CBD oil to support cancer treatments

CBD oil to support cancer treatments

According to the World Health Organization, cancer is the second most common cause of death in the world, and currently around every third person will get it during their lifetime. CBD and the endocannabinoid system have been widely studied in relation to cancer. This article examines the endocannabinoid system in the context of cancer, what cancer is and whether CBD oil could help manage cancer or cancer-related symptoms.

What is cancer?

Cancer is an umbrella term for a large number of different diseases. People with uniform cancer only have an uncontrolled distribution of cells in the body, otherwise the cancer can be anywhere, any kind and with a wide spectrum of different symptoms.

Cancer is especially a disease of the elderly, but it occurs in people of all ages, from babies to adults. Today, the prognosis for survival and recovery is good, and more and more people are making a full recovery as treatments develop. Nevertheless, it is thought that in the next few years, cancer will overtake even heart diseases in the death statistics. (1)

A benign tumor remains in place, grows moderately and is usually easy to treat. A malignant tumor forms metastases and the dividing cells spread to other parts of the body, becoming part of the body, while a benign tumor remains as its own separate body, isolated from itself by the body’s healthy cells and tissues.

 

The most common types of cancer

 

There are many different types of cancer and they are named according to where they originate. Prostate cancer is the most common in men, breast cancer in women. Cervical tumors also occur in women. Lung cancer is one of the most common, and colon and rectal cancer are the most common intestinal cancers. Less common, but common are e.g. bladder, kidney and esophageal cancer. (2)

 

Where does cancer start?

 

Tumor growth starts from a single cell, which begins to divide uncontrollably. It is usually a slow chain of events in which the information the cell inherits about cell growth and division is damaged. (1)

Genes located on chromosomes are behind everything. Human hereditary factors, i.e. genes, control the functioning of the cell and sometimes mutations occur in genes. When there are enough of these mutations in the same area of the body, they start to form a tumor. (1)

Gene activity is influenced by environmental factors such as the air we breathe, the food we eat and the atmosphere we live in. (1)

The acidity of the body is one factor in the development of cancer. The body is strongly alkaline when a child is born and it slowly becomes acidic towards old age. Acidification is natural, but it happens faster due to the influence of the environment, such as as a result of drinking a lot of coffee and unhealthy food.

 

Cancer and its many symptoms

 

The symptoms of cancer can actually be anything depending on its location. In all types of cancer, the symptoms are also different among patients, but usually they appear in the area of the body where the tumor is located. In skin cancer there are changes on the skin, in brain tumors there are disturbances in the body’s functions, in lung cancer there may be cough and breathing difficulties, in intestinal cancer bloody stools or digestive problems, etc. (1,2)

Common symptoms of cancer include e.g. pains, general weakness and loss of appetite. In addition to cannabinoidshave been studied in terms of tumor eradication, their use has also been extensively studied to treat general symptoms.

 

Symptoms of the final stage of the disease

 

When it has been determined that the cancer cannot be treated medically, palliative treatment is usually used, i.e. treatment that relieves symptoms and improves quality of life. It includes alleviation of pain and symptoms, and e.g. fulfilling psychological, social and spiritual needs.

However, there is always hope. The most touching healing stories can be found on social media and blogs on the internet. People who received a death sentence from a cancer diagnosis share their own experiences of how they have miraculously recovered from cancer. Others say they drank conifer extract drink, others carrot-apple juice. Some have healed themselves with diet and supplements, and some even with fasting. What all these happy ending stories have in common is that these people sincerely trusted in their own healing. They have had hope, faith and gratitude for life and the power of healing.

According to user experiences, CBD oil is a good supportive treatment alongside palliative care, as it has been found to help precisely those symptoms that occur most often.

 

In the picture, a cancerous tumor in the lungs modeled on a computer.

Cancer can be diagnosed with a combination of different research methods, such as blood tests, imaging and test pieces. The image shows lung cancer modeled on a computer.

 

Does cancer show up in blood tests?

 

Cancer research has developed enormously in recent decades. The tumor is verified with a combination of research methods, including blood tests, scanning and taking samples.

Blood tests are already taken at the stage when cancer is suspected and cancer type markers are looked for, possible elevated kidney and red blood cell values are examined, and the concentration of blood storage iron, or ferritin, is measured. (1)

 

The endocannabinoid system and cancer

 

The endocannabinoid system is the body’s security system, whose task is to monitor and balance all the functions that take place in our body. It is present in almost all animals and humans in the world, and its malfunctions are thought to be somehow involved in all diseases of both body and mind.

