CBD and depression

CBD and depression

The use of CBD oil to alleviate symptoms caused by depression is safe and, according to user experiences, also effective. Depression is a very common state of mind and when it becomes chronic, it makes life difficultugh.

In this article, we look at the factors behind depression and whether CBD oil or CBD capsules could help with the symptoms caused by it.

 

Depression causing low energy

 

Depression is at the same time one of the most underrated and the most common mental health disorders. Many depressed people must have heard that they are just a lazy, tired or boring guy who never goes anywhere. In fact, he is really exhausted and down, and may not even be able to cook, let alone go to the store. In Finland, there are approx. 6% of the population and the main symptoms are similar; the person experiences a strong decrease in interest and the feeling of pleasure, as well as deep feelings of depression (1).

 

Chronic depression is often a co-morbidity

 

Chronic depression is often a co-morbidity, but it also affects people who do not have any underlying long-term illness. Studies show that depression is partly hereditary, especially in those cases where a person comes from challenging circumstances (1,2). Despite numerous studies, the origins of depression have not been reached, it is only possible to assess which factors influence its origin and what happens in the body when a person experiences depression.

 

The endocannabinoid system plays a role in the background of depression

 

Depression, like everything else that happens in the body, is influenced by the endocannabinoid system. That important system balances all body functions and tries its best to keep us healthy! The background of depression is especially affected by the CB1 receptor and endocannabinoid anandamide (2,3). These components of the endocannabinoid system play a direct role in anxiety-like behavior and stress susceptibility and are considered important pathophysiological contributors to depression (2).

 

Chronic stress contributes to anandamide deficiency by increasing the production of FAAH fatty acid amide hydrolase, which is responsible for the breakdown of endocannabinoids. Anandamide is the so-called happiness molecule, which is central to the experience of the feeling of pleasure.

A depressed person with his feet in the water.

CBD can have a mood-elevating effect that can help with depression that causes low mood.

 

The CB1 receptor plays an important role in the treatment of depression

 

In particular, the CB1 receptor has been found to play an important role as a mood regulator. Disturbance in the regulation of the CB1 receptor leads to a reduced ability to enjoy pleasure, a passive tolerance to stress and a higher susceptibility to develop depression-like symptoms (2). The CB1 receptor has a clear role in terminating the stress response mediated by the HPA axis (2,4).

 

The HPA axis and glucocorticoids

 

Dysfunction of the HPA axis, one of the key factors in depression, is strongly regulated by the endocannabinoid system. The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis regulates the action of the steroid hormone glucocorticoids in the body, and these steroid hormones are responsible for regulating the body’s stress response to internal and external threats. (2,4)

 

Depression triggers the symptoms

 

In addition to low mood, depression is also associated with other symptoms related to feelings and moods. A depressed person often feels feelings of inferiority and worthlessness, guilt and, in cases of severe depression, also thoughts related to death and suicide.

 

As depression is a disease that affects the mood very strongly, it also has physical symptoms. Depressed people often struggle in one way or another with weight and appetite. Sleep-related challenges are common, as are weakness and constant fatigue. The flow of thought may slow down and concentration may be difficult, sometimes body movements also become slower.

 

What causes depression?

 

The actual cause of depression is not known, and therefore the development of antidepressants also has its own challenges. Depression is almost always caused by stress. It can also be triggered by the death of a loved one or a pet, or some other traumatic life experience that causes deep sadness. There are often different degrees of depression anxiety. Postpartum depression is also common.


Postpartum depression

 

Of the Finnish parents, approx. 10-20% experience depression after giving birth. Depression occurs most within three months after giving birth and it usually gets better within a few months. Postpartum depression can range from mild to moderate to severe depression. The symptoms of depression vary from person to person. (5)

At its worst, postpartum depression may trigger anxiety in addition to chronic depression, and episodes of depression may recur later. After the first birth, the risk of recurrence of depression for subsequent births is around 50-60%. (5)

 

No exact reason for the depressive phase of the birth mother is known yet, but it is estimated that it may be related to a general tendency to depression, thyroid gland dysfunction and overload. The young age of the mother, previous traumas, domestic violence, changes in hormone function and complications during pregnancy may also increase susceptibility to depression. (5)

 

Serotonin deficiency

 

The use of substances significantly increases the risk of developing depression. Regarding bodily functions, depression is associated with a lack of serotonin, as well as a malfunction of the HPA axis. Endocannabinoid normal production of anandamide prevents excessive release of serotonin from platelets. Full-spectrum CBD oil can help with depression, as it promotes the functioning of the endocannabinoid system by making cannabinoids available to the body.

The nerve cell and the effect of CBD on it.

According to research, CBD has effects that protect the nervous system and reduce inflammation in the body

 

CBD protects the nervous system

 

CBDThe mechanism of action of ) is still largely a mystery. It is known that it responds to CB receptors rather poorly, but it is also known that it has more than 60 other receptors in the body that it positively affects. Related to depression, it inhibits the activity of FAAH fatty acid amide hydrolase. FAAH is a molecule that breaks down cannabinoids and its overactivity causes a deficiency for anandamide .

 

CBD has been found to have protective effects on the nervous system, as well as anti-inflammatory effects in the body (2). CBD has been found to weaken physiological and behavioral reactions in stressful situations (2,3). It inhibits the activity of the HPA axis and activates the serotonin receptor.

Depression can be caused by inflammation

 

Silent inflammation is low-grade inflammation in the body that occurs slowly over a long period of time. It is different from, for example, an infection caused by bacteria. In recent years, theories related to depression have been turned in the direction that the underlying cause might be inflammation and therefore also a disturbance in the immune response. The reason for this change in direction is the ineffectiveness of serotonin-related drugs and the assumption that the actual cause of depression is somewhere other than the reuptake of serotonin, although that disorder is also usually found in the background of depression. (6,7)

 

Silent inflammation is affected by diet, stress, amount of exercise, etc., exactly the same things that seem to be behind all imbalances in the body. Cannabinoids CBD and cannabigerol (CBG) produce anti-inflammatory effects and have a broad effect on all kinds of skin inflammation, including inflammation of the nervous system, which is thought to be the cause of depression…

CBD has been shown to calm key inflammatory mediators, free radicals and nitric oxide production.

 

Finally

 

Both depression and CBD are so multidimensional and challenging in their actions that it is difficult to give direct answers to how CBD oil helps depression. According to user experiences and research, supporting the endocannabinoid system with CBD oil can be an effective and versatile aid for various depressive symptoms. The endocannabinoid system also plays a significant role in the underlying physiology of depression.

