The effect of CBD on well-being

The effect of CBD on well-being

CBD’s effect on well-being is versatile. On this page you will find studies on the effects of cannabinoids such as CBD, e.g. for the treatment of depression, anxiety, stress, insomnia and pain conditions.

During the past decades, a significant amount of research has been done on the effects of different cannabinoids. In particular, CBD has been extensively studied using various tests and methods. Several studies have taken into account the relationships of cannabinoids to each other, as well as their effect together and separately. However, research is still in its early stages and it is generally known that the factors affecting the endocannabinoid system are not yet fully understood. However, it has been shown to be true that external cannabinoids can be useful for a wide range of imbalances in the body, both in humans and in other mammals.

Depression

It seems that the endocannabinoid system is involved in the treatment of depression , although its role is not yet fully understood. Based on the published data, the endocannabinoid system provides new ideas and options in the treatment of depression, but further studies are still needed to determine which patient group could benefit from such treatment (1).

A 2018 study published in the journal Molecular Neurobiology concluded that CBD is a promising fast-acting antidepressant. While traditional antidepressants typically take some time to work, a study in rodents showed that CBD had rapid and sustained antidepressant-like effects (2).

There are many individual cases in the world where cannabis has helped research patients in the treatment of depression. In addition, new studies have been conducted that report the importance of the role of the endocannabinoid system in depression, indicating that there is a link between endocannabinoid dysfunction and depression. The TGA (Therapeutic Goods Administration ) is known to approve cannabis for patients with depression, which suggests that cannabis plays a role in the treatment of depression (3).

We still lack high-quality clinical studies that emphasize depression or the improvement of depression as the most important outcome. However, there are mouse experiments that show that cannabis can help with depression. Other studies, such as the Sativex studies, have shown a significant improvement in the well-being of people using cannabis medicines (4).

The anti-depressant effects of cannabis, as well as the interaction between antidepressants and the endocannabinoid system, were reported in a study in 2010. The study in question was conducted to evaluate the antidepressant-like effects of delta9-THC and other cannabinoids. The results of the study show that delta9-THC and other cannabinoids have an antidepressant-like effect and can therefore influence the mood-enhancing properties of cannabis (4).

Anxiety

Studies that were conducted on animals and performed various tests such as the forced swim test (FST), Elevated plus maze (EPM) and Vogel conflict test (VCT), suggest that CBD has anti-anxiety and anti-depressant effects in research animals (5).

Overall, the existing preclinical evidence strongly supports the potential of CBD in the treatment of anxiety disorders. CBD has multifaceted effects that are relevant in several different areas related to anxiety (6).

Since endocannabinoids appear to play an important role in major depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and bipolar disorder, the Cannabis sativa plant is suggested for their treatment. The endocannabinoid system covers a wide range of the entire body, including the brain, and is responsible for a wide range of different body functions. The system in question is linked to mood and related disorders. Exogenous cannabinoids can alter its activity. CB1 and CB2 receptors mainly act as binding sites for endocannabinoids and phytocannabinoids produced by cannabis flowers. However, cannabis is not a single compound, but is known for its complex molecular profile, which produces numerous phytocannabinoids and many different terpenes. Thus, synergism has a positive effect due to the addition of terpenes to cannabinoids (7).

Read more in the article CBD oil can relieve anxiety .

Stress

A study published in 2018 found that CBD has stress-reducing effects that can reduce stress-related depression. The results of the study suggest that in chronically stressed mice, CBD prevents stress-induced reduced hippocampal neurogenesis and stress-induced angiogenesis, i.e. new blood vessel formation (8). Read more in the article CBD and stress .

Nerve pain

According to the study, cannabidiol (CBD), the significant non-psychoactive component of cannabis, has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. This study investigated its therapeutic potential in the treatment of neuropathic and inflammatory pain in rats. The results of the study show that CBD has potential for therapeutic use in painful chronic pain conditions (9).

Pain

A 2018 review , Cannabinoids and Pain: New Insights From Old Molecules , evaluates how well CBD works for chronic pain relief . The review looked at studies conducted between 1975 and March 2018. These studies looked at a variety of pain conditions, including cancer pain, neuropathic pain, and fibromyalgia. Based on these studies, researchers concluded that CBD was effective in general pain management and did not cause negative side effects (10).