In several studies, the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the origin and development of cancer has been demonstrated. Endocannabinoids and their receptors have been noticed to increase during cancer, which by no means means that the endocannabinoid system is actually involved in the worsening of cancer. Rather, the more endocannabinoids and receptors there are in a tumor, the more aggressive the tumor is. Endocannabinoids and the receptors that receive them are, as it were, in a larger group resisting this disease that consumes the body. (3,4)

The endocannabinoid system and its communication has been found to be involved in the regulation of cell survival, movement and death. (3,4,5)

 

Cannabinoid receptors

 

Cannabinoid receptors are everywhere in the body. CB1 receptors are mainly found in the brain, while CB2 receptors are common in tissues responsible for the immune system. Both receptors are present in tumors, but the regulation of cancer progression seems to be mainly controlled by the CB2 receptor. (4)

On a general level, we could say that both CB receptors (CB1 and CB2) and their endogenous ligands increase in tumor tissues. Their overexpression is directly related to the aggressiveness of the tumor, and the levels of the receptors can be used to predict e.g. probability of survival. (4,7)

 

Other body receptors

 

Almost all functions in the body go through receptors. There are many different types and they all have their own important tasks. A few receptors that are essentially related to cancer have been raised here.

 

TRPV receptors

 

TRPV channels are common receptors in the body. This family includes six different channels and they are numbered TRPV1, TRPV2, etc.

TRPV receptors are strongly associated with CBDand in its antitumor activities. In different types of cancer, cell death occurs through different pathways, but usually it is dependent on the activity of one of the TRPV channels. Depending on the location and quality of the tumor, some kind of combination of receptors is usually used. It has been noticed that sometimes CBD uses, for example, CB1, CB2 and TRPV1 receptors, while in the case of another tumor it uses CB2 and TRPV2 receptors. This is a great demonstration of the complexity of how the endocannabinoid system works! (3,6)

 

GRP55

 

GPR55, also called the third CB receptor, and its amount in the body is related to the rapid proliferation and movement of tumor cells in several types of tumors (4,6). In general, the effect of CBD depends on the combination of these receptors.

 

Endocannabinoids

 

Endocannabinoid levels vary greatly between different tumor types.

The levels of the most well-known endogenous cannabinoids AEA (anandamide) and 2-AG (2-arachidonylglycerol) have been found to be either lower or higher in tumors compared to healthy tissue (4,7). Endocannabinoids also work in pairs or groups and thus create an interactive effect. For example, the combination of anandamide and oleamide inhibits cell proliferation. (7)

 

Endocannabinoid system in cancer treatment

 

It has been stated several times in studies that treatments targeting the endogenous cannabinoid system are the future. According to many studies, the background of all body imbalances manifested as diseases is some degree of disturbance in the endocannabinoid system, which is why specific treatments aimed at it could be very effective. However, more research is needed, because there are always questions, especially with synthetic single endocannabinoids and exocannabinoids. Hemp has been found to work best synergistically i.e. so that all the beneficial substances in the plant such as cannabinoids, terpenes, flavonoids, etc. are used by the body.

Synthetic, i.e. man-made preparations that mimic endocannabinoids have brought good results in drug tests, despite the fact that their mechanism of action is a complex mystery. They have been reported to reduce tumor growth and aggressive metastasis. Synthetic inhibition of MAGL and FAAH enzymes, the natural degraders of endocannabinoids, has also shown anticancer activity. (3,4,6,7)

 

CBD oil to support cancer treatment. Picture with a bottle of CBD oil.

CBD, one of the most studied cannabinoids, has been found to have strong effects on cancer cells, as well as the ability to prevent the formation of metastases.

 

Cannabinoids in cancer treatment

 

Several studies suggest that cannabinoids are able to suppress inflammatory responses by reducing the production of cytokines and chemokines and increasing T-regulatory cells. Similar results were also obtained with endocannabinoids.

The effect of cannabinoids on inhibiting tumor growth has been demonstrated in both benign and malignant tumors. Cannabinoids can induce natural cell death and prevent the tumor’s own blood vessels from forming. (7)

Cannabinoids have been found to be effective e.g. you can read more about the treatment of insomnia here. They may also help with various pains, which you can read more about in the article Pain and CBD oil.