 

Sources

  1. Duodecim ; depressive state, i.e. depression. 2022. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk00389. Referred on 5/15/2022
  2. Gallego-Landin I., Garcia-Baos A., Castro-Zavala A., Valverde O.. 2021. Reviewing the Role of endocannabinoid system in the pathophysiology of depression. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Gallego-Landin 20I %20I% %5D&cauthor=true&cauthor_uid=34938182. Referred on 5/15/2022
  3. Cannabidiol: A Potential New Alternative for the Treatment of Anxiety, Depression, and Psychotic Disorders. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Sala %20F% 5BAuthor%5D&cauthor=true&cauthor_uid=33228239. Referred on 5/15/2022
  4. Viinamäki H., Lehto SM, Palvimo J., Harvima I., Valkonen-korhonen M., Koivumaa-Honkanen H., Hintikka J., Honkalampi K., Niskanen L.. Duodecim ; The connection of glucocorticoids to the origin and symptoms of depression. 2012. https://www.duodecimlehti.fi/duo10282#s2. Referred on 5/15/2022
  5. Thl.fi. 2022. Postpartum depression. https://thl.fi/fi/web/lapset-nuoret-ja-perheet/sote-palvelut/aitiys-ja-lastenneuvola/neuvolatyon-sisallot-ja-menetelmat/synnytyksen-jalkeinen-masennus. Referred on 31/05/2022
  6. Pure ; Low-grade inflammation can underlie many diseases. https://www.puhti.fi/tietopaketit/matala-asteinen-tulehdus/. Referred on 5/15/2022
  7. Duodecim ; Depressive symptoms possibly related to inflammation. https://www.duodecim.fi/2022/01/05/masennusoireet-mahdollisesti-yhteydessa-tulehdukseen/. Referred on 5/15/2022
What is decarboxylation?

What is decarboxylation?

What is decarboxylation and how does it relate to CBD oil ? Hemp contains a huge range of different cannabinoids, the most famous of which are probably THC and CBD . In growing hemp, or in a freshly dried hemp flower, these cannabinoids are not actually present at all. They only contain cannabinoid precursors, cannabinoid acids. Cannabinoid acids must go through a chemical process called decarboxylation, where those cannabinoid acids are converted into cannabinoids. In this article we will learn about decarboxylation and what it has to do with CBD oil!

 

From cannabinoid acid to cannabinoid

 

The creation of cannabinoids is a multi-step process. During the growing season, the hemp grows a flower in which small crystals are formed, just like small crystals. These crystals are called trichomes and most of the cannabinoid acids produced by hemp accumulate in them. The compounds in hemp are first transformed into cannabigerolic acid ( CBG-A ) and from there into cannabinoid acids such as CBD-A , THC-A , CBN-A, etc. In the fall, the completed inflorescence is harvested and dried, which is when the transformation of cannabinoid acids into cannabinoids begins. Heat, oxygen, light and time bring about a process called decarboxylation, which transforms cannabinoid acids into a neutral form into cannabinoids CBD , THC , CBN , etc.

 

Heat causes decarboxylation

Decarboxylation is a natural process that can happen in two ways. Naturally by the influence of light, heat, oxygen and time or mechanically with the help of heat, speeding up that natural process. The natural decarboxylation process is slow, lasting even months, but with the help of sufficiently high heat, the molecular reaction can be accelerated to take place in a few hours.

 

Decarboxylation is a molecular reaction

 

Decarboxylation is perhaps a familiar term from biology or chemistry classes. It is a molecular reaction in which the carboxyl attachment detaches from the molecule, releasing carbon dioxide at the same time. The molecules of all cannabinoids are different from each other, but all of them, or their precursor cannabinoid acid, have in common the carboxyl bond carbon-oxygen-oxygen-hydrogen (-COOH). The bond of the carboxyl group to the molecule is not very strong and is easily broken by heat. The carbon released from the molecule releases carbon oxide and thus converts the cannabinoid acid into a neutral cannabinoid. (1,2)

 

Is decarboxylation necessary?

 

Cannabinoid precursors such as CBD-A found in hemp also correspond to the endocannabinoid system. CBD-A has been less studied than its cannabinoid form CBD, but it is also versatile and effective in its effects. According to user experiences, CBD-A helps e.g. to relieve stress. It has been found to lift the mood and calm a restless mind.

CBD has been found to have more good properties than CBD-A, which is perhaps only due to the fact that CBD has been studied more.

On the other hand, it is believed that CBD-A is, as it were, inactive, while CBD is the active form. It is thought that CBD would have more therapeutic effects and that it would respond better and more widely to the endocannabinoid system. However, there is no absolute certainty about this.

 

Is CBD oil decarboxylated?

 

The answer is yes and no. Most of the CBD oils on the market have gone through the decarboxylation process, but we also have unique CBD-A oils available.

 

How does decarboxylation affect other compounds?

 

120 different cannabinoids have been identified in hemp. In addition to them, hemp has a huge number of other effective compounds such as terpenes , flavonoids and minerals. In order to convert the cannabinoid acid CBD-A into CBD, but at the same time preserve other active ingredients such as terpenes, you have to be careful with the temperature and time. Some of the compounds are destroyed at lower temperatures than the decarboxylation of cannabinoids, so not everything can be preserved. On the other hand, the boiling temperature of many active compounds is higher than that required for the formation of CBD, so some of the other compounds survive gentle heating well.

 

Common decarboxylation methods

 

A few different methods have been developed to speed up the decarboxylation process. Different cannabinoid acids have their own relationships to the temperature and time in which decarboxylation into cannabinoids takes place. Studies have shown that, for example, TCH is formed at a lower temperature, but more slowly than CBD (1). CBD-A starts to decarboxylate at 120 degrees, and the boiling point of CBD is 160°. After crossing the boiling point, CBD starts to evaporate and thus disappear completely. (1,3)

 

An oven where CBD can be decarboxylated.

Decarboxylation of CBD-A can be easily done at home in the oven.

Decarboxylation in the oven

 

Of the decarboxylation methods, the oven method is probably the most familiar and used, where the hemp blossom or CBD-A juice capsule juice powder is heated in the oven, on the oven tray. According to research, CBD concentrations are at their highest when the oven is kept at 130 degrees approx. 40 minutes. (1,3)

 

Decarboxylation by vacuum method

 

Another, more effective method according to user experience, is the vacuum method, where hemp flowers placed in a vacuum bag are immersed in water in a pot. The temperature of the water in the boiler is kept at 95-100 degrees approx. for an hour. The water must not boil. The vacuum method is slower, but gentler, because there is no risk of burning the flowers!

Decarboxylation of CBD oil

 

CBD oil should no longer be decarboxylated once it has been bottled. CBD oil is decarboxylated during its extraction stage by heating. The CBD oils sold in the world are largely decarboxylated, but today, more and more, there are oils available with, for example, half of the oil extracted from raw hemp and half of decarboxylated CBD oil . There is also oil extracted from raw hemp only, which is the so-called CBD-A oil .

 

Finally

 

Although decarboxylation may seem like a necessary and important reaction at first glance, the fact is that we are not completely sure if decarboxylation is as essential as we think. CBD-A has been found to have many good effects in studies, despite the fact that almost all studies focus on CBD. In principle, you could even say that the studies distort the idea that only the cannabinoid CBD is effective and therapeutic.