Inflammations

One 2017 review found that CBD’s anti-inflammatory properties may help with the following conditions (11):

A 2016 study looked at the effect of CBD on rats with arthritis . Researchers found that topical CBD gel reduced joint swelling and pain in rats. No significant side effects resulted from the experiment. Research shows that CBD cosmetics have therapeutic potential for reducing the behavior and inflammation associated with arthritis pain without apparent side effects (12).

Insomnia

Several studies on CBD, anxiety and sleep have found that many patients do not notice a difference immediately. A 2019 study found that subjects took about a month to notice a difference (13). So be patient and remember that the desired results may take time.

The final sample consisted of 72 adults with primary concerns of anxiety (n = 47) or poor sleep (n = 25). Anxiety scores decreased during the first month in 57 patients (79.2%) and remained low during the duration of the study. Sleep quality improved during the first month in 48 patients (66.7%), but varied over time. In this chart review, CBD was well tolerated in all but three patients (13).

CBD may also be promising for those suffering from REM sleep disorders and excessive daytime sleepiness. The synthetic cannabinoid nabilone can reduce PTSD-related nightmares and improve sleep among patients with chronic pain (14).

Read more in the article CBD oil and insomnia .

Effects of CBD on concentration

CBD has several properties that not only improve our general well-being, but also increase concentration and energy. It stimulates the endocannabinoid system, one of whose functions is to regulate attention, memory, concentration and energy. By helping the endocannabinoid system to function better, CBD also helps increase our productivity (15).

If your inattention and inability to concentrate are due to health issues, we strongly recommend that you consult your doctor for diagnosis and treatment. While CBD can help improve concentration, focus, and energy, it is still necessary to find the root cause of your problems in order to properly address it. Your doctor can also help you find the best CBD products for focus or energy and dosage.

Terpenes in the treatment of depression, anxiety and stress

Terpenes found in hemp and their effect on anxiety, depression and stress have also been the subject of research. Terpenes are found especially in the essential oils of hemp, but also in the resin of plants. Terpenes give hemp its characteristic aroma. Listed below are 4 common terpenes and their effects. Note most of the experiments have been done on mice and further studies are needed.

  • Limonene – research shows that the terpene limonene can relieve stress and anxiety (16).
  • Pinene – research shows that the terpene pinene has anti-anxiety effects (17).
  • Linalool – research shows that the smell of linalool can have anxiolytic effects (18).
  • Myrcene – research shows that myrcene has a calming effect (19).

Possible side effects of CBD

Although many studies show that CBD is generally safe, it is worth considering the fact that people are different and that different active ingredients will cause a different reaction in some people than in others. Here you can find information about the possible side effects that CBD may cause in some rare cases.

Side effects are relatively rare. However, some users may experience possible minor side effects such as Below is a list of side effects that have been obtained in the 2019 study’s mouse experiments (20).

  • Fatigue
  • Diarrhea
  • Change in appetite
  • Weight fluctuation
  • Mood swings
  • Possible interactions with medicines can reduce or strengthen the effect of the medicine.

The text on this page is not intended for product marketing. The website administrator is also not responsible for the correctness of the text and possible errors. The reader should carefully check all the sources appearing in the text. The content of the page is not intended as self-care instructions for any disease or situation. We recommend discussing possible changes in your life situation first together with an expert doctor.

