Experiences with CBD oil

Experiences with CBD oil

The use of CBD oil may be associated with uncertainties related to legality and e.g. to its possible intoxicating effect. Although the use of CBD is legal in most parts of the world, there is a strong stigma associated with it, which is based on the classification of hemp as a narcotic drug due to the cannabinoid THC present in it. Both the illegality and the intoxicating effect are both myths, which future generations will certainly have to do to disprove, and this article explains for what purpose people and animals use CBD oil and what experiences they have with it.

Hemp and CBD

Hemp is an ancient plant that has been used e.g. as a medicine for thousands of years. It is special in the sense that, in addition to its medicinal properties, you can actually make everything a person needs in life from it; food, fuel, building material, fabric and rope, paper, plastic, etc.. In addition to these properties, hemp is a very effective land improvement and land purification plant, which binds carbon dioxide from the air many times compared to a growing forest. The icing on the cake is its fast growth rate, because even in Finland, hemp grows to its full size in one summer, and in countries where it is warm all year round, it can grow several crops a year.

Hemp contains a huge number of different compounds, which together or alone form hemp’s possible properties that have a positive effect on health. Cannabinoids such as CBD and THC , more than 120 different types and other compounds such as terpenes are known, flavonoids etc. is more than 450.

Mainly the cannabinoids are what made hemp interesting and still interest both researchers and people suffering from various ailments. Cannabinoids and their effect on humans and animals have been actively studied since the 1940s until today.

 

How is CBD made?

 

CBDoccurs naturally in hemp, especially in inflorescences and leaves, from which it can be pressed and extracted into an easily usable form. Extraction using carbon dioxide is the safest and most popular way to make CBD products.

CBD can also be isolated from the plant in laboratory conditions into an almost pure crystal, which is called CBD isolate. Synthetic CBD is also produced, but its use still involves many questions and perhaps even risks, because CBD is not a streamlined cannabinoid that works in the same way for all humans and animals.

 

Non-intoxicating CBD

 

CBD oil is non-intoxicating as it is made from plants that do not contain the psychoactive substance called THC cannabinoids. In natural unprocessed hemp or hemp processed for seed and fiber use, THC is present in very small amounts at most. Those strains known to be intoxicating and highly medicinal have been bred to produce a higher amount of THC than strains that have been specifically bred CBD for production or so-called industrial hemp varieties from which CBD oil is most commonly produced.

Cannabis shop sign.

The use of CBD has been legal in many places even for decades and it has been used with good results for many different diseases and to relieve their symptoms.

 

CBD use in the world

 

CBD has been widely used around the world for years, so there has been plenty of experience to support the research results. For example, in Canada, where the use of hemp has been legal since 2002, CBD is used for mental challenges such as stress, depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder, as well as in the treatment of serious diseases such as cancer.

According to studies and user experiences, CBD has mitigating effects at least on the symptoms of MS, epilepsy and various cancer symptoms, as well as the side effects caused by chemotherapy. Challenges related to sleep and skin, pain and general physical and psychological well-being are also reasons why CBD oil used in the world. Dentists also recommend the use of oral care products containing CBD. In addition, CBD has been proven to have good effects on periodontitis and tartar.

Also, for example, in Israel, North America, Australia and some European countries such as Switzerland, Holland, Spain and the Baltic countries, CBD products are used successfully, although sometimes there may be some restrictions on its use, manufacture or sale.

CBD or hemp as a plant is of course not a cure-all miracle drug and is usually used both for the prevention of diseases and for treating and alleviating their symptoms, not for actual healing. The best effect is obtained from full-spectrum CBD oil , which contains all the active substances of hemp. CBD has been found to work best synergistically, i.e. in such a way that all the compounds are involved in supporting each other’s activity.

CBD oil, according to studies, is a mild but effective support for treating many diseases and it could be recommended in Finland too, e.g. doctors and therapists. As the general atmosphere is still a bit reserved, it is less often recommended to use it. CBD and many products containing it such as CBD candies, CBD cosmetics, CBD oil, CBD capsules and various extracts and tinctures offer the opportunity to find a suitable and pleasant way to enjoy CBD.

 

The potential benefits of CBD

 

Various diseases and the effect of CBD on them have been studied in a variety of ways, both with animal and human experiments. CBD oil does not necessarily work directly on the root cause of the disease, but on common side symptoms of various diseases such as insomnia , nausea and it might help the appetite. A few of the most common uses for CBD are listed below.

 

Symptoms of MS

 

MS and related side symptoms such as stiffness and tremors have been in the research field of CBD for a long time. According to studies, CBD slows down the progression of the disease, mitigates the side effects caused by drugs and calms the trembling, involuntarily moving body. More about MS and the effect of CBD on its symptoms can read here .

 

Epilepsy and CBD

 

The effect of CBD on epilepsy is perhaps one of the oldest and most studied equations. According to research and user experience, CBD affects both the number and intensity of seizures, and maybe one one of the most well-known CBD use experiences is the story of a child named Charlotte Figi’s epilepsy. Already as a baby, he had up to 300 strong epileptic seizures per week, the number of which decreased to 2-3 seizures per week after starting to use CBD oil. Charlotte’s development had practically stopped due to strong seizures, but soon it was able to continue and Charlotte learned e.g. to walk and talk.

Unfortunately, Charlotte’s life ended due to complications from the flu at the age of 13 in 2020, but her legacy lives on strong in the form of a CBD strain named after her (Charlotte’s web) and as an extremely important reminder of how powerful nature is in its healing power.

Read more about CBD and epilepsy .

 

Mind challenges and CBD

 

Diseases that affect mental health, such as depression and chronic or post-traumatic stress, have also been the subject of CBD research for a long time. CBD is a cannabinoid that calms the nervous system, which may have a very effective anxiety-relieving, mood-elevating and emotional memory erasing effect. Read more about the effect of CBD for depression here and stress here. On supporting post-traumatic stress disorder with CBD can read here.

 

Pain and CBD

 

According to studies, different types of pain can be alleviated by the effect of CBD oil. Especially for chronic or muscular pain, CBD may have effects and it is possible read more here .