 

Sources

  1. Decarboxylation Study of Acidic Cannabinoids: A Novel Approach Using Ultra-High-Performance Supercritical Fluid Chromatography/Photodiode Array-Mass Spectrometry. 2016. Wang M., Wang YH., Avula B., Radwan M., Wanas AS, Antwerp J., Parcher JF, ElSohly MA, Khan I.. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc /articles/PMC5549281/ . Referred on 02/28/2022
  2. What is decarboxylated CBD. 2021. Keehn J., El-hajj S.. https://cbdschool.com/what-is-decarboxylated-cbd/ Cited 2022-02-28
  3. Evaluation of thermo-chemical conversion temperatures of cannabinoid acids in hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) biomass by Pressurized liquid extraction. 2021. Olejar K., Kinney C.. https://jcannabisresearch.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s42238-021-00098-6 Cited 28/02/2022

https://hamppumaa.fi/what-are-cbd-and-cbd-a/?lang=en

https://hamppumaa.fi/mita-on-cbn-eli-kannabinoli/

https://hamppumaa.fi/mita-on-thc/

https://hamppumaa.fi/entourage-effect-ja-cbd-oljyn-taysi-spektri-selitettyna/

https://hamppumaa.fi/mita-ovat-terpeenit/

https://hamppumaa.fi/mita-on-cbd-ja-cbd-a/https://hamppumaa.fi/mita-on-cbd-ja-cbd-a/

CBD, coffee and caffeine

CBD, coffee and caffeine

Coffee has a strong established position in our culture. Relative to the population, Finland drinks the most coffee in the world. Coffee is often the first thing offered wherever you go in Finland. About 91% of Finns drink coffee at least once a day, and during the year coffee is consumed by every Finn, about 10 kilos.

Nowadays, the consumption of various CBD products has also become a part of everyday routines for many people, so it is timely to consider what is the difference between coffee, caffeine and CBDthe possible interaction of Read on to see how coffee and other caffeinated beverages pair up with CBD!

 

Caffeine

 

Caffeine is the world’s most commonly used psychoactive substance, which can be found naturally in e.g. from coffee, tea, cocoa, cola drinks and mate. Caffeine affects e.g. attention, mood, alertness and has a stimulating effect on the central nervous system.

The effects of caffeine begin quickly and its absorption takes place from the digestive tract into the bloodstream. Caffeine is structurally similar to the neurotransmitter adenosine, whose effect is known to be relaxing and tiring. Caffeine fogs the brain by blocking the relaxing effects of adenosine, which produces the stimulating effects of coffee (1).

The noticeable effects of caffeine often begin within 30 minutes of consuming it. The half-life of caffeine is 3-6 hours. Caffeine can reduce the quality of sleep, make it difficult to fall asleep and shorten the amount of sleep at night (2). Studies have noticed hereditary differences in how caffeine affects sleep.

 

Safe dosage of caffeine

 

The safe daily dose of caffeine for adults is less than 400 mg. The recommended maximum daily dose for pregnant and breastfeeding women is half of that, i.e. approx. 200 mg. For children and young people, less caffeine is recommended, and the guideline safe limit is no more than 3 mg for each kilogram of body weight per day. (3)

The natural caffeine content in the products varies depending on the quality, variety, maturity and processing method. Below is a comparison of the caffeine content of different products.

 

  • Coffee (2dl) contains approx. 90–160 mg of caffeine.
  • Tea (2dl) contains approx. 34-90 mg of caffeine.
  • Mate (a cup of mate) contains approx. 25–150 mg of caffeine.
  • Dark chocolate (100g) contains approx. 55 mg of caffeine.
  • A cola drink (330 ml) contains approx. 36 mg of caffeine.

 

Caffeine goes well with CBD. The picture shows the molecular formula of caffeine.

Coffee, cocoa, tea, cola drinks and mate are the most popular caffeinated drinks.

 

Coffee enhances the effect of CBD

 

According to research, coffee can enhance the effect of cannabinoids such as CBD. In a 2010 research review, it was noticed how caffeine sensitizes the GABA receptors in the brain’s striatum to cannabinoids. GABA, i.e. gamma-aminobutyric acid, is the main neurotransmitter in the brain, the purpose of which is to slow down the activity of neurons in the central nervous system. (4)

Years later, researchers discovered that the A2A adenosine and CB1 cannabinoid receptors are both directly connected to each other and thus work together. It is known that caffeine prevents the normal functioning of adenosine receptors and because of this, the body’s cannabinoid receptors signal that they want to receive cannabinoids, either produced by the body itself or exocannabinoids from the outside. (5)

In two-week mouse experiments, it has been found that caffeine enhances THC, the intoxicating ingredient found in cannabis)’s spatial memory-impairing effect (6). However, legal CBD oils and CBD products on the market are made from hemp varieties approved in the EU, with very little or no THC content.

The aromas of hemp and coffee beans have also been found to have similarities, as they both contain significant amounts of ingredients such as methyl valerate and methyl butanal .

 

CBD reduces the side effects of coffee

 

Drinking coffee is often associated with unwanted side effects caused by caffeine. They are e.g. restlessness, sweating of the hands and tremors. Others get side effects from even a small amount of coffee, but usually e.g. restlessness caused by caffeine only follows after more than one cup of coffee. (2)

If you enjoy drinking coffee more than anything, and you don’t want to reduce it even if you experience adverse effects, then you should consider consuming CBD together with coffee. CBD and other cannabinoids cancel out some of the negative effects of caffeine and make it a less stressful experience for the body. CBD can be added directly to coffee or taken separately during coffee time. Try it and be positively surprised by the combined effect of coffee and cannabinoids!

 

Making CBD coffee

 

If ready-made CBD coffee is not available, you can also prepare one yourself. CBD can be added to coffee in many different forms and it’s a matter of taste which is the best way for everyone. You can add to coffee, for example CBD oil or open a CBD capsule and empty its contents into your coffee. Otherwise, you can prepare the coffee normally just the way you want it.

Since CBD oil repels water and therefore does not mix with coffee, it is advisable to add fat to the drink, for example in the form of milk, cream, butter, MCT oil or vegetable milk. Anything with fat helps the CBD oil mix in better and also makes the drink look more delicious. If you like to drink your coffee black, that’s not a problem either. Others are happy to drink CBD coffee, even if the CBD oil is not properly mixed with it. Another essential factor in adding fat to coffee is that fat promotes Multiple absorption of CBD into the body.

See the CBD-A fatty coffee recipe recommended by Hamppukok .

 

Cocoa and CBD go well together. The picture shows cocoa flour, chocolate and cocoa beans.

Caffeine and terpenes in cocoa and dark chocolate enhance the effect of CBD and other cannabinoids. Dark chocolate can also reduce the body’s breakdown of the body’s endogenous cannabinoid anandamide.

 

Cocoa and CBD

 

Finally, it should be mentioned that coffee can of course also be replaced with cocoa containing caffeine. In general, a cocoa drink (especially milk cocoa) already contains enough fat that the CBD oil mixes easily with the drink.