Sources

  1. Ewa Poleszak et al. Cannabinoids in depressive disorders , Life Sciences, Volume 213, 2018
    https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0024320518306040
  2. Sales AJ, Fogaça MV, Sartim AG, et al. Cannabidiol induces rapid and sustained antidepressant-like effects through increased BDNF signaling and synaptogenesis in the prefrontal cortex . Mol Neurobiol 56, 1070–1081 (2019). doi:10.1007/s12035-018-1143-4
  3. Wen-Juan Huang et al. Endocannabinoid system: Role in depression, reward and pain control , Mol Med Rep. 2016. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5042796/
  4. Abir T. El-Alfy et al. Antidepressant-like effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L . Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. Volume 95, Issue 4, 2010. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0091305710000730
  5. Alexandre R de Mello Schier et al. Antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol: a chemical compound of Cannabis sativa . CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets, 2014. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24923339/
  6. Esther M. Blessing et al. Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders . Neurotherapeutics. 2015. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13311-015-0387-1?handl_url
  7. Ferber, Sari G. et al. The “Entourage Effect”: Terpenes Coupled with Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Mood Disorders and Anxiety Disorders . Current Neuropharmacology, Volume 18. Number 2. 2020. https://www.ingentaconnect.com/contentone/ben/cn/2020/00000018/00000002/art00004
  8. José A. Crippa et al. Translational Investigation of the Therapeutic Potential of Cannabidiol (CBD): Toward a New Age . Front Immunol. 2018. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6161644/
  9. Barbara Costa et al. The non-psychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an orally effective therapeutic agent in rat chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain . Eur J Pharmacol. 2007. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17157290/
  10. Sonja Vučković et al. Cannabinoids and Pain: New Insights From Old Molecules . Front Pharmacol. 2018. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6277878/
  11. Simona Pisanti. Cannabidiol: State of the art and new challenges for Therapeutic applications . Pharmacol Ther. 2017. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28232276/
  12. DC Hammell et al. Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviors in a rat model of arthritis . Eur J Pain. 2016. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4851925/
  13. Scott Shannon et al. Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: A Large Case Series. Perm J. 2019. https://www.healthline.com/health/cbd-for-insomnia#how-to-use
  14. Kimberly A. Babson. Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and Sleep: a Review of the Literature . Current Psychiatry Reports. volume 19, Article number: 23. 2017. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11920-017-0775-9
  15. Ruth E Cooper. Cannabinoids in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A randomized-controlled trial. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2017. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28576350/
  16. Naiana GPB Lima et al. A nxiolytic-like activity and GC-MS analysis of (R)-(+)-limonene fragrance, a natural compound found in foods and plants. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2013. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22995322/
  17. Tadaaki Satou et al. Daily inhalation of α-pinene in mice: effects on behavior and organ accumulation. Phytother Res. 2014. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25340185/
  18. Hiroki Harada et al. Linalool Odor-Induced Anxiolytic Effects in Mice. Front Behav Neurosci. 2018. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6206409/
  19. T Gurgel do Vale et al. Central effects of citral, myrcene and limonene, constituents of essential oil chemotypes from Lippia Alba (Mill.) ne Brown. Phytomedicine. 2002. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12587690/
  20. Ewing Le, Skinner Cm, Quick Cm, et al. Hepatotoxicity of a Cannabidiol-Rich Cannabis Extract in the Mouse Model. Molecules. 2019; 24. https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/24/9/1694

Alzheimer’s disease and CBD

Alzheimer’s disease and CBD

Alzheimer’s disease is a memory disease that has a strong impact on life, for which a curative treatment has not yet been invented. In this article, we will learn about Alzheimer’s disease, the endocannabinoid system behind it, and also whether CBD oil could help in its treatment or symptom management.

Alzheimer’s disease is a memory disorder

 

Alzheimer’s, a degenerative memory disease of the brain, is a disease of the older population, which is rapidly becoming more common and occurring in younger and younger people. It usually affects people over 80 years old, but today we see Alzheimer’s patients 60+ years old. In Finland, approx. 70,000 people and it is slightly more common in women than in men. Life expectancy is hopeful, as it can be up to 20 years from the onset of the disease.

Aloi Alzheimer, a doctor and researcher who lived in the 19th century, became interested in the pathology of the brain and wanted to find out the identification and characterization of the diseases behind clinical syndromes. He observed the first observations of brain degeneration at the very end of the 19th century, and this was the first step both in identifying Alzheimer’s and in acknowledging its existence. (1)

 

Memory disorders

 

Alzheimer’s belongs to the family of memory diseases. The most common are Alzheimer’s, vascular memory disease, Lewy body disease and memory diseases caused by degeneration of the frontotemporal lobe. Dementia is a syndrome in which there is at least one additional symptom in addition to the memory disorder, such as language weakness or impaired dexterity. (2)

 

Alzheimer’s causes

 

The root cause of the disease is not known. Small changes occur in the brain that damage nerve pathways and brain cells. The brain is affected by the accumulation of protein deposits (amyloid) and tau protein, as a result of which memory and information processing deteriorate. (3, 4)

In the background, there are also various risk factors and elements that promote the onset of the disease. Oxidative stress, excessive breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, brain injury, heavy metals accumulating in the body and brain are not the only culprits, but contribute to the onset of the disease.