CBD

 

CBD (cannabidiol) is one of the most studied external cannabinoids in the body. CBD has been found to have strong proapoptotic effects. Apoptosis is the natural death reaction of cells, as a result of which cancer cells also die. CBD is also antiproliferative, meaning it prevents cells from multiplying. (3,6,8)

As an antiangiogenic CBD prevents the formation of new blood vessels in the tumor area, and as it is also anti-metastatic, it prevents the formation of metastases. (3,6,8)

The use of CBDshows, in the light of research, that it increases the possibility of survival, and mitigates several side effects of different cancer and cancer treatments.

CBN, CBC and CBG

 

The lesser-known cannabinoidsCBN (cannabinol), CBC (cannabichromene) and CBG (cannabigerol) have been found in studies to destroy cancer cells.

 

CBD oil to support cancer treatments

 

CBDhas been studied a great deal. It has been found in several studies to alleviate cancer-related symptoms, as well as to interfere with tumor growth (3,6,8). In general, CBD oil is very well tolerated and is suitable as a medicine or to support other treatment for children, adults and even animals.

Cannabinoids have been found to sensitize tumors, e.g. for chemotherapy. The body may develop drug resistance to the tumor, and cannabinoids apparently break down this tumor’s own resistance. (4)

 

Cancer treatment

 

Cancer is treated with many different methods. Chemotherapy, radiation treatments and numerous different drugs make it possible to treat even difficult cancers, but they are often followed by a wide variety of life-threatening side effects. The most common of these are probably loss of appetite, nausea and various mood challenges.

 

The selenium in Brazil nuts can

Like CBD, selenium is an antioxidant that promotes cell death. Selenium can be obtained e.g. Brazil nuts and it is in a highly absorbable form, e.g. also in Huminiqum products.

 

Natural treatment and possible prevention

 

A healthy, well-being body is the best and actually the only possible tool against cancer. Avoiding diseases is challenging, because today’s rhythm of life is extremely hectic, goal-oriented and stressful. Due to the impoverishment of the soil, we no longer get the nutrients we need from food, and the amount of pesticides and preservatives used in the cultivation of plants (including animal feed) is high. These affect the body’s resistance.

Certain vitamins have a negative effect on tumors. One of the most effective is selenium, which, like CBDis a mineral that promotes cell death. Selenium can be obtained e.g. Brazil nuts and it is in a highly absorbable form, e.g. also in Huminiqum capsules .

Selenium also has a positive effect on DNA damage, hormone production and challenges such as chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. There is only very little selenium in the Finnish diet, so the dose of selenium that protects against cancer is often missed. (9) The safe daily dose of selenium is 20-300 micrograms (µg) per day and it should be taken into account that selenium can cause poisoning when the dose is more than 4 milligrams, i.e. 4000 µg per day (10).

In addition, sulforaphane, especially found in bean sprouts and raw broccoli, is also good for cancer patients, as are foods rich in vitamin C such as oranges, rose hips and citrus fruits.

Good quality, versatile food contains plenty of different nutrients that the body needs, and because the body is wise, it knows how to heal itself and always strives to function optimally. In order to heal, the body needs time, rest and sufficient quality food with possible supplements. Clean drinking water is an important element, as is a sufficient amount of fresh outdoor air.

 

Finally

 

Cancer is often a challenging, life-stopping disease, at least momentarily. Treatment methods have increased and improved enormously in the past decades, but there is still no miracle pill for cancer treatment that would simply erase the symptoms without side effects. Researched drugs targeting the endocannabinoid system, making CBD oil a part of life and healthy optimized lifestyles are the cancer treatment of the future and support comprehensive well-being.