 

The gut and CBD

 

According to studies, CBD also affects the functioning of the intestines. More about the effects of CBD oil on the gut can read here and about the user experience related to CBD capsules and their effect on intestinal challenges here .

 

Meditation and CBD

 

Meditation and yoga are globally known ways to calm the mind, relax the body and get closer to the deepest self. CBD may also have a positive effect on the practice and experience of yoga and meditation can read here .

 

A woman is happy on the beach under the clouds.

The use of CBD is becoming more common in the world and it is perceived as a well-tolerated support alongside other treatment.

 

CBD oil is also suitable for animals

 

CBD oil is used for pets for very similar reasons as it is for humans; to raise the mood, reduce inflammation in the body, calm down, improve appetite, relieve side symptoms of various diseases and calm the nervous system. According to studies, CBD is very suitable for animals, and it doesn’t seem to have any unpleasant side effects for them either. For animals, CBD is dosed according to the product and the animal’s weight, and according to experience, it has been used successfully at least for dogs, cats, rodents and horses. More on using CBD oil for animals can read here .

 

Summary

 

CBD is a very versatile, single-plant compound that is safe to use, especially when it is in its natural form together with hemp’s other active compounds. Hemp is guaranteed to be one of the oldest medicinal and useful plants, and the unnecessary labels associated with it have unfortunately only been born within the last century at the most. CBD oil is generally well tolerated and, according to studies, has several potential uses, including children and pets. Its use and research on it will hardly decrease, as treatment targeting the endocannabinoid system will become a significant part of the treatment of diseases.

 

CBD and blood pressure

CBD and blood pressure

High blood pressure is a big risk to your health, but fortunately, it can be positively influenced by small lifestyle changes. Blood pressure is often treated with medication, although it would be most effective to focus on the causes that raise blood pressure!

In this article, we will get to know blood pressure and the health challenges caused by its fluctuation, the endocannabinoid system behind this important function, CBD oil as a blood pressure regulator, and also whether there are any risks in the interaction of blood pressure medications and CBD.

What is hypertension?

 

Hypertension is usually referred to when the blood pressure is too high. This is a more common challenge associated with blood pressure, but sometimes blood pressure can also be too low. (1)

Fluctuations in blood pressure are natural and occur, for example, after exertion, such as exercise and sauna, in connection with tension and also at night, as blood pressure may drop by up to 20% during sleep.

Especially in older people, it is common, but not safe or healthy, for blood pressure to rise above the reference values. High blood pressure is a significant factor behind many diseases. (1)

Approximately one million Finns take blood pressure medication, and in addition, it is estimated that approx. one-fifth of Finnish adults have blood pressure levels that are not within normal limits. The causes of high blood pressure are largely lifestyle. (1,2)

 

Normal blood pressure and values

 

When measuring blood pressure, it is divided into two parts. Systolic, i.e. upper pressure, is the higher number on the meter, which describes the blood pressure at the moment the heart contracts. Diastolic, i.e. lower pressure, is the lower number shown on the meter and it describes the pressure of the resting phase of the heart.

The blood pressure measurement unit is millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and the value is measured at rest, sitting and not talking, in as stress-free conditions as possible.

Normal values are when upper pressure is between 130-139 and lower pressure between 85-89, but both upper and lower pressure can be normal when one of them is high or low. Young and middle-aged people usually have low blood pressure, while the elderly are more sensitive to high blood pressure. This is related to the elasticity of the blood vessel walls. (1,2)

 

Sphygmomanometer for measuring blood pressure.

The cause of high blood pressure is usually bad lifestyle.

 

Low blood pressure

 

Women’s blood pressure is naturally often a little lower than men’s, and the fact that the blood pressure is slightly below the reference value is not yet a sign of illness.

In young people and young adults, low blood pressure is less likely to be a problem, but in older people it usually indicates vascular or heart diseases. Too low blood pressure causes at least dizziness, often also headaches, even in younger people. They are the most recognizable symptoms. (1,2)

High blood pressure

 

Only a small part of hypertension is caused by disease. Elevated blood pressure is almost always caused by lifestyles that strain the circulatory system and heart function. The most important change associated with hypertension is an increase in the resistance of the peripheral circulation. (1,2)

The symptoms of high blood pressure are conspicuous by their absence until there is another reason, usually caused by high blood pressure, to go to the doctor. If there are risk factors associated with your lifestyle and situation, it can be good to monitor your blood pressure, because even a little high blood pressure can trigger other diseases or at least be a favorable basis for their development. Hypertension can e.g. damages arteries and predisposes to coronary artery disease, promotes heart failure and even causes stroke or heart attack. (1,2)

Dangerously high blood pressure that requires immediate treatment is when the upper pressure is 180 mmHg or the lower pressure is 110 mmHg. High blood pressure is between 160-180 mmHg and 100-110 mmHg, and more calmly monitored blood pressure between 140-160 mmHg and 90-100 mmHg. These readings are indicative only

 

Essential hypertension

 

Essential hypertension is the term for persistently high blood pressure. It is a multi-caused national disease that arises when important physiological functions fail. Essential hypertension is the transition of a regulatory system consisting of several functions to a new level of function, and its mechanism of action is not yet properly understood. (3)

 

Symptoms of hypertension

 

High, even dangerously high blood pressure usually does not cause noticeable or outwardly visible symptoms, at least at first. It is practically impossible to detect without measurement and for this reason it usually has time to cause problems before it is detected. The symptoms related to low blood pressure are clearer, because they are e.g. dizziness, headache and blurring of the eyes during sudden movements. (1,2)

Prevention, drugs and treatment

 

High blood pressure is usually caused by either illness or lifestyle, but prolonged stress has also been linked to cardiovascular diseases. It is possible to prevent high blood pressure with a healthy lifestyle. A balanced use of salt and fat, a diet rich in vegetables, berries and fruits and regular exercise are the basic pillars that make it possible to avoid numerous diseases, including high blood pressure. Avoiding excessive alcohol and quitting smoking are also important factors in lowering blood pressure. Factors affecting mental health such as stress, social relationships and quality of life have also been estimated to be behind high blood pressure.