Basically, it is brain degeneration due to the death of nerve and brain cells.

 

Is Alzheimer’s hereditary?

 

Alzheimer’s is partly hereditary, as it is caused by genes, but its onset is not dependent on them. Genes have the greatest influence on the development of Alzheimer’s disease apolipoprotein E allele e4, but the disease seems to be more common in some families, even if not everyone has the gene in question. (3)

 

An old man suffering from Alzheimer's disease recalls photographs.

The symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease are related to memory and difficulties in recognizing things.

 

Alzheimer’s symptoms

 

The symptoms of Alzheimer’s are similar for all sufferers, but there are also differences depending on the quality of the disease. Sometimes the symptoms focus on vision-related symptoms, such as recognizing things, etc. and sometimes more for memory loss.

Usually, the first clear symptom is a marked decline in memory. At first it may seem like a distraction, but as time goes on, challenges start to appear even in complex activities, such as traveling or managing money. (3)

A natural part of getting older is that you no longer remember everything the same way you did when you were younger. In Alzheimer’s disease, short-term memory weakens and learning new things becomes difficult earlier than average.

The symptoms also include psychological symptoms. Many people with Alzheimer’s can be aggressive and quick-tempered, as well as direct and rude in their words. The symptoms are not necessarily always continuous, but for a moment the functioning, memory and psyche can be as before the illness. (3)

 

Alzheimer’s diagnosis, medication and treatment

 

Alzheimer’s disease is usually diagnosed at an early stage because it is quite easy to recognize. The symptoms are quite clear, but structural images of the brain are usually taken in addition to neurological tests to make sure. Early diagnosis is also made possible by samples taken from the spinal fluid. (3)

Alzheimer’s disease is treated with drugs that aim to increase concentration, reduce psychological symptoms and improve functional capacity. At least for the time being, there is no drug that cures or stops the disease, instead medical treatment focuses on alleviating the symptoms and slowing down the progression of the disease. (5)

The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is central to neurodegeneration. It transmits messages between neurons and plays a significant role in memory formation and information retrieval within the brain. People with Alzheimer’s have been found to have lower levels of this neurotransmitter compared to healthy brains, and for this reason, drugs that prevent the breakdown of acetylcholine and improve its function have been developed especially for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. (3,4,5)

 

Risk factors and prevention

 

Alzheimer’s disease has several risk factors. i.a Lack of mental and physical challenge, alcohol, loneliness, and low educational background, as well as high blood pressure and cholesterol, insulin resistance, brain injuries, and brain-related circulatory disorders can contribute to the onset of Alzheimer’s.

Prevention is very much related to following a healthy lifestyle.

Today, there is a lot of discussion about the impact of the environment on health, from the cleanliness of food to air pollution. Heavy metals have been studied as particles that accumulate in the body and have negative effects, e.g. to the nervous system and skeleton. Avoiding them completely is almost impossible, but with some small actions in everyday life there is a chance to influence this. (6,7,8)

Heavy metals end up in the environment, i.e. food, water, soil and air, e.g. due to emissions from factories and cars, but also due to plant protection agents and chemicals used in water purification (6,7,8). Finnish tap water, food and air are clean compared to many other corners of the world, but this is no Lintukoto either. Cleanly produced food, a water filter in the tap and avoiding excess chemicals in cosmetics, household goods (e.g. plastic dishes) and detergents are ways that may reduce the risk of getting sick, e.g. to Alzheimer’s disease.

You should take care of your brain health. Their condition can be maintained with the help of a versatile clean diet and by giving them a suitable challenge even at the threshold of old age.

Endocannabinoid system underlying Alzheimer’s disease

 

The endocannabinoid system role in the background of Alzheimer’s has been studied to some extent. The system in question has been of interest to researchers for a long time, as its malfunctions seem to be the underlying cause of almost all diseases. The endocannabinoid system has been found in all the world’s mammal species, and improving its function is definitely one of the biggest goals of future drug development.