Cocoa and dark chocolate contain plenty of healthy ingredients that complement the effect of CBD. It has been shown that dark chocolate can prevent the breakdown of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide in the body and can also reduce the breakdown of other cannabinoids such as CBD or THC. This means that the effect of these compounds is enhanced when used together with dark chocolate.

Another benefit of combining dark chocolate with CBD is the interaction with terpenes in chocolate, such as myrcene, linalool, and okimene (7). The combination of dark chocolate and CBD terpenes can promote a so-called synergistic effect (see Entourage effect). As research progresses, we will in the future better understand the importance of synergy and its benefits.

 

Anandamide and mood-affecting compounds in cocoa

 

In 1992, Daniele Piomelli and a team of researchers isolated a cannabinoid neurotransmitter called anandamide from chocolate (n-arachidonoylethanolamine or AEA) (8). The interesting thing about anandamide is that it is also a naturally endogenous cannabinoid found in the human brain and nervous system. Anandamide plays an important role in the overall sense of well-being. The word anandamide is derived from the Sanskrit word ananda, which means bliss, as anandamide is known to provide a general feeling of bliss and happiness.

A study published in the journal NeuroReport by the Georgia Institute of Technology and the University of California, Irvine lead researcher Arne Dietrich believes that the body releases cannabinoids that help cope with the prolonged stress and pain of moderate to intense exercise. Studies have linked anandamide to the body’s pain-relieving responses during exercise, especially running.

Although cocoa is quite low in anandamide, it also contains two other important ingredients that are present in much higher concentrations, and are more than likely the reason why we notice cocoa’s mood-enhancing effects. These are N-oleoylethanolamine (OEA) and N-linoleoylethanolamine (18:3 NAE). These two anandamide-like cousins both block the metabolic breakdown of anandamide and can potentially block the breakdown of other cannabinoids, including THC and CBD, allowing these compounds to last longer in the body. (8)

Read more about anandamide in our article: Anandamide: the happiness molecule for your brain .


Cocoa and theobromine

 

Complementing all of cocoa’s mood-enhancing benefits is theobromine, an alkaloid very similar to caffeine and cocoa’s primary stimulant. Theobromine is a well-known vasodilator that acts as a “transporter” of nutrients and chemicals to the tissues. It may also be responsible for amplifying the effects of anandamide in chocolate. (8)

In addition to anandamide and theobromine, cocoa contains serotonin, phenylethylamine, and dopamine, all of which, according to research, help us feel more optimistic and calm. All of these together give us an overall sense of well-being while providing gentle, natural and long-lasting energy. (8)

 

Sources

 

  1. M. Lazarus. 2015. Arousal Effect of Caffeine Depends on Adenosine A2A Receptors in the Shell of the Nucleus Accumbens. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3153505/#. Referred on 12/07/2022.
  2. Schwab U. 2020. Duodecim. Coffee and health . https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk01000. Referred on 07/08/2022.
  3. EFSA. 2015. Caffeine: EFSA estimates safe intakes. https://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/press/news/150527. Referred on 12/07/2022.
  4. Rossi. S. 2010. Online Library. Effects of caffeine on striatal neurotransmission: Focus on cannabinoid CB1 receptors. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/mnfr.200900237. Referred on 07/08/2022
  5. E. Moreno et al. 2017. Nature. Singular Location and Signaling Profile of Adenosine A2A-Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Heteromers in the Dorsal Striatum . https://www.nature.com/articles/npp201712. Referred on 12/07/2022.
  6. VC Sousa et al. 2010. Nature. Regulation of Hippocampal Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Actions by Adenosine A1 Receptors and Chronic Caffeine Administration: Implications for the Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol on Spatial Memor y. https://www.nature.com/articles/npp2010179. Referred on 07/08/2022.
  7. VS Bastos. 2019. J Food Sci Technol. Dynamics of volatile compounds in TSH 565 Cocoa Clone fermentation and their role on chocolate flavor in Southeast Brazil . https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6542924/. Referred on 12/07/2022.
  8. Piomelli D. 2014. More surprises lie ahead. The endocannabinoids keep us guessingg. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23954677/ . Referred on 11.07.2022.
Does CBD relieve nausea?

Does CBD relieve nausea?

My stomach bubbles and I feel a lump in my throat. Maybe a little high and hot. A big glass of cold water and a lying position are on my mind. You probably don’t dare to close your eyes, lest your head start spinning. It is nausea, the body’s natural important protection and cleansing mechanism, which seems to be a familiar feeling to everyone! In this article, we’ll explore nausea, the endocannabinoid system behind it, and For CBD oil as a nausea reliever.

 

What causes nausea?

 

Nausea is an intense disgusting feeling that can be caused by almost anything. It may be triggered by a smell, excessive spinning, seeing something disgusting, medicine, stress , alcohol, spoiled food, headache, pregnancy or, for example, noise, but basically nausea starts in the nucleus accumbens of the brain, which is responsible for the body’s involuntary reactions such as sneezing, nausea and breathing. (1)

Nausea is the body’s way of reacting to various bacteria and viruses (1). So it is an important function that always has a message. Some people are more prone to vomiting than others, but eventually everyone vomits when the stomach bug hits!

 

Symptoms of nausea

 

The symptoms of nausea are clear, although they can be different depending on the situation and the person. Sometimes it is accompanied by stomach ache or headache and vomiting, but symptoms can also include weakness, dizziness, a lump in the throat, upset stomach, cold sweat, thirst, or some combination of these. (1)

 

Vomiting disease

 

Vomiting disease is a general name for various diseases that cause nausea and vomiting. Vomiting diseases include symptoms caused by viruses and bacteria, which include diarrhea, vomiting and nausea. Norovirus circulates during the winter, rotavirus, which is rarer today in small children, and sometimes vomiting is also caused by rarer bacteria such as Salmonella and coli. In most cases, vomiting goes away in a few days. If it is accompanied by bloody diarrhea, severe deterioration of condition, unconsciousness, very high fever, severe dehydration, etc. or the symptoms do not seem to go away, it is worth seeing a doctor to check that it is not a situation that requires immediate treatment, especially if it is a child. (2)

 

Symptoms of vomiting sickness

 

The symptoms of emesis are clear. It usually starts with stomach pain or sudden vomiting. Depending on the patient, some are more prone to diarrhea and others to vomiting, but the underlying purpose is to empty the intestines and body of unwanted bacteria or viruses as efficiently and quickly as possible. Sometimes the illness is also accompanied by fever, loss of appetite, fatigue and muscle pains. (2)

 

Contagion of vomiting sickness

 

Stomach disease is transmitted by droplet infection and through contact. It catches on really easily, especially among children. Good hand hygiene and careful wiping of door handles and table surfaces prevent the spread of infections, but it is practically impossible to avoid an epidemic, especially in schools and kindergartens. The incubation period for vomiting sickness is 12 hours to a few days. (2)

 

Sickness of pregnancy, also known as morning sickness, is common during pregnancy. In the picture, a sick and pregnant woman.