In the treatment recommendations, the most important factor is the correction of lifestyles before starting the medication. Lifestyles should be in order before medication is even considered, but the high sales figures for blood pressure medications belie the fact that lifestyle change has not always been either successful or was an actual condition for receiving the medication. Usually, drug treatment consists of two or three different combinations of drugs, because usually one drug does not yet achieve the desired result.

Instead of a curative effect, blood pressure medications only keep the symptoms under control and the actual causes behind high blood pressure still exist, causing other challenges such as insulin resistance and fatty liver. (1,2)

The most important element behind successful treatment is a change in lifestyle, if high blood pressure is not due to other causes such as kidney or heart disease. The symptoms may stay away with medication, but a permanent change in blood pressure can only be achieved through diet, exercise and a balanced mind!

 

The endocannabinoid system and blood pressure

 

The body’s watchdog, the endocannabinoid system, does its best to keep blood pressure in check, along with balancing other vital functions. It is an important system that is responsible for the functioning of all body processes and it consists of three basic pillars; about endocannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors and the molecules that break them down.

Endocannabinoids have numerous functions, together and separately with other lesser-known endocannabinoids, they have been thought to be involved in blood pressure at least in the functioning of the heart muscle and vascular system. The best known endocannabinoids are anandamide and 2-AG. Anandamide is behind the mechanisms that relax blood vessels, and other endocannabinoids also seem to have roles in producing the effect.

Endocannabinoids are also behind acute situations such as heart attacks.

Of the cannabinoid receptors, at least CB1 affects the function of the related heart muscle and blood vessels.

CBD oil and hemp leaf.

CBD has properties that positively affect health and blood pressure.

 

CBD and blood pressure

 

CBD is a cannabinoid compound found in hemp, which, according to research, has numerous properties that have a positive effect on health. It has been found to be beneficial to the circulatory system and animal studies show that CBD has similar to anandamide , it has a vasorelaxing effect (4).

CBD has been found to lower blood pressure and stabilize heart function (5).

It e.g. suppresses inflammatory changes in the coronary arteries caused by glucose, alleviates heart muscle dysfunction familiar to diabetics and keeps the endothelium of the retinal microvessels intact. (4)

 

Interaction of antihypertensive drugs with CBD

 

Although CBD has been found to be a safe and well-tolerated cannabinoid and the full-spectrum CBD oil, which includes all the active ingredients of hemp ( Entourage effect ), is suitable even for children and animals, there may be some interactions with medicines that should be taken into account.

An enzyme called cytochrome P450, which works especially in the liver, but also in other tissues, is responsible for the breakdown of some medicines. These cytochromes participate in the drug’s own metabolism by incorporating a water atom into the drug’s molecular structure, thus making it water-soluble and easier to filter by the kidney.

CBD has been found to inhibit cytochrome P450 activity by deactivating it. As a result of the reduction and slowing down of enzyme activity, some medicines may break down more slowly than usual and work a little differently compared to normal. This effect has not been observed at low CBD with doses and thus it is hardly likely, but the possibility exists.

There are several medications related to blood pressure, blood thinning and calcium blocking that are affected by high doses of CBD, and it is good to think carefully about compatibility before starting to use CBD oil. These drugs include e.g. medicines containing warfarin and valsartan. More incompatible medicinal substances and medicines, as well as information on the interaction of medicines and CBD can read more here .

 

Hemp seed oil may affect blood pressure

 

Hemp seed oil, which is obtained from hemp seeds and is also sold on grocery store shelves, contains plenty of fatty acids that are essential for the body. The fatty acids it contains, such as ALA, GLA and SDA, interact with each other and have a positive effect on general health. It is often said that vegetable oils are harmful, but when used in appropriate amounts, hemp seed oil in particular may have a favorable effect, e.g. cholesterol quality, blood pressure and skin health. (6)

Summary

High blood pressure is the underlying cause of numerous diseases and it is a real burden on the body. Blood pressure is mainly raised by unhealthy lifestyles, which are in principle easy to correct with small changes in diet and choices related to intoxicants. CBD may support the lowering of blood pressure and especially it may be useful for challenges caused by high blood pressure such as sleep difficulties and for making a change in life itself. At high doses, CBD oil may affect the action of blood pressure medications!

Sources

  1. Mustajoki P.. 2022. Duodecim health library. Low blood pressure. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk00300. Referred on 12/12/2022.
  2. The working group set up by Duodecim of the Finnish Medical Society and the Finnish Venerpaineyhdistys ry. 2020. Valid treatment recommendation. Risen bloodpressure. https://www.kaypahoito.fi/hoi04010. Referred on 12/12/2022.
  3. Ruskoaho H.. 1999. Period book Duodecim. Essential hypertension – do we still know its cause? https://www.duodecimlehti.fi/duo90232. Referred on 12/12/2022.
  4. Stanley CP, Hind HW and O’Sullivan SE. 2012. Is the cardiovascular system a therapeutic target for cannabidiol? https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=O%27Sullivan%20SE%5BAuthor%5D. Referred on 12/12/2022
  5. Jadoon KA, Tan GT and O’Sullivan SE 2017. A single dose of cannabidiol reduces blood pressure in healthy volunteers in a randomized crossover study. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=Jadoon%20KA%5BAuthor%5D. Referred on 12/12/2022.
  6. Rodriguez-Levya D and Pierce GN. 2010. The cardiac and haemostatic effects of dietary hempseed. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=Pierce%20GN%5BAuthor%5D. Referred on 12/12/2022.
CBD and eating disorders

CBD and eating disorders

Young people are becoming increasingly susceptible to eating disorders. There are few things that the young person can ultimately decide for themselves and sometimes the nausea breaks out in the things that are in their hands; for eating and moving. This article discusses eating disorders, looks at how the endocannabinoid system works behind them and finds out whether CBD oil could be helpful in supporting the treatment of eating disorders.