 

Cannabinoid receptors

 

The endocannabinoid system consists of the body’s own cannabinoid receptors, endogenous cannabinoids, and their disintegrating molecules.

There are two known cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2 receptors, and it seems that in Alzheimer’s disease the CB2 receptor is especially abundant, close to hardened protein deposits in the brain (9). The CB1 receptor occurs more in the brain and the CB2 receptor in the tissues responsible for immunity. Although each receptor has its own tasks and places, both receptors can be found almost everywhere in the body.

The CB1 receptor in the brain is associated with e.g. memory, learning, behavior and appetite. (9,10)

 

Endocannabinoids

 

Endocannabinoids are cannabinoids produced by the body itself, and they have many different tasks behind the well-being of the body, some of which target e.g. to memory. Changes related to the breakdown and function of endocannabinoids have been observed in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease. FAAH is the endocannabinoid system’s own enzyme that breaks down endocannabinoids, which may start to form too much if the system is not working properly. As a result, e.g. endocannabinoid anandamide production weakens in nerve cells and the enzymes that cause inflammation are allowed to multiply. Anandamide levels are lower in Alzheimer’s patients compared to healthy people, but no differences have been observed in the levels of another known endocannabinoid, 2-AG. (9,10)

 

Elderly people suffering from memory loss play chess.

Oxidative stress is related to the onset of Alzheimer’s disease. CBD is an antioxidative cannabinoid that reduces symptoms caused by oxidative stress. CBD has also been found to have a memory-enhancing effect.

 

Does CBD oil help with Alzheimer’s?

 

Full spectrum CBD oil is an oil obtained from hemp, into which all the active substances of the plant have been pressed. There are almost 500 different active substances in hemp and 120 different cannabinoids. Hemp has been known in herbal medicine for thousands of years and has been used successfully for a long time for various ailments. A few compounds that are especially important for Alzheimer’s disease have been listed below.

CBD (cannabidiol)

 

Oxidative stress is one risk factor in the development of Alzheimer’s disease. CBD is an antioxidative cannabinoid that reduces symptoms caused by oxidative stress. CBD is also a cannabinoid that calms the nervous system, which has been found in animal experiments to improve recognition memory. Agitation and aggression may also calm down under the influence of CBD. (11,12)

According to some studies, CBD has been recommended for the treatment of Alzheimer’s at a daily dose of 300 mg, either increasing or decreasing it depending on how it starts to work. The benefit can be seen as an improvement in general well-being and a slowing down of the progression of the disease, which of course can be difficult to notice.

 

CBG (Cannabigerol)

 

The better known and more researched CBD has its own effects on the functions underlying Alzheimer’s, but other cannabinoids have also been found to have therapeutic effects. Also called the mother of all cannabinoids Cannabigerol ( CBG) has been found to protect nerves, relieve inflammation and improve motor deficits. (14)

Terpenes

 

Terpenes, which are mainly responsible for the aromatic properties of hemp, have been found to have therapeutic effects either alone or at least as part of CBD oil synergy. There are many different types of terpenes and some of them have an effect preventing the breakdown of acetylcholine. Some terpenes, like CBD, have the effect of reducing oxidative stress and have been found to increase blood flow to the brain. (11,13)

 

A person suffering from memory disease (Alzheimer) listening to music happily.

Listening to music familiar to the patient has been found to be an effective way to rehabilitate Alzheimer’s patients. Music evokes feelings and memories that activate the frontal lobe of the brain, which is the last place the disease wreaks havoc.

 

Music in the rehabilitation of Alzheimer’s disease

 

The effect of music on people with Alzheimer’s disease has been studied more widely in recent years. Based on the results, it seems that Alzheimer’s patients literally come alive when they hear familiar music from their past. Familiar music revives old memories and activates cognitive functions.

According to experts, there is a special place in the brain where memories of music are stored for a very long time. Based on the experience of many people, listening to familiar music is one of the most effective ways to rehabilitate Alzheimer’s patients.

Music evokes memories and emotions and activates the frontal lobe area of the brain, which is the last place where disease wreaks havoc on tissues. Singing can also be of similar benefit in Alzheimer’s rehabilitation. (15) According to studies, people suffering from memory disorders benefit best when they sing songs they already know together (16).