Sources

 

  1. All about cancer. https://www.kaikkisyovasta.fi. Referred to 20.7.2022
  2. Duodecim terveyskirjasto. Cancer. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/haku?q=syöpä. Referred to 20.7.2022
  3. Barbara Dariš B., Tancer Verboten M., Knez Z., Ferk P.. 2019. Cannabinoids in cancer treatment: Therapeutic potential and legislation. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6387667/. Referred to 20.7.2022
  4. Fraguas‐Sánchez A., Martín‐Sabroso C., ja Torres‐Suárez A.. 2018. Insights into the effects of the endocannabinoid system in cancer : a review. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6003657/. Referred to 20.7.2022
  5. Bifulco M. ja Di Marzo V.. 2002. Nature Medicine. Targeting the endocannabinoid system in cancer therapy: A call for further research. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Maurizio-Bifulco/publication/11330003_Targeting_the_endocannabinoid_system_in_cancer_therapy_A_call_for_further_research/links/00b4951dc3c337696a000000/Targeting-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-cancer-therapy-A-call-for-further-research.pdf. Referred to 20.7.2022
  6. Seltzer E., Watters A., MacKenzie D., Jr. Granat L. and Zhang D.. 2020. Cannabidiol (CBD) as a Promising Anti-Cancer drug. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=Zhang%20D%5BAuthor%5D. Referred to 20.7.2022.
  7. Velasco G., Hernandez-Tiera S., Davila D. ja Lorente M.. 2016. Science direct. The use of cannabinoids as anticancer agents. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278584615001190.Viitattu 20.7.2022
  8. Moreno E., Cavic M., Krivokuca A., Casadó V., ja Canela E.. 2009. Frontiers. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2019.00339/full. Referred to 20.7.2022
  9. K. Jaakkola. Terveyskirjat.fi. Erikoislääkäri Kaarlo Jaakkolan vastaanotolla: Selenium fights cancer. https://terveyskirjat.fi. Referred to 09.08.2022
  10. H. Jalonen. Selenium. https://www.bonusapteekki.fi/Apteekkarin-neuvot/Seleeni. Referred to 09.08.2022.
CBD dosage for dogs and pets

CBD dosage for dogs and pets

In the same way as humans, dogs and other mammals have numerous in their bodies cannabinoids maintaining receptive receptors and maintaining body balance endocannabinoid system , which is responsible for vital tasks. On this page you will find information on how much CBD can be given to a dog. Although this guide is for dogs, it can be applied to other mammals.


How much CBD can be given to a dog?

There is as yet no official standard for the administration of CBD to dogs or pets. The appropriate dosage also depends on a number of different factors, such as your dog’s weight, condition, and the CBD product you choose and its strength. For safety reasons, we always recommend starting with a small dose of 1 mg CBD for every five (5) kilograms of body weight, or 1 mg / 5 kg.

What factors determine the correct dose of CBD oil for dogs?


The three most important factors that affect how much CBD you can give your dog are the size of your dog, what condition or symptom of the dog you are trying to treat, and what kind of CBD product you are giving to your dog.

Does the size and condition of the dog affect the dosage?


Although your dog’s weight will not always correlate with how much CBD is needed, it is a good starting point for determining the appropriate dose. We therefore always recommend starting with the lowest dose of 1 mg CBD for every 5 pounds of body weight. Sometimes, however, conditions require higher doses of CBD. If your dog’s condition is more severe, you may consider a higher dose such as 2-5 mg CBD / 5 kg body weight once or several times a day as needed.

See the table below for the recommended CBD dose by weight.

Weight (kg)Amount of CBD (mg)
5 kg1 mg
5 – 11 kg1 – 3 mg
11 – 22 kg3 – 5 mg
22 – 34 kg5 – 8 mg
34 – 45 kg8 – 16 mg
45 – 68 kg16 – 33 mg
68+ kg 33 mg
These instructions are not an official recommendation, so we recommend that you consult your veterinarian before use

What is a suitable CBD product for a dog?


For human consumption CBD oils and in addition to tinctures, there are CBD products of different strengths for the market for dogs and other domestic pets separately. Dog CBD products most often contain fish oil or another flavoring ingredient designed to make the product easier to taste and dispense. CBD products for human use can also be given to a dog if the products do not contain ingredients that are not suitable for the dog. So always check the ingredient list of the product carefully before giving it to your pet!

In addition to the strength of a CBD product, some products, such as CBD dog treats, may be absorbed more slowly than CBD oil or tincture, in which case you may need to give your dog a slightly higher dose to achieve the same effect.

If you plan to use CBD oil to care for your dog, you will often find clear instructions in the product on how many drops contain the desired amount of CBD.

For example, if a 5% CBD oil bottle contains 200 drops and contains a total of 500 mg of CBD, then one drop contains about 2.5 mg of CBD. If you wish, you can mix one drop with the food and, if necessary, divide it into several more portions, so that you can start using it with the lowest possible dosage.