Also known as morning sickness, pregnancy sickness is common and almost everyone experiences it during pregnancy. A more serious form of pregnancy sickness is called hyperemesis, which is accompanied by more intense vomiting than usual.

 

Nausea of pregnancy

 

Pregnancy sickness is a common, almost every woman’s pregnancy symptom, which is also called morning sickness. Typically it starts in the early weeks of pregnancy and ends around week 12, but for some it starts practically right after conception and ends when the baby is born. This less frequent, very strong and life-threatening nausea is called hyperemesis. The cause of it, or morning sickness in general, is not known and there is no medicine or treatment for it. (3)

When examining people suffering from hyperemesis, it was found that at least there was no fluctuation in the levels of the most common endocannabinoids, and there did not seem to be anything special in the functioning of the receptors. (4)

 

Motion sickness

 

About one fifth of people experience motion sickness on car and plane trips. The topic has also been studied to some extent from the point of view of the endocannabinoid system, and it has been found that especially the endocannabinoid anandamide levels vary between asymptomatic and sick people. Differences have also been observed in 2-AG (2-arachidonylglycerol) levels; in those with motion sickness, those levels were low and remained constant, while in asymptomatic travelers, 2-AG levels increased during the trip. (5)

Motion sickness affects the function of the related endocannabinoid system. Enhancing its communication could be a potential treatment for individuals who do not respond to currently available treatments. (5)

Motion sickness is considered to be the result of intense brain-gut interaction in a stressful situation and this interaction is regulated by the endocannabinoid system. (5)

 

Motion sickness can be alleviated with the help of cannabinoids such as CBD. In the picture, a child experiencing motion sickness in a car.

Motion sickness arises in a stressful situation from a strong interaction between the brain and the gut. Nausea can be reduced by affecting the functioning of the internal cannabinoid system.

 

Nausea occurring as a side effect of disease treatment

 

Many diseases include nausea as an unpleasant side effect, which often occurs without vomiting. Often, the nausea in question is the result of either drugs or treatments, such as strong painkillers or chemotherapy used to treat cancer.

Research focused on chemotherapy and cannabinoids in particular has been done extensively, and both synthetic and natural cannabinoids such as THC and CBD have been found to be effective chemotherapy-induced nausea relievers, both in the light of research and user experience.

You can read more about the effect of cannabinoids related to cancer and chemotherapy here , but it should be mentioned that a few synthetic cannabinoid preparations and exogenous cannabinoids have shown to be very significant nausea reducers for chemotherapy induced nausea! (6)

 

The endocannabinoid system and nausea

 

The endocannabinoid system balances the body and tries to keep vital functions functioning as well as possible. It affects everything in the background and is therefore also involved in the regulation of nausea.

In animal experiments where the endocannabinoid system has been blocked from functioning, it has been noticed that blocking it promotes nausea. In animals whose poisoning reaction is vomiting, the reaction has been successfully stopped by the power of cannabinoids.

 

Cannabinoids

 

Cannabinoids protect against nausea, e.g. by cooperating with CB1 and 5-HT receptors. (7)

An anandamide-degrading enzyme, fatty acid amide hydroxylase (FAAH), has been found in brain regions involved in vomiting and has been shown to have antiemetic effects. Anandamide’s anti-nausea effects appear to be mediated through activation of the CB1 receptor. (8)

Cannabinoid receptors

 

The CB1 receptor is mainly found in the brain, also in the nucleus accumbens, where nausea originates. It is involved in the regulation of nausea and vomiting reflex. (4,6)

Serotonin receptors

 

The cannabinoid system closely interacts with serotonin receptors. There are seven 5-HT receptors and they are named 5-HT1, 5-HT2, 5-HT3, etc.

The 5-HT3 receptor in particular seems to be the receptor influencing the occurrence of vomiting and nausea, and its cooperation with cannabinoids is behind the anti-nausea effect. (4,7,8)

Activation of the 5-HT1A receptor prevents the release of serotonin and thus ultimately also prevents nausea. (4,7,8)

 

CBD relieves nausea

 

CBD (cannabidiol) has been found to relieve nausea. Due to the strong nausea associated with chemotherapy and its difficult treatment, it was decided to study the antiemetic, i.e. nausea-relieving, effects of cannabinoids. (4,7,8)

CBD is both an anti-nausea and anti-emetic cannabinoid. Synthetic cannabinoids have been on the list of drugs allowed to relieve nausea in North America since 1980.

CBD has an anti-nausea effect by adding anandamide amount in the nucleus accumbens of the brain by inhibiting the activity of the FAAH molecule that disperses it. (4,7,8)

The findings suggest that both CBD and its acid precursor CBD-A are both effective anti-nausea relievers, with CBD-A being slightly more effective (4). In the medicinal use of hemp, an essential consideration is the synergistic effect (Entourage effect ), which is based on the view that the best benefit from the effects of hemp can be obtained when all the active substances obtained from the plant are used.

 

Herbs that reduce nausea include e.g. chamomile, ginger, mint. The picture also shows tea with lemon and honey.

In addition to CBD, nausea can be relieved by many herbs such as chamomile, peppermint, ginger, lemon balm, fennel and licorice root. The combination of honey and lemon has also been found to effectively reduce nausea.

 

Many herbs and plants relieve nausea

 

Many herbs such as chamomile, peppermint, ginger, lemon balm, fennel and licorice root relieve bad feelings. The combination of honey and lemon has also been found to reduce nausea and can easily be added to herbal drinks to enhance the combined effect. An upset or recovering stomach can be soothed and nourished with grated raw carrot, and apple or apple-carrot-ginger juice is also good.

Finding a suitable eating rhythm is a significant prevention of nausea. Small portions of something cool, light food such as yogurt is light and easy for the body to digest, and they sometimes relieve nausea, even over a long period of time. Similarly, calm breathing at the onset of nausea may prevent vomiting. Being in the fresh air can also make you feel better!

In summary

 

Nausea is one of the most common side effects of medications and various treatments such as chemotherapy. Nausea significantly affects the quality of life, and the life of someone who constantly suffers from it can be really challenging and depressing. Nausea during pregnancy can stop life completely for a while, and people who get motion sickness often organize their lives so that they don’t have to travel too long distances, at least backwards or in a car without air conditioning….

The endocannabinoid system and CBD as a nausea reliever have been studied a lot, and according to user experiences, it is an effective and gentle form of treatment to prevent various types of nausea!