Eating disorders

 

Eating disorders that especially affect young and young adult women are sometimes even life-threatening, so-called spectrum disorders, the symptoms of which are diverse and often imperceptible at first. The symptoms are related to eating, movement and psychological challenges, the existence and severity of which the sufferer himself is not always willing to admit. (1)

According to estimates, by adulthood, every sixth woman and every 40 the man has had an eating disorder of some degree. The vast majority of these cases heal on their own without professional help, but sometimes ward treatment in a hospital is needed. (2)

Eating disorders are associated with a strong distortion of body image. The patient’s thoughts revolve largely around food, the body, for losing weight and in matters related to movement, and as a result, many other activities that normally fill everyday life, such as hobbies and social relationships, receive less attention. (3)

The most common eating disorders are anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder.

 

Many factors trigger an eating disorder

 

An eating disorder is the sum of many factors. Its onset is promoted by heredity as well as self-esteem and trauma. Social and environmental challenges and pressures are also behind the emergence of the disease. (2,3,4,5)

 

Symptoms of eating disorders

 

Eating disorders are all different from each other, but within each disease they cause common symptoms, on the basis of which the disease picture is formed. Common to all eating disorders is an excessive judgment of body image and the challenges associated with eating and exercise caused by it.

 

Eating disorder test

 

Whenever you suspect that you or a loved one has an eating disorder, it’s a good idea to talk to a professional. However, the Mielenterveystalo.fi site also has a test (eating disorder screen) that allows you to assess your own eating and exercise behavior with a low threshold in relation to your own body image and weight.

The test related to eating disorder can be found behind this link; Eating Disorder Screener (SCOFF) | Mielenterveystalo.fi .

 

Anorexia

 

Thinness disorder or anorexia (anorexia nervosa) is one of the most common eating disorders. It is estimated that about one percent of young people suffer from it and it can lead to serious malnutrition problems, sometimes even death. Anorexia is basically a mental illness that is easy to diagnose but challenging to notice. Unfortunately, the disease picture often includes secrecy and covering up of symptoms, which complicates both the diagnosis and the detection of the disease. (4)

Anorexia is associated with a strong body loathing, which most often has nothing to do with reality. In addition, the disease involves extreme control and monitoring of weight, and even complete lack of food, resulting in physical and psychological symptoms related to malnutrition, such as severe weight loss, lack of concentration, brain fog, etc. are due to. Often, those suffering from thinness disorder are successful young people who demand perfection from themselves!

At its worst, anorexia can cause osteoporosis, diseases caused by malnutrition, and sometimes even death.

Anorexia is a serious mental health challenge that takes a long time to recover from. The person suffering from it needs understanding, support, presence and stopping. A conversation with an experienced expert can be life-changing, and a meeting with one is recommended for both the patient and his close circle. There is always hope.

 

Bulimia

 

Binge eating disorder (bulimia nervosa) refers to an eating disorder, the most obvious symptom of which is binge eating of unhealthy foods and vomiting or vigorous exercise very soon after eating.

A person suffering from bulimia momentarily loses a sense of control over their own eating and tries to correct the situation by vomiting or exercise, sometimes both. An attack is often the result of feelings related to shame, failure, etc., and these feelings may not necessarily have anything to do with food.

Binge eating disorder usually starts later than eating disorder, but is also more common. Bulimia is more a disease of young women, but it also occurs to some extent among young men. (5)

Tape measure around the fork.

Eating disorders do not only affect young people, but it can also affect adults, causing intense shame and insecurity.

 

Adult eating disorder

 

Unfortunately, an adult eating disorder often goes unnoticed, especially if the disease only starts at an older age. It is true that eating disorders are largely diseases of young people, but sometimes adults also have symptoms related to a distorted body image, which cause challenges with eating. Eating disorders such as bulimia and binge eating disorder are significantly more common in adults, and these symptoms are often accompanied by strong shame, which is why the matter is hidden even from one’s own family.

Eating disorder treatment

 

Healing from an eating disorder is a long process. The more serious the condition, the longer it takes to recover and usually the treatment is very much focused on therapy and rehabilitation. A multiprofessional team should be involved in the treatment, in addition to awakening the patient’s own desire for treatment and desire to heal. The most common reason for treatment failure is the patient’s own reluctance to accept help.

 

The endocannabinoid system behind eating disorders

 

The endocannabinoid system is behind all the body’s processes, making sure that everything works perfectly. The overall function of the endocannabinoid system is to take care of survival, i.e. the so-called survival of life. about basic things such as sleeping, eating and the processes behind them. One of the most important functions of the endocannabinoid system is to monitor functions related to energy intake, such as energy storage.

The underlying factor behind eating disorders is an imbalance in the signaling of the hormone leptin, which affects appetite and energy balance. The activity of this hormone is regulated by the brain’s hypothalamus, whose endocannabinoids are part of the nervous system that controls energy and leptin. (6,7)

 

The body’s own cannabinoids

 

The body itself produces cannabinoids when needed, where they are needed, and they are not stored goods. Several endocannabinoids work in the body, two of which are better known, anandamide and 2-AG .

Endocannabinoids have been found to regulate appetite in many different ways (6,7) and they affect the response in the background of eating disorders, the purpose of which is to increase appetite (8). On the other hand, among people who suffer from binge eating, endocannabinoids may also be involved in the factors that increase eating.

According to research, the anandamide levels in the blood of people suffering from anorexia are slightly elevated while the 2-AG levels are normal, but the endocannabinoid levels in the blood of people suffering from bulimia are normal compared to healthy blood. (7)

 

Cannabinoid receptors

 

Two cannabinoid receptors are currently known, but there are a few more candidates for these receptors, about which we will get more information as research progresses. The most well-known, CB1 and CB2 receptors, are receptors found throughout the body, to which endocannabinoids respond.

In eating disorders, there is no significant deviation in receptor function, but a slight increase in the CB1 receptor has been observed in both anorexia and bulimia. (7)

A happy woman eats porridge with blueberries from a bowl.

Healing from an eating disorder takes a long time and e.g. therapy, CBD oil and family support are a major contributor to the healing process.

 

CBD for an eating disorder

 

CBD (cannabidiol) is a natural compound found in the hemp plant, a cannabinoid that, according to research, has numerous health-promoting effects. Hemp and the compounds it contains have been studied for a long time and quite a number of them have already been identified. Cannabinoids alone, the most famous of which are THC and CBD, more than 120 different compounds have been found and other compounds such as terpenes, flavonoids etc. more than 450. CBD has been studied extensively for decades and has been found in several studies to be a safe and well-tolerated natural product.