Once you notice the results you want in your dog, such as calmer behavior, you can continue with the same dosage. However, if you do not notice a large change after several days, you can increase the dose slowly and gradually until you see the desired effects.

Can I give my dog too much CBD?

There have been many studies on CBD showing that CBD is well tolerated, even at very high doses and reasonable doses there is virtually no risk of overdose. However, we recommend that you consult a qualified veterinarian before use.

When you buy CBD products for your dog, always check with the seller, its quality and that it really contains CBD. Although CBD products are not intoxicating, they may still contain very small amounts of THC. Remember that legally CBD oil products must contain no more than 0.2% THC, which is well below the amount needed to produce psychoactive, ie intoxicating, effects.

Finally


Determining and testing the correct dose of CBD for your dog may take some time and require monitoring. Always consider the weight and condition of your dog, and get your CBD product from a reliable vendor.

What are cannabinoids?

What are cannabinoids?

In this article, we will discuss what cannabinoids are. Cannabinoids are compounds associated with cannabinoid receptors that are present in all mammals as part of endocannabinoid system. Cannabinoids are also found in various plants and especially in hemp, where there are at least 120 different ones (Scherma, Masia, Deidda, Fratta, Tanda and Fadda. 2018.) Internal cannabinoids are called endocannabinoids and external phytocannabinoids. Most of the effects of all cannabinoids are still unknown, but more cannabinoid research is being conducted year after year, and existing studies illustrate that cannabinoids have a lot of health and medical potential. The most studied cannabinoids in hemp are THC and CBD , but nowadays more and more new studies are also being found on CBG, CBN and other phytocannabinoids, as well as on acidic cannabinoids such as CBDA or cannabidiol acid.

Phytocannabinoids in hemp

Hemp cannabinoids are synthesized and stored especially in hairy trichomes, i.e. resin glands, found on the surface of hemp leaves and inflorescences. These trichomes occur in both female and male plants, but the highest concentration is found in the inflorescences of female plants. In addition, cannabinoids are also present in fruit plant pollen. (Atakan 2012) The presence of phytocannabinoids in plants is explained by their properties to control various biotic (insects, bacteria, fungi) and abiotic (drought and ultraviolet radiation) stressors.

Biosynthesis of cannabinoids

In cannabinoid synthesis, more complex compounds are produced from smaller molecules (Marks et al., 2009; de Meijer, 2014). The first step in cannabinoid biosynthesis is the biosynthesis of geranyl pyrophosphate, olivetolic acid, and divaric acid, the precursors of cannabinoid acids. Next, geranyl pyrophosphate and olivetolic acid form cannabigeric acid (CBGA) and second, geranyl pyrophosphate and divaric acid form cannabigerovaric acid (CBGVA), which forms all other cannabinoid acids – from CBGA to THVA, CBDA, CBCA and CBG. The number and ratio of different synthase enzymes determine the cannabinoid profile of different varieties (Marks et al., 2009; de Meijer, 2014). Cannabinoids are acidic in fresh plants and decarboxylated by heat, time and UV light to cannabinoids – From CBDA to CBD and so on. Henceforth, cannabinoids of the cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabic chromium (CBC) types can be degraded to cannabielson (CBE) and cannabicyclol (CBL) by oxygen and UV light. (de Meijer, 2014). Cannabinoids of the tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) type also degrade at high temperatures and upon oxidation to cannabinol (CBN).

Classification of phytocannabinoids

Natural compounds combined from hemp with a typical C21 terpenophenol backbone are called cannabinoids. This class of compounds also includes derivatives and metabolites that are also considered cannabinoids. The cannabinoid study has isolated at least 120 different cannabinoids that can be divided into 11 different categories: Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9 -THC), Δ8-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ8 -THC), cannabiger gol (CBG), cannabic chromene (CBC), cannabin (CBD) (CBND), cannabisoline (CBE), cannabis cyclol (CBL), cannabinol (CBN), cannabis triol (CBT) and other cannabinoids.

Production of endocannabinoids in the body

Precursors of endocannabinoids include polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic acid (Omega 6). They are synthesized in postsynaptic neurons as derivatives of arachidonic acid (omega 6), which are obtained mainly from food, but the body can also produce it from linoleic acid (omega 6). Studies show that adding essential fatty acids to the diet increases endocannabinoid levels and the number of receptors. (Osei-Hyiaman et al. 2005, Berger et al. 2001).