 

Sources

  1. Mustajoki P.. 2021. Duodecim Health Library. Nausea and vomiting. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk00054. Referred on 08/01/2022
  2. Health house. Stomach disease can cause both vomiting and diarrhea. https://www.terveystalo.com/fi/tietopaketit/vatsatauti/. Referred on 08/01/2022
  3. Hyperemesis RY. What is hyperemesis?. https://hyperemeesi.fi/fi/tietoa-hyperemeesista/mita-hyperemeesi-on/. Referred on 08/01/2022
  4. Rock EM and Parker L.. 2016. Frontiers. Cannabinoids As Potential Treatment for Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2016.00221/full. Referred on 08/01/2022.
  5. Chouker A., Kaufmann I., Kreth S., Hauer D., Feuerecker M., Thieme D., Vogeser M., Thiel M. and Schelling G.. 2010. Plos one. Motion Sickness, Stress and the Endocannabinoid System. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0010752. Referred on 08/01/2022.
  6. Darmani N.. 2010. Mechanisms of Broad-Spectrum Antiemetic Efficacy of Cannabinoids against Chemotherapy-Induced Acute and Delayed Vomiting. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4034105/. Referred on 01/08/2022
  7. Taylor B, Mueller M and Sauls RS. 2021. Cannaboinoid Antiemetic Therapy. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK535430/. Referred on 01/08/2022
  8. Parket L., Rock E. and Limebeer C.. 2011. Regulation of nausea and vomiting by cannabinoids. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3165951/. Referred on 01/08/2022
Diabetes and CBD

Diabetes and CBD

Finland has the highest incidence of childhood diabetes in the world. In this article, we will get to know the topic of diabetes, the factors influencing its development, the endocannabinoid system behind diabetes and whether CBD oil could be helpful in managing symptoms.

 

What is diabetes?

 

Diabetes is classified as a group of metabolic diseases that involve pancreatic dysfunction and long-term elevated blood sugar. It is the seventh most common cause of death and is estimated to affect less than 10% of the entire world’s population. Type 2 diabetes in particular is rapidly becoming more common. Diabetes occurs in people of all ages, and its onset is not solely due to hereditary factors. (1,2)

Diabetes is a disease affecting the production and reception of insulin produced by the pancreas, and its different forms are numerous. The most common of them are type 1 and 2 diabetes and LADA diabetes.

 

Type 1 diabetes

 

Type 1 diabetes is a disorder of insulin production in the pancreas, where the pancreas eventually stops producing insulin completely. There is an autoimmune inflammation of the insulin-producing beta cells, which prevents the cells from functioning and eventually destroys them. Insulin replacement therapy is required for treatment. Usually, when type 1 diabetes is diagnosed, diabetes has already been present for months or years and less than one fifth of insulin-producing cells remain. (1,2)

 

Type 2 diabetes

 

Type 2 diabetes is largely a quality of life disease and its background is almost always overweight and unhealthy lifestyles. It is significantly more common than type 1 diabetes, as 75-80% of all people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes. (1,2)

In people with type 2 diabetes, the effect of insulin on its own receptors has been preserved, but numerous problems have been observed in intracellular signaling (3).

Years before the rise in blood sugar, the body has a condition called insulin resistance, which can be seen e.g. as waist obesity, fatty liver, high blood pressure and lowering of good cholesterol (1,2).

 

LADA diabetes

 

LADA-diabetes (Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults) is a sort of intermediate between the two above-mentioned types of diabetes. As the name suggests, it only breaks out in adulthood, approx. 40-60 years old, and is also an autoimmune inflammation occurring in the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas. In general, LADA is interpreted as slowly developing type 1 diabetes, and its symptoms can be easily controlled with a healthy lifestyle. (1,2)

 

Gestational diabetes

 

Gestational diabetes means elevated blood sugar for the first time during pregnancy. It is determined with a sugar stress test and monitoring continues at home by measuring blood sugar. Elevated blood sugars are e.g. in the background of preeclampsia.

Gestational diabetes is caused by an increased amount of fat and hormones to which insulin production does not respond sufficiently. (4)

 

The symptoms of diabetes are listed in the picture.

The most common symptoms of diabetes are increased thirst, fatigue, exhaustion, hunger and the need to urinate.

 

Symptoms of diabetes

 

The first symptoms of diabetes are quite clear, but not unequivocal because they can also be caused by other reasons. Weight loss, increased need to urinate, constant thirst and dehydration are typical initial symptoms, which are stronger in type 1 diabetes. Based on these, blood sugar is measured, and if it is over 11/mmol, further tests are started. (1,2)

Type 1 diabetes can be fatal if left untreated. Hypoglycemia is a condition related to low blood sugar that can also lead to death. Hypoglycemia is the result of too much insulin, which lowers blood sugar to a dangerous level. Low blood sugar is caused by eating too little, alcohol, exercise and too much injected insulin, also in relation to exercise, amount of food and alcohol. (5)

 

Insulin resistance

 

Insulin resistance refers to any abnormal response to insulin in its target tissues (4). It is also called metabolic syndrome and is the basis of obesity, fatty liver and cardiovascular health in addition to type 2 diabetes. (3)

The body uses insulin e.g. to transfer sugar (glucose) from the blood to the cells. In order for the sugar to move, the body uses more insulin and it temporarily raises blood insulin levels. In insulin resistance, the cells that produce insulin can no longer meet the increased need for insulin, which is caused by the reduced ability to absorb insulin caused by the accumulated fat around the organs. (6)

 

Diabetes and the equipment and medicines intended for its treatment.

Diabetes is often treated with medication, but the importance of a suitable diet also plays an important role in keeping its symptoms under better control.

 

Diabetes treatment and medicines

 

Diabetes is treated with both drugs and diet, which is actually the basis of all treatment. Type 1 diabetes requires insulin replacement therapy, i.e. a synthetic equivalent to the insulin produced by the pancreas, but diet is an important part of successful treatment. Special attention is paid to the diet of people with type 1 diabetes and the aim is to use carbohydrates to reduce it in such a way that blood sugar remains as even as possible throughout the day and weight control is easy. (1,2) The diet of type 1 diabetics must be planned together with their medical staff!

Type 2 diabetes is also treated with medication, but it can largely be prevented and treated by following a healthy lifestyle. At the latest at the point when the first symptoms of insulin resistance start to appear, it should be necessary to make changes to at least your eating habits. The food should provide a sufficient amount of nutrients in relation to the amount of food eaten and the use of bad fats, additives and industrial sugar should be as minimal as possible.

Type 2 diabetes and also gestational diabetes can be prevented and treated by eating food that does not raise blood sugar unnecessarily. Empty carbohydrates such as pasta and rice raise blood sugar and it would be good to replace part of their amount with vegetables. You should eliminate all unnecessary sugars, hidden fats, processed products and additives from your diet and eat plenty of vegetables, fruits and berries. Appropriate quality meat and, if desired, a reasonable amount of eggs. Clean food made from raw ingredients, adequate exercise and good quality clean water.

 

Diabetes and feet

 

Foot-related side effects of diabetes account for more hospital days than all other symptoms of diabetes combined. Foot challenges are usually basically caused by pain caused by the nervous system and reduced blood circulation. Even small wounds can become badly inflamed and in the worst case even lead to limb amputation.

Foot care and prevention of problems is important for diabetics. Good shoes, careful treatment of all kinds of wounds, good hygiene and good physical condition of the feet are small but important ways to prevent bigger problems.

Foot cream containing CBD stimulates blood circulation, soothes the skin, relaxes the feet and reduces swelling.