To support the treatment of eating disorders, CBD oil is mainly used for its appetite-regulating effects, but CBD has other properties that may be useful for the patient. CBD has been researched to relieve anxiety and depression symptoms, helps to think outside the box and also improves appetite. It might have positive effect on sleep quality and it calms both the nervous system and the inflammatory state of the body .

Eating disorders are strongly associated with a sense of power, which stems from controlling one’s own eating and appetite. CBD also affects reward behavior, which is an underlying process related to the satisfaction of the basic needs associated with eating.

 

Cannabigerol (CBG) is an appetite-stimulating cannabinoid

 

One of the numerous cannabinoids is CBG (cannabigerol) and it has been found in animal experiments to increase appetite as effectively as THC, but without any psychoactive effect. There has been some research into the use of CBG to treat anorexia and other eating disorders, and it appears to be a potential cannabinoid to both prevent anorexia and even promote the recovery process. (8)

 

Summary

 

Eating disorders are a serious mental health-based illness, the recovery of which can be a struggle of years, even for the rest of your life. These diseases are largely completely treatable and the earlier the disease is noticed, the easier it is to restore physical health. According to studies, CBD is a natural product with numerous health-supporting properties and may also have a beneficial effect on various eating disorders through various mechanisms of action. More studies are needed, but it seems that CBD oil could very well be a form of support for future eating disorder treatments!

Sources

  1. A working group set up by Duodecim of the Finnish Medical Society, the Finnish Children’s Psychiatry Association and the Finnish Psychiatry Association. 2014. Valid treatment recommendation. Eating disorders. https://www.kaypahoito.fi/hoi50101. Referred on 12/19/2022.
  2. Ruuska J.. 2022. Doctor’s book Duodecim. Eating disorders. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk01320. Referred on 12/19/2022
  3. Information about eating disorders. Eating Disorder Association. https://syomishairioliitto.fi/tietoa/tietoa-syomishairioista. Referred on 12/19/2022.
  4. Ruuska J.. 2021. Duodecim health library. Anorexia nervosa. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk00111. Referred on 12/19/2022.
  5. Ruuska J.. 2021. Duodecim health library. Binge eating disorder (Bulimia nervosa).
  6. Monteleone P., Matias I., Martiadis V., De Petrocelis L., Maj M. and Di Marzo V.. 2005. Neuropsychopharmacology. Blood Levels of the Endocannabinoid Anandamide are Increased in Anorexia Nervosa and in Binge-Eating Disorder, but not in Bulimia Nervosa. https://www.nature.com/articles/1300695#auth-Palmiero-Monteleone. Referred on 12/19/2022.
  7. Marco ME, Romero-Zerbo SY, Vivero MP. and Bermudez-Silva FJ. 2012. Behavioral Pharmacology. The role of the endocannabinoid system in eating disorders: Pharmacological implications. https://www.bloomble.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/The-role-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-eating-disorders-pharmacological-implications.pdf. Referred on 12/19/2022.
  8. https://fi.cannabis-mag.com/cbg-tehokas-luonnollinen-korjaus-lanorexiaa-vastaan/. Referred on 12/19/2022
CBD and depression

CBD and depression

The use of CBD oil to alleviate symptoms caused by depression is safe and, according to user experiences, also effective. Depression is a very common state of mind and when it becomes chronic, it makes life difficultugh.

In this article, we look at the factors behind depression and whether CBD oil or CBD capsules could help with the symptoms caused by it.

 

Depression causing low energy

 

Depression is at the same time one of the most underrated and the most common mental health disorders. Many depressed people must have heard that they are just a lazy, tired or boring guy who never goes anywhere. In fact, he is really exhausted and down, and may not even be able to cook, let alone go to the store. In Finland, there are approx. 6% of the population and the main symptoms are similar; the person experiences a strong decrease in interest and the feeling of pleasure, as well as deep feelings of depression (1).

 

Chronic depression is often a co-morbidity

 

Chronic depression is often a co-morbidity, but it also affects people who do not have any underlying long-term illness. Studies show that depression is partly hereditary, especially in those cases where a person comes from challenging circumstances (1,2). Despite numerous studies, the origins of depression have not been reached, it is only possible to assess which factors influence its origin and what happens in the body when a person experiences depression.

 

The endocannabinoid system plays a role in the background of depression

 

Depression, like everything else that happens in the body, is influenced by the endocannabinoid system. That important system balances all body functions and tries its best to keep us healthy! The background of depression is especially affected by the CB1 receptor and endocannabinoid anandamide (2,3). These components of the endocannabinoid system play a direct role in anxiety-like behavior and stress susceptibility and are considered important pathophysiological contributors to depression (2).

 

Chronic stress contributes to anandamide deficiency by increasing the production of FAAH fatty acid amide hydrolase, which is responsible for the breakdown of endocannabinoids. Anandamide is the so-called happiness molecule, which is central to the experience of the feeling of pleasure.

A depressed person with his feet in the water.

CBD can have a mood-elevating effect that can help with depression that causes low mood.

 

The CB1 receptor plays an important role in the treatment of depression

 

In particular, the CB1 receptor has been found to play an important role as a mood regulator. Disturbance in the regulation of the CB1 receptor leads to a reduced ability to enjoy pleasure, a passive tolerance to stress and a higher susceptibility to develop depression-like symptoms (2). The CB1 receptor has a clear role in terminating the stress response mediated by the HPA axis (2,4).

 

The HPA axis and glucocorticoids

 

Dysfunction of the HPA axis, one of the key factors in depression, is strongly regulated by the endocannabinoid system. The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis regulates the action of the steroid hormone glucocorticoids in the body, and these steroid hormones are responsible for regulating the body’s stress response to internal and external threats. (2,4)

 

Depression triggers the symptoms

 

In addition to low mood, depression is also associated with other symptoms related to feelings and moods. A depressed person often feels feelings of inferiority and worthlessness, guilt and, in cases of severe depression, also thoughts related to death and suicide.