Unlike other mediators in the body, endocannabinoids are rapidly synthesized as needed and are not stored as needed. The formation of endocannabinoids occurs through several enzymatic pathways. For example anandamidine in the synthesis, first N-acetyltransferase (NAT) attaches the cell membrane phosphatiphylethanolamine to N-arachidonyl to form N-arachidonylphosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE), which is hydrolyzed by phospholipase D (PLD) to anandamide (Di Marzo et al. 1999). 2-AG, on the other hand, can be synthesized in the body in three different ways. Phospholipase C (PLC) and diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL) contribute to its formation. In addition to arachidonic acid, anandamide is composed of ethanolamine. In 2-AG, on the other hand, ethanolamine is replaced by glycerol, and in virodhamine, ethanolamine is attached by an ester bond instead of an amide bond. Thus, in various endocannabinoids, other compounds have been linked to arachidonic acid by various bonds. (MJ Savolainen, T. Huusko, A. Keränen, S. Lindeman, A. Reponen and H. Koponen. 2004.). Shortly after synthesis, ananadamide is degraded back to arachidonic acid and ethanolamine by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). In the rat brain, for example, this occurs within minutes (Cravatt et al. 2001). Other enzymes are also involved in this degradation of endocannabinoids, such as monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), which is responsible for most of the degradation of 2-AG, and its inhibition increases the amount of 2-AG (Long et al. 2008 and Jokipii 2010.). They also produce various endocannabinoid derivatives in addition to degradation. For example, COX-2 produces prostaglandin ethanolamide and prostaglandin glycerol esters, which are more stable as long-term signal transducers (Kozak et al. 2001 and Savolainen, Huusko, Keränen, Lindeman, Reponen and Koponen 2004).

A few of the more important findings in the metabolism of endocannabinoids are FAAH and MAGL, which, by influencing the amount of activity, can regulate endocannabinoid levels in the body, as they are responsible for the degradation of anandamide and 2-AG. These are affected by different foods, spices, herbs and the medicines targeted at them.

 

Sources

 

  • Savolainen, T. Huusko, A. Keränen, .S Lindeman, A. Reponen and H. Koponen. 2004. Endocannabinoids – a multifunctional neurotransmitter system in the regulation of pleasure and eating behavior.
  • Duodecim De Meijer E., 2014. The Chemical Phenotypes (Chemotypes) of Cannabis.
  • In Pertwee RG Handbook of Cannabis, p. 89-110. Oxford University Press, United Kingdom.
  • Jokipii. 2010. Endocannabinoid receptor. University of Jyväskylä
  • Scherma, P. Masia, M. Deidda, W. Fratta, G. Tanda, and P. Fadda. 2018. New Perspectives on the Use of Cannabis in the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders. Medicines. https://www.mdpi.com/2305-6320/5/4/107/htm
  • Marks MD, Tian L., Wenger JP, Omburo SN, Soto-Fuentes W., He J., Gang DR, Weiblen GD, and Dixon RA, 2009. Identification of candidate genes affecting Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol biosynthesis in Cannabis sativa.
  • J Exp Bot 60 (13): 3715-3726. Kozak KR, Crews BC, Ray JL, Tai HH, Morrow JD, Marnett LJ. Metabolism of prostaglandin glycerol esters and prostaglandin ethanolamides in vitro and in vivo.
  • J Biol Chem 2001; 276: 36993–8. Z. Atakan. 2012. Cannabis, a complex plant: different compounds and different effects on the individual. Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology published online 5 September 2012
  • Osei-Hyiaman, L. Wang, G. Kunos. 2005. Endocannabinoid activation at hepatic CB1 receptors stimulates fatty acid synthesis and contributes to diet-induced obesity. The Journal of Clinical Investigation.
  • Berger, G. Crozier, T. Bisogno, P. Cavaliere, S. Innis, and V. Di Marzo. 2001. Anandamide and diet: Inclusion of dietary arachidonate and docosahexaenoate leads to increased brain levels of the corresponding N-acylethanolamines in piglets. PNAS.
  • J. Savolainen, T. Huusko, A. Keränen, S. Lindeman, A. Reponen and H. Koponen. 2004. Endocannabinoids – a multifunctional neurotransmitter system in the regulation of pleasure and eating behavior. Duodecim. 120: 1457–65.hamppumaa.fi

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