Endocannabinoid system underlying diabetes

 

The endocannabinoid system balances the functioning of the entire body and is e.g. in the background of vital functions affecting body weight regulation, insulin resistance, fat metabolism and appetite. The situation is therefore a little complicated, because it is also a system that takes care of life in the long term and thus knows how to take full advantage of abundant times. In other words, when food is readily available, the endocannabinoid system begins to direct the mind and body in the direction that fat is stored and energy accumulates in abundance…

Referring to the above, several studies support the theory that an overactive endocannabinoid system is the underlying cause of type 2 diabetes in particular.

As a result, the body stores more energy, fat and glucose metabolism weakens, and the effects that promote cell death also increase in the beta cells of the pancreas. (7,8)

The CB1 receptor is part of the endocannabinoid system a receptor that occurs mainly in the central nervous system, but also e.g. in the spleen, lymphocytes and reproductive system. They include e.g. in the reward system, metabolic systems and fatty acid synthesis and with these also the background of diabetes. (8)

 

Symptoms related to diabetes can be eased with the help of CBD oil. The picture shows CBD oil drops.

According to research and user experience, CBD can be of considerable help in the common symptoms of diabetes, such as weight control, improving appetite and treating wounds. CBD also has a positive effect on the well-being of blood vessels.

 

CBD and diabetes treatment

 

According to animal and human studies, CBD has been found to have many therapeutic effects in the treatment of diabetes. Vasodilatation, i.e. the expansion of blood vessels, is possible when CBD activates the CB2 receptor and the serotonin receptor (5-HT1A). CBD has been found to affect diabetic neuropathy, i.e. damage to nerve function. CBD also seems to heal wounds that occur in the thin cell membrane and nerve cells of the inner wall of the intestine. In addition, CBD counteracts the nitration of tyrosine, which is involved in the accumulation of glutamate and the death of neurons. (9)

CBD is a naturally occurring cannabinoid in hemp, which has been studied to have properties that have a positive effect on health. CBD is e.g. anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and tissue-protecting cannabinoid. In addition to the aforementioned properties, CBD has been found to e.g. improving mitochondrial function and could have a significant benefit in treating and preventing complications caused by diabetes. (8)

CBD cannot directly affect insulin production, but according to studies and user experiences, it can be useful for general symptoms such as weight control, appetite and wound treatment. CBD also has a positive effect on vascular health.

Cosmetics containing CBD can help with foot challenges such as nerve pain, skin condition and peripheral blood circulation improvement. A foot cream that contains CBD can be a product worth trying also as a preventive treatment.

 

Summary

 

Type 2 diabetes is becoming more and more common among younger people, and since it is largely a disease caused by lifestyle, prevention and treatment is quite possible and not at all difficult. Changing lifestyles requires persistence, but it’s not rocket science. CBD can be a good help, especially for the side symptoms of diabetes such as challenges related to the feet, but more research is still needed on how CBD affects diabetes overall and the factors behind it.

 

Sources

  1. Pirjo Ilanne-Parikka. 2021. Duodecim Health Library. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk00011. Referred on 30/08/2022
  2. Diabetes. Diabetes Association. https://www.diabetes.fi/diabetes. Referred on 30/08/2022
  3. Mäkinen S., Skrobuk P., Nguyen T. and Koistinen H.. 2013. Duodecim periodical book. Mechanisms of insulin resistance. https://www.duodecimlehti.fi/duo11275. Referred on 30/08/2022
  4. Diabetes Association. Diabetes.fi. Gestational diabetes. https://www.diabetes.fi/diabetes/raskausdiabetes. Referred on 30/08/2022
  5. Mustajoki P.. 2022. Doctor’s book Duodecim. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk00886. Referred on 30/08/2022
  6. Diabetes Association. Diabetes.fi. Metabolic syndrome. https://www.diabetes.fi/diabetes/tyypin_2_diabetes/metabolinen_oireyhtyma_mbo. Referred on 30/08/2022.
  7. Frisher M., White S., Varbiro G., Voisey C., Perumal D., Crome I., Khideja N. and Basford J.. 2010. The British journal of diabetes and vascular disease. The role of cannabis and cannabinoids in diabetes. https://bpspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/bph.13226. Referred on 30/08/2022.
  8. Gruden G., Barutta F., Kunos G., and Pacher P.. 2016. Role of the endocannabinoid system in diabetes and diabetic complications . https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4941127/. Referred on 30/08/2022.
  9. Atalay S., Jarocka-Karpowicz and Skrzydlewska E.. 2019. Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Cannabidiol. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7023045/#B25-antioxidants-09-00021 . Referred on 8/10/2022
What is CBD (cannabidiol)?

What is CBD (cannabidiol)?

What is CBD?

 

On this page we talk about cannabinoids and more specifically what is CBD or cannabidiol.

Products with a lot of CBD but no THC , does not cause intoxication at all. Instead of intoxication, CBD relaxes the body and reduces e.g. pain and anxiety (1).

 

Cannabinoids

 

The medicinal value of cannabis plants is based on the compounds in the plant, cannabinoids and terpenes. Cannabinoids can be classified into external cannabinoids, ie phytocannabinoids, internal cannabinoids, ie endocannabinoids, and synthetic laboratory-produced cannabinoids. More than 100 cannabinoids and more than 200 terpenes have been found in hemp. The best known active ingredients of hemp are delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), and cannabinol (CBN) (1).

 

Hemp has been used for thousands of years

 

The medicinal as well as intoxicating effects of hemp were discovered thousands of years ago. There is a heated debate today on the legality of hemp and cannabis. Previously, the cultivation of both oil and fiber hemp was completely banned in Finland for decades, and hemp-related research was stopped elsewhere in the world.

In legal in cannabis products CBD and THC concentrations are usually expressed as a percentage. If there is little or no CBD, THC can be thought of as a measure of its strength in much the same way as the percentage of alcohol in beverages. CBD works almost in the opposite direction and partially reverses the intoxicating effects of THC (1).

 

CBD or cannabidiol

 

CBD, or cannabidiol, has become known for its medicinal effects. CBD is currently used to treat various diseases and e.g. recovery from sports and recovery from various stressful situations such as concussion (2, 4).

Cannabidiol in raw hemp is still mostly in its natural acid form, cannabidiol ( CBD-A ), which is converted to CBD by time and heat (3). CBD products are often made from industrial useful hemp that does not contain narcotic amounts of THC.

 

CBD does not cause intoxication.

 

CBD mitigates the psychoactive effects of THC in hemp. Products that are high in CBD but not THC do not cause intoxication at all. Instead of intoxication, CBD relaxes the body and reduces e.g. pain and anxiety (1).

“CBD is classified as an antipsychotic and neuroprotective cannabinoid, meaning it relieves anxiety and calms. Studies have found that CBD is useful in the treatment of muscle spasticity, MS, epilepsy and insomnia .” (Vanha-Majamaa, 2018, p.23)

It is precisely CBD that is used by people with epilepsy or MS (Multiple sclerosis) because it has been shown to reduce obsessive-compulsive disorder, muscle stiffness, and seizures (1).