 

As depression is a disease that affects the mood very strongly, it also has physical symptoms. Depressed people often struggle in one way or another with weight and appetite. Sleep-related challenges are common, as are weakness and constant fatigue. The flow of thought may slow down and concentration may be difficult, sometimes body movements also become slower.

 

What causes depression?

 

The actual cause of depression is not known, and therefore the development of antidepressants also has its own challenges. Depression is almost always caused by stress. It can also be triggered by the death of a loved one or a pet, or some other traumatic life experience that causes deep sadness. There are often different degrees of depression anxiety. Postpartum depression is also common.


Postpartum depression

 

Of the Finnish parents, approx. 10-20% experience depression after giving birth. Depression occurs most within three months after giving birth and it usually gets better within a few months. Postpartum depression can range from mild to moderate to severe depression. The symptoms of depression vary from person to person. (5)

At its worst, postpartum depression may trigger anxiety in addition to chronic depression, and episodes of depression may recur later. After the first birth, the risk of recurrence of depression for subsequent births is around 50-60%. (5)

 

No exact reason for the depressive phase of the birth mother is known yet, but it is estimated that it may be related to a general tendency to depression, thyroid gland dysfunction and overload. The young age of the mother, previous traumas, domestic violence, changes in hormone function and complications during pregnancy may also increase susceptibility to depression. (5)

 

Serotonin deficiency

 

The use of substances significantly increases the risk of developing depression. Regarding bodily functions, depression is associated with a lack of serotonin, as well as a malfunction of the HPA axis. Endocannabinoid normal production of anandamide prevents excessive release of serotonin from platelets. Full-spectrum CBD oil can help with depression, as it promotes the functioning of the endocannabinoid system by making cannabinoids available to the body.

The nerve cell and the effect of CBD on it.

According to research, CBD has effects that protect the nervous system and reduce inflammation in the body

 

CBD protects the nervous system

 

CBDThe mechanism of action of ) is still largely a mystery. It is known that it responds to CB receptors rather poorly, but it is also known that it has more than 60 other receptors in the body that it positively affects. Related to depression, it inhibits the activity of FAAH fatty acid amide hydrolase. FAAH is a molecule that breaks down cannabinoids and its overactivity causes a deficiency for anandamide .

 

CBD has been found to have protective effects on the nervous system, as well as anti-inflammatory effects in the body (2). CBD has been found to weaken physiological and behavioral reactions in stressful situations (2,3). It inhibits the activity of the HPA axis and activates the serotonin receptor.

Depression can be caused by inflammation

 

Silent inflammation is low-grade inflammation in the body that occurs slowly over a long period of time. It is different from, for example, an infection caused by bacteria. In recent years, theories related to depression have been turned in the direction that the underlying cause might be inflammation and therefore also a disturbance in the immune response. The reason for this change in direction is the ineffectiveness of serotonin-related drugs and the assumption that the actual cause of depression is somewhere other than the reuptake of serotonin, although that disorder is also usually found in the background of depression. (6,7)

 

Silent inflammation is affected by diet, stress, amount of exercise, etc., exactly the same things that seem to be behind all imbalances in the body. Cannabinoids CBD and cannabigerol (CBG) produce anti-inflammatory effects and have a broad effect on all kinds of skin inflammation, including inflammation of the nervous system, which is thought to be the cause of depression…

CBD has been shown to calm key inflammatory mediators, free radicals and nitric oxide production.

 

Finally

 

Both depression and CBD are so multidimensional and challenging in their actions that it is difficult to give direct answers to how CBD oil helps depression. According to user experiences and research, supporting the endocannabinoid system with CBD oil can be an effective and versatile aid for various depressive symptoms. The endocannabinoid system also plays a significant role in the underlying physiology of depression.

 

Sources

  1. Duodecim ; depressive state, i.e. depression. 2022. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk00389. Referred on 5/15/2022
  2. Gallego-Landin I., Garcia-Baos A., Castro-Zavala A., Valverde O.. 2021. Reviewing the Role of endocannabinoid system in the pathophysiology of depression. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Gallego-Landin 20I %20I% %5D&cauthor=true&cauthor_uid=34938182. Referred on 5/15/2022
  3. Cannabidiol: A Potential New Alternative for the Treatment of Anxiety, Depression, and Psychotic Disorders. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Sala %20F% 5BAuthor%5D&cauthor=true&cauthor_uid=33228239. Referred on 5/15/2022
  4. Viinamäki H., Lehto SM, Palvimo J., Harvima I., Valkonen-korhonen M., Koivumaa-Honkanen H., Hintikka J., Honkalampi K., Niskanen L.. Duodecim ; The connection of glucocorticoids to the origin and symptoms of depression. 2012. https://www.duodecimlehti.fi/duo10282#s2. Referred on 5/15/2022
  5. Thl.fi. 2022. Postpartum depression. https://thl.fi/fi/web/lapset-nuoret-ja-perheet/sote-palvelut/aitiys-ja-lastenneuvola/neuvolatyon-sisallot-ja-menetelmat/synnytyksen-jalkeinen-masennus. Referred on 31/05/2022
  6. Pure ; Low-grade inflammation can underlie many diseases. https://www.puhti.fi/tietopaketit/matala-asteinen-tulehdus/. Referred on 5/15/2022
  7. Duodecim ; Depressive symptoms possibly related to inflammation. https://www.duodecim.fi/2022/01/05/masennusoireet-mahdollisesti-yhteydessa-tulehdukseen/. Referred on 5/15/2022
What is decarboxylation?

What is decarboxylation?

What is decarboxylation and how does it relate to CBD oil ? Hemp contains a huge range of different cannabinoids, the most famous of which are probably THC and CBD . In growing hemp, or in a freshly dried hemp flower, these cannabinoids are not actually present at all. They only contain cannabinoid precursors, cannabinoid acids. Cannabinoid acids must go through a chemical process called decarboxylation, where those cannabinoid acids are converted into cannabinoids. In this article we will learn about decarboxylation and what it has to do with CBD oil!

