on board.

Hemp fiber has been proven to be stronger in tensile and compressive strength than steel.

Hemp fiber is more durable than steel


Due to its strength, hemp fiber, which is also called the most sustainable vegetable fiber in the world, has once been one of the most important raw materials in Finland, e.g. in the manufacture of ropes, string, nets and textiles.

Hemp fiber is incredibly strong and even stronger than steel. When measuring strength, the main focus is on the tensile and compressive strength of the material. Tensile strength is the ability to withstand stress and compressive strength is the ability to withstand compression. Hemp fiber has been proven to be more durable than steel in both. (7)

Hemp fiber is lightweight and that is one reason why it is used to replace other heavy materials. Due to its lightness and durability, hemp fiber is used e.g. as a building material for car doors.


Hemp fiber separated from fiber hemp in various forms.

Hemp fiber in its many different forms.


Hemp fiber vs. cotton


Hemp is a much more durable choice than cotton!


  • Hemp needs to grow about 50% less water than cotton
  • Hemp enriches and improves the soil. Cotton does not.
  • Hemp produces 2-3 times more fiber than cotton.
  • Hemp fiber is many times stronger and more durable than cotton.
  • Hemp does not need pesticides for pests or plant diseases. Hemp is inherently resistant to them. Cotton cultivation requires harmful chemicals and pesticides.
  • Note! Almost 10% of all agrochemicals and 25% of insecticides come from the cotton industry.
  • In addition, hemp fabric breathes better than cotton. (8)



Hemp (for oil)


  • Hemp (Cannabis sativa) is a traditional food and fiber plant with a long tradition in Finland as well.
  • It produces a lot of seeds containing good quality omega-3 fatty acids from which hemp seed oil can be squeezed. The seeds can be eaten as is and are also sold pre-peeled, roasted, grounded and protein flour. Hemp seeds can be used to make a wide variety of foods such as spreads, hefu (hemp tofu) and hemp milk. Seeds and hemp oil can be used in a variety of ways in cooking and baking.
  • The seeds are obtained by cold-pressing hemp seed oil, which contains >80% of polyunsaturated fatty acids and a lot of essential omega fatty acids (3, 6 and 9) and gammalinolenic acid. It is not recommended to heat hemp seed oil above 160 C degrees.
  • This kind of hemp does not have intoxicating properties as it has a THC content of less than 0.2 %.
  • Hemp seed contains an average of 33 % fat, 25 % of protein and 3 % of carbohydrates. In addition to these, seeds contain a wide variety of antioxidants, minerals, phytosterols, and vitamins.
  • Hemp seeds contain a remarkable amount of high-quality protein that contains all the essential amino acids.
  • Valuable oil from hemp seeds is also used in cosmetics. Hemp oil is especially good if you are irritated, atopic dermatitisor dry skin.
  • The average yield of seeds per hectare of hemp is about 500-1000 kg. (9)


Hemp is a soil improvement plant that cleanses the soil


Hemp is an excellent choice for soil remediation due to its high biomass, deep pile roots and rapid growth. Studies show that hemp can be used to clean the soil of chemicals, heavy metals and even radioactive toxins! (10)

Hemp was planted around Chernobyl by the Ukrainian Academy of Agricultural Sciences to remove cesium-137 from radioactive soil. This early attempt led to numerous studies around the world to investigate how hemp can clean up badly contaminated soil. (10)

In 2001, a group of German researchers found that hemp grew well in soils containing the highly toxic heavy metal cadmium. As hemp grew, most cadmium was found to accumulate in the leaves. Contaminated plants could be destroyed by burning to safely remove contaminants. This was potentially a more cost-effective option for cleaning lightly contaminated areas than the usual expensive process of digging all the soil out and removing it. (10)

Cultivating fiber hemp can reduce the amount of weeds and can help defeat even downy brome. Modifying the hemp biomass back into the field increases the amount of humus and makes the soil fluffier. Hemp acts as an excellent crop and has a high precursor value.

Tool for handling hemp grown for fiber. Fiber hemp has once been threshed and trapped to remove its fibers.[/]

History of hemp


  • The world’s first fabrics were made from hemp as early as 8000-7000 BC. (2).
  • For at least 3,000 years, hemp was the most popular crop on earth and the most important product in agriculture. Hemp had thousands of different uses. In the past, most commodities were made from hemp, such as fabrics, medicines, papers, perfumes, and lamp oil. (2)
  • Hemp was once an invaluable raw material in the United States, where it was used to make banknotes, flags and bibles. Indeed, the “founding father” of the United States and former President Thomas Jefferson have said “Hemp is of first necessity to the wealth and protection of the country.”
  • Hemp was able to pay taxes in the United States from 1631 until the 19th century (11).
  • Originally, Levi’s branded jeans were made from hemp fabric because the pants needed to be durable enough. Until the 19th century, hemp fiber was still the most widely used natural fiber in textiles, sails, ropes, cords, etc. (2).
  • Hemp pollen has been found in the bottom sediment of Lake Huhdasjärvi in Kouvola (Finland), which is dated to 2500 – 4800 B.C. based on radiocarbon measurements.
  • Still in the 800 A.C. In Europe, too, the need for hemp was so great that Charles Frank the King of the Franks enacted a law calling for its cultivation (3).
  • In the late 1930s, the United States enacted a drug ban on all varieties of hemp. The ban therefore also applied to hemp grown for fiber and oil, although they were not suitable for substance abuse due to their low THC content. The ban was lobbied by the forest and petroleum industries in particular, as it was in their interest to centralize production for themselves. Due to the prohibition act, several uses of hemp were temporarily almost completely forgotten. During World Wars, man-made fibers displaced hemp as a raw material for factories.
  • During the 1950s, with the proliferation of cheap cotton products being imported, hemp cultivation practically ceased in Finland. By the 1960s, there were only a few home farms left. (5)
  • It is only in recent decades that hemp has made a spectacular comeback and taken its rightful place in the western construction, textile, food, pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries. The use of medicated cannabis is also permitted in several countries, at least by prescription. The legalization and decriminalization of the active ingredients of hemp is increasing at an accelerating pace across the globe. As the current pace continues, the future of hemp looks very green.




  1. Transfarm Oy. 2021. Hyötyhamppuyhdistys ry:n hamppufaktaa – älä sekoita viihdekannabista raittiisiin serkkuihinsa. Referred to 24.05.2022
  2. Ihalainen, J.K. Hamppu Suomessa – Katsaus kuituhampun viljelyyn ja valmistukseen Suomessa. Referred to 25.05.2022
  3. Vanha-Majamaa, A. 2018. Kannabiskirja. Helsinki. Kosmos.
  4. Maanmittauslaitos. 2020. Referred to 23.05.2022
  5. Malvisalo & Luotola. 2020. Hampun tuotannon ja käyttömahdollisuuksien esiselvitys. Referred to 24.05.2022
  6. Eeva Hannula. 2016. Yle. Kuituhamppubisnes kurottaa korkealle – suomalaista luonnonkuitua viedään autoteollisuuden käyttöön Hollantiin. Referred to 25.05.2022
  7. Vivek. V. Hemp Foundation. 2019. Is Hemp Really Stronger Than Steel? How? Referred to 25.05.2022
  8. Neville. M. 2019.. Hemp vs Cotton: 5 Reasons Why Hemp is a Better Choice. Referred to 25.05.2022
  9. Finola. Nutrition. Referred to 24.05.2022
  10. Pelger. L. 2020. Mother Earth Living. Cleaning Our Toxic World with Hemp. Referred to 25.05.2022
  11. Herer J. 2015. Keisarilla ei ole vaatteita! Books on Demand.
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