Summary

 

Alzheimer’s disease is a untoward, usually lifelong disease that affects the performance of everyday chores. Short-term memory weakens and learning new things becomes difficult, before long familiar people become strange and a person may get lost on the way to the convenience store. The endocannabinoid system has its own part in the functioning of the brain, and future drug treatment for Alzheimer’s disease might be related to, for example, blocking the endocannabinoids that break them down. CBD oil may have therapeutic effects, e.g. in functions related to improving memory, reducing aggression and protecting the nervous system and thus it could be a potential gentle aid to support the treatment of Alzheimer’s.

 

Sources

 

  1. Haltia M.. 2014. Period book Duodecim. Alois Alzheimer and his many diseases. https://www.duodecimlehti.fi/duo11990. Referred on 1/11/2022.
  2. Memory Union. Memory disorders. https://www.muistiliitto.fi/fi/muistisairaudet/muistihairiot-ja-sairaudet/muistisairaudet. Referred on 1/11/2022
  3. Juva K.. 2021. Health Library Duodecim. Alzheimers disease. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk00699. Referred on 1/11/2022.
  4. Toivanen P.. 2014. University of Turku. Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology. Bachelor’s thesis. Protein accumulation in Alzheimer’s disease. https://trepo.tuni.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/117175/ToivanenPinja.pdf?sequence=2. Referred on 1/11/2022
  5. Rosenvall A., Hallikainen M. and Strandberg T.. 2018. Periodical Duodecim. Drug treatment of Alzheimer’s disease in different stages of the disease. https://www.duodecimlehti.fi/duo14668. Referred on 1/11/2022.
  6. Evira’s studies 2/2015. Evira. Risk assessment of Finnish children’s exposure to heavy metals in foodstuffs and household water. https://www.ruokavirasto.fi/globalassets/tietoa-meista/julkaisut/julkaisusarjat/tutkimukset/riskiraportit/riskinarviointi-suomalaisten-lasten-altistumisesta-elintarvikkeiden-ja-talousveden-raskasmetalleille.pdf. Referred on 1/11/2022.
  7. Studies 1/2020. Food Agency. Risk assessment of Finnish adults’ exposure to heavy metals and aluminum in foodstuffs and household water.
  8. Tuomisto J.. 2020. Health Library Duodecim. Are there still problems with heavy metals?. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/asy00220. Referred on 1/11/2022
  9. Koppel J. and Davies P.. 2010. Targeting the Endocannabinoid System in Alzheimer’s Disease. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2889705/. Referred on 1/11/2022
  10. Basavarajappa BS, Shivakumar M., Joshi V. and Shivakumar S.. 2018. Endocannabinoid System in Neurodegenerative Disorders. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5669051/. Referred on 1/11/2022.
  11. Aso E. and Ferrer Isidre. 2014. Cannabinoids for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: moving towards the clinic. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2014.00037/full . Referred on 1/11/2022
  12. Abate G., Uberti D. and Tambaro s.. 2021. Potential and Limits of Cannabinoids in Alzheimer’s Disease Therapy. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8234911/. Referred on 1/11/2022
  13. Uddin Md., Mamun A., Sumsuzzman D., Ashraf G., Perveen A., Bungau S., Mousa S., El-Seedi G., Bin-Jumah MN and Abdel-Daim MM. 2021. Frontiers of pharmacology. Promise of Cannabinoids for the Management of Pain and Associated Neuropathological Alterations in Alzheimer’s Disease. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2020.01097/full. Referred on 1/11/2022.
  14. Nachnani R, Wesley M, Raup-Konsavage and Vrana KE. 2021. The journal of Pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. The Pharmacological case for cannabigerol. https://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/376/2/204. Referred on 1/11/2022.
  15. Särkämö T. & Sihvonen A. 2018. Golden oldies and silver brains: Deficits, preservation, learning, and rehabilitation effects of music in aging-related neurological disorders. Cortex. Volume 109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2018.08.034. Referred on 21/11/2022.
  16. Nykopp J. 2015. Patient’s medical journal. Music helps to recover from brain diseases. https://www.potilaanlaakarilehti.fi/uutiset/musiikista-apua-aivosairauksista-kuntoutumiseen/. Referred on 21/11/2022
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