 

From cannabinoid acid to cannabinoid

 

The creation of cannabinoids is a multi-step process. During the growing season, the hemp grows a flower in which small crystals are formed, just like small crystals. These crystals are called trichomes and most of the cannabinoid acids produced by hemp accumulate in them. The compounds in hemp are first transformed into cannabigerolic acid ( CBG-A ) and from there into cannabinoid acids such as CBD-A , THC-A , CBN-A, etc. In the fall, the completed inflorescence is harvested and dried, which is when the transformation of cannabinoid acids into cannabinoids begins. Heat, oxygen, light and time bring about a process called decarboxylation, which transforms cannabinoid acids into a neutral form into cannabinoids CBD , THC , CBN , etc.

 

Heat causes decarboxylation

Decarboxylation is a natural process that can happen in two ways. Naturally by the influence of light, heat, oxygen and time or mechanically with the help of heat, speeding up that natural process. The natural decarboxylation process is slow, lasting even months, but with the help of sufficiently high heat, the molecular reaction can be accelerated to take place in a few hours.

 

Decarboxylation is a molecular reaction

 

Decarboxylation is perhaps a familiar term from biology or chemistry classes. It is a molecular reaction in which the carboxyl attachment detaches from the molecule, releasing carbon dioxide at the same time. The molecules of all cannabinoids are different from each other, but all of them, or their precursor cannabinoid acid, have in common the carboxyl bond carbon-oxygen-oxygen-hydrogen (-COOH). The bond of the carboxyl group to the molecule is not very strong and is easily broken by heat. The carbon released from the molecule releases carbon oxide and thus converts the cannabinoid acid into a neutral cannabinoid. (1,2)

 

Is decarboxylation necessary?

 

Cannabinoid precursors such as CBD-A found in hemp also correspond to the endocannabinoid system. CBD-A has been less studied than its cannabinoid form CBD, but it is also versatile and effective in its effects. According to user experiences, CBD-A helps e.g. to relieve stress. It has been found to lift the mood and calm a restless mind.

CBD has been found to have more good properties than CBD-A, which is perhaps only due to the fact that CBD has been studied more.

On the other hand, it is believed that CBD-A is, as it were, inactive, while CBD is the active form. It is thought that CBD would have more therapeutic effects and that it would respond better and more widely to the endocannabinoid system. However, there is no absolute certainty about this.

 

Is CBD oil decarboxylated?

 

The answer is yes and no. Most of the CBD oils on the market have gone through the decarboxylation process, but we also have unique CBD-A oils available.

 

How does decarboxylation affect other compounds?

 

120 different cannabinoids have been identified in hemp. In addition to them, hemp has a huge number of other effective compounds such as terpenes , flavonoids and minerals. In order to convert the cannabinoid acid CBD-A into CBD, but at the same time preserve other active ingredients such as terpenes, you have to be careful with the temperature and time. Some of the compounds are destroyed at lower temperatures than the decarboxylation of cannabinoids, so not everything can be preserved. On the other hand, the boiling temperature of many active compounds is higher than that required for the formation of CBD, so some of the other compounds survive gentle heating well.

 

Common decarboxylation methods

 

A few different methods have been developed to speed up the decarboxylation process. Different cannabinoid acids have their own relationships to the temperature and time in which decarboxylation into cannabinoids takes place. Studies have shown that, for example, TCH is formed at a lower temperature, but more slowly than CBD (1). CBD-A starts to decarboxylate at 120 degrees, and the boiling point of CBD is 160°. After crossing the boiling point, CBD starts to evaporate and thus disappear completely. (1,3)

 

An oven where CBD can be decarboxylated.

Decarboxylation of CBD-A can be easily done at home in the oven.

Decarboxylation in the oven

 

Of the decarboxylation methods, the oven method is probably the most familiar and used, where the hemp blossom or CBD-A juice capsule juice powder is heated in the oven, on the oven tray. According to research, CBD concentrations are at their highest when the oven is kept at 130 degrees approx. 40 minutes. (1,3)

 

Decarboxylation by vacuum method

 

Another, more effective method according to user experience, is the vacuum method, where hemp flowers placed in a vacuum bag are immersed in water in a pot. The temperature of the water in the boiler is kept at 95-100 degrees approx. for an hour. The water must not boil. The vacuum method is slower, but gentler, because there is no risk of burning the flowers!

Decarboxylation of CBD oil

 

CBD oil should no longer be decarboxylated once it has been bottled. CBD oil is decarboxylated during its extraction stage by heating. The CBD oils sold in the world are largely decarboxylated, but today, more and more, there are oils available with, for example, half of the oil extracted from raw hemp and half of decarboxylated CBD oil . There is also oil extracted from raw hemp only, which is the so-called CBD-A oil .

 

Finally

 

Although decarboxylation may seem like a necessary and important reaction at first glance, the fact is that we are not completely sure if decarboxylation is as essential as we think. CBD-A has been found to have many good effects in studies, despite the fact that almost all studies focus on CBD. In principle, you could even say that the studies distort the idea that only the cannabinoid CBD is effective and therapeutic.

 

Sources

  1. Decarboxylation Study of Acidic Cannabinoids: A Novel Approach Using Ultra-High-Performance Supercritical Fluid Chromatography/Photodiode Array-Mass Spectrometry. 2016. Wang M., Wang YH., Avula B., Radwan M., Wanas AS, Antwerp J., Parcher JF, ElSohly MA, Khan I.. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc /articles/PMC5549281/ . Referred on 02/28/2022
  2. What is decarboxylated CBD. 2021. Keehn J., El-hajj S.. https://cbdschool.com/what-is-decarboxylated-cbd/ Cited 2022-02-28
  3. Evaluation of thermo-chemical conversion temperatures of cannabinoid acids in hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) biomass by Pressurized liquid extraction. 2021. Olejar K., Kinney C.. https://jcannabisresearch.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s42238-021-00098-6 Cited 28/02/2022

https://hamppumaa.fi/what-are-cbd-and-cbd-a/?lang=en

https://hamppumaa.fi/mita-on-cbn-eli-kannabinoli/

https://hamppumaa.fi/mita-on-thc/

https://hamppumaa.fi/entourage-effect-ja-cbd-oljyn-taysi-spektri-selitettyna/

https://hamppumaa.fi/mita-ovat-terpeenit/

https://hamppumaa.fi/mita-on-cbd-ja-cbd-a/https://hamppumaa.fi/mita-on-cbd-ja-cbd-a/

The effect of CBD on well-being

The effect of CBD on well-being

CBD’s effect on well-being is versatile. On this page you will find studies on the effects of cannabinoids such as CBD, e.g. for the treatment of depression, anxiety, stress, insomnia and pain conditions.

During the past decades, a significant amount of research has been done on the effects of different cannabinoids. In particular, CBD has been extensively studied using various tests and methods. Several studies have taken into account the relationships of cannabinoids to each other, as well as their effect together and separately. However, research is still in its early stages and it is generally known that the factors affecting the endocannabinoid system are not yet fully understood. However, it has been shown to be true that external cannabinoids can be useful for a wide range of imbalances in the body, both in humans and in other mammals.

Depression

It seems that the endocannabinoid system is involved in the treatment of depression , although its role is not yet fully understood. Based on the published data, the endocannabinoid system provides new ideas and options in the treatment of depression, but further studies are still needed to determine which patient group could benefit from such treatment (1).

A 2018 study published in the journal Molecular Neurobiology concluded that CBD is a promising fast-acting antidepressant. While traditional antidepressants typically take some time to work, a study in rodents showed that CBD had rapid and sustained antidepressant-like effects (2).

There are many individual cases in the world where cannabis has helped research patients in the treatment of depression. In addition, new studies have been conducted that report the importance of the role of the endocannabinoid system in depression, indicating that there is a link between endocannabinoid dysfunction and depression. The TGA (Therapeutic Goods Administration ) is known to approve cannabis for patients with depression, which suggests that cannabis plays a role in the treatment of depression (3).

We still lack high-quality clinical studies that emphasize depression or the improvement of depression as the most important outcome. However, there are mouse experiments that show that cannabis can help with depression. Other studies, such as the Sativex studies, have shown a significant improvement in the well-being of people using cannabis medicines (4).

The anti-depressant effects of cannabis, as well as the interaction between antidepressants and the endocannabinoid system, were reported in a study in 2010. The study in question was conducted to evaluate the antidepressant-like effects of delta9-THC and other cannabinoids. The results of the study show that delta9-THC and other cannabinoids have an antidepressant-like effect and can therefore influence the mood-enhancing properties of cannabis (4).

Anxiety

Studies that were conducted on animals and performed various tests such as the forced swim test (FST), Elevated plus maze (EPM) and Vogel conflict test (VCT), suggest that CBD has anti-anxiety and anti-depressant effects in research animals (5).

Overall, the existing preclinical evidence strongly supports the potential of CBD in the treatment of anxiety disorders. CBD has multifaceted effects that are relevant in several different areas related to anxiety (6).

Since endocannabinoids appear to play an important role in major depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and bipolar disorder, the Cannabis sativa plant is suggested for their treatment. The endocannabinoid system covers a wide range of the entire body, including the brain, and is responsible for a wide range of different body functions. The system in question is linked to mood and related disorders. Exogenous cannabinoids can alter its activity. CB1 and CB2 receptors mainly act as binding sites for endocannabinoids and phytocannabinoids produced by cannabis flowers. However, cannabis is not a single compound, but is known for its complex molecular profile, which produces numerous phytocannabinoids and many different terpenes. Thus, synergism has a positive effect due to the addition of terpenes to cannabinoids (7).

Read more in the article CBD oil can relieve anxiety .

Stress

A study published in 2018 found that CBD has stress-reducing effects that can reduce stress-related depression. The results of the study suggest that in chronically stressed mice, CBD prevents stress-induced reduced hippocampal neurogenesis and stress-induced angiogenesis, i.e. new blood vessel formation (8). Read more in the article CBD and stress .

Nerve pain

According to the study, cannabidiol (CBD), the significant non-psychoactive component of cannabis, has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. This study investigated its therapeutic potential in the treatment of neuropathic and inflammatory pain in rats. The results of the study show that CBD has potential for therapeutic use in painful chronic pain conditions (9).

Pain

A 2018 review , Cannabinoids and Pain: New Insights From Old Molecules , evaluates how well CBD works for chronic pain relief . The review looked at studies conducted between 1975 and March 2018. These studies looked at a variety of pain conditions, including cancer pain, neuropathic pain, and fibromyalgia. Based on these studies, researchers concluded that CBD was effective in general pain management and did not cause negative side effects (10).

Inflammations

One 2017 review found that CBD’s anti-inflammatory properties may help with the following conditions (11):

A 2016 study looked at the effect of CBD on rats with arthritis . Researchers found that topical CBD gel reduced joint swelling and pain in rats. No significant side effects resulted from the experiment. Research shows that CBD cosmetics have therapeutic potential for reducing the behavior and inflammation associated with arthritis pain without apparent side effects (12).

Insomnia

Several studies on CBD, anxiety and sleep have found that many patients do not notice a difference immediately. A 2019 study found that subjects took about a month to notice a difference (13). So be patient and remember that the desired results may take time.

The final sample consisted of 72 adults with primary concerns of anxiety (n = 47) or poor sleep (n = 25). Anxiety scores decreased during the first month in 57 patients (79.2%) and remained low during the duration of the study. Sleep quality improved during the first month in 48 patients (66.7%), but varied over time. In this chart review, CBD was well tolerated in all but three patients (13).

CBD may also be promising for those suffering from REM sleep disorders and excessive daytime sleepiness. The synthetic cannabinoid nabilone can reduce PTSD-related nightmares and improve sleep among patients with chronic pain (14).

Read more in the article CBD oil and insomnia .

Effects of CBD on concentration

CBD has several properties that not only improve our general well-being, but also increase concentration and energy. It stimulates the endocannabinoid system, one of whose functions is to regulate attention, memory, concentration and energy. By helping the endocannabinoid system to function better, CBD also helps increase our productivity (15).

If your inattention and inability to concentrate are due to health issues, we strongly recommend that you consult your doctor for diagnosis and treatment. While CBD can help improve concentration, focus, and energy, it is still necessary to find the