CBD has been found to relieve pain, reduce inflammation, be a more effective antioxidant than vitamin C or E, and have anti-nausea, antipsychotic, and antiepileptic effects through 5-HT1A, GPR55, GPR18, TRPV1, and other TRP receptors, among others. , 6 and 7).


How does CBD work?

 

CBD has been found to slow the natural degradation of anandamide and thus increase the amount of endocannabinoids in brain synapses. This increase in endocannabinoids may be a significant factor in the neuroprotective and other disorders of CBD. health effects (8).

In addition, CBD has been studied to increase the amount of the neurotransmitter adenosine, which regulates the activity of adenosine receptors. A1A and A2A receptors play an important role in the cardiovascular system, regulating myocardial oxygen uptake and blood flow in the coronary artery. These receptors also have broad anti-inflammatory effects in the body (9).

CBD increases the aminobutyric acid binding capacity of the natural agonist of the GABA-A receptor. Aminobutyric acid is one of the most important neurotransmitters in mammals. This increased butyric acid binding has sedative and anxiolytic effects (10). CBD also has a similar negative effect on the CB1 receptor, which reduces the psychoactive effects of THC (11).

CBD is associated with the TRPV1 receptor, which is known to affect pain, inflammation, and body temperature (12).

 

Research on CBD

 

According to some studies, CBD affects the so-called as an agonist that blocks or deactivates the GPR55 receptor. The GPR55 receptor is found especially in the cerebellum. It is involved in blood pressure, bone density, etc. in the regulation of physiological processes. When it is overactive, osteoporosis occurs, which can potentially be treated with CBD. It has also been found to have antiproliferative effects, i.e., to reduce the proliferation of cancer cells. The GPR55 receptor causes the proliferation of cancer cells and is manifested in several types of cancer (13).

CBD also potentially creates cancer-reducing effects by activating PPA receptors that are expressed in cell nuclei. Studies have shown that PPA receptor activation has anti-proliferative effects as well as the ability to regress on cancer (14, 15). In addition, its activation has been found to degrade amyloid-beta plaque, one of the major causes of Alzheimer’s. Therefore, the PPA receptor agonist CBD may be useful in Alzheimer’s patients (16). PPA receptors also regulate genes involved in energy homeostasis, lipid uptake, insulin sensitivity, and the like. in metabolic processes. Thus, CBD may also potentially help in the treatment of diabetes (17, 18)

 

A summary of the studied benefits of CBD:

 

  • reduce pain
  • reduces inflammation
  • improves appetite
  • improves digestion
  • improves metabolism
  • to help you fall asleep
  • enhances the immune system
  • balances homeostasis
  • prevents the growth of cancer cells
  • relieve anxiety
  • reassure
  • Protects cells, tissues and organs from oxidation

 

Does CBD have any side effects?

 

According to a WHO report, the use of CBD is safe and there is no dependence or risk of abuse. Read the full WHO report .

According to some studies, high levels of CBD may affect the efficacy and absorption of certain drugs. Therefore, CBD may have undesirable interactions with certain drugs, so we always recommend that you identify potential risks before use.

CBD works in the body through cannabinoid receptors and is excreted mainly by the liver. The cytochrome p450 enzyme plays a key role in the metabolism of CBD and CBD can increase the activity of these enzymes (19). These CYP enzymes are found especially in the liver, but also everywhere else. CYP enzymes play a key role in drug metabolism. CBD and certain drugs may increase or decrease the effectiveness of the drug in a dangerous way.

 

Read more how CBD works in conjunction with drugs .

 

SEE ALSO RELATED ARTICLE “ WHAT IS THC?

 

Sources

 

  1. Vanha-Majamaa, A. 2018, Kannabiskirja, Helsinki, Kosmos.
  2. Jyotpal Singh & John Patrick Neary. Neuroprotection Following Concussion: The Potential Role for Cannabidiol. 2020. Cambridge University Press. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/canadian-journal-of-neurological-sciences/article/abs/neuroprotection-following-concussion-the-potential-role-for-cannabidiol/3D24F8E3BB6C2403B9027A183FF2B4A7
  3. D. Butterfield. Cannabidiolic Acid (CBD -A): The Raw Cannabinoid That Fights Inflammation. http://herb.co/2017/05/20/cbda/ . 2017
  4. Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency Reconsidered: Current Research Supports the Theory in Migraine, Fibromyalgia, Irritable Bowel, and Other Treatment-Resistant Syndromes https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  5. EB Russo. Cannabidiol (CBD) claims and misconceptions. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences.
  6. AJ Hampson. Cannabidiol (CBD) and (-) Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol are neuroprotective antioxidants. Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Regulation et al. 1998.
  7. Aidan J. Hampson et al. Cannabinoids as antioxidants and neuroprotectants. Google Patents. 2003.
  8. Deutsch DG. A Personal Retrospective: Elevating Anandamide (AEA) by Targeting Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) and the Fatty Acid Binding Proteins (FABPs). Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Stony Brook University Stony Brook, NY, USA. 2016.
  9. Ribieiro A. Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychotropic plant-derived cannabinoid, decreases inflammation in a murine model of acute lung injury: role for the adenosine A (2A) receptor. Neuroimmunomodulation Research Group et al. 2012.
  10. Bakas T. et al. The direct actions of cannabidiol (CBD) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol at GABAA receptors. Faculty of Pharmacy, The University of Sydney et al. 2017.
  11. RB Laprairie. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a negative allosteric modulator of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor. British Journal of Pharmacology. 2015
  12. B. Costa et al. The vanilloid TRPV1 receptor mediates the antihyperalgesic effect of the nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), in a rat model of acute inflammation. British Journal of Pharmacology. 2004
  13. G. Hu et al. Oncogene – The putative cannabinoid receptor GPR55 promotes cancer cell proliferation. Key Laboratory of Stem Cell Biology et al. 2010.
  14. McAllister SD. Cannabidiol (CBD) as a novel inhibitor of Id-1 gene expression in aggressive breast cancer cells. California Pacific Medical Center and others. 2007.
  15. R. Ramer et al. COX-2 and PPAR-γ Confer Cannabidiol-Induced (CBD) Apoptosis of Human Lung Cancer Cells. American Association for Cancer Research. 2013.
  16. G. Esposito et al. Cannabidiol (CBD) in vivo blunts β-amyloid induced neuroinflammation by suppressing IL-1β and iNOS expression. British Journal of Pharmacology. 2007.
  17. JN Feige. Transcriptional coregulators in the control of energy homeostasis. Institute of Genetics and Biological Sciences Molecular and Cellular. 2007.
  18. Y. Sun et al. Cannabinoids: A New Group of Agonists of PPARs. School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Nottingham Medical School. 2007.
  19. Stephen M. Stout & Nina M. Cimino, Exogenous cannabinoids as substrates, inhibitors, and inducers of human drug metabolizing enzymes: a systematic review. Drug Metabolism Reviews. 2013

 

 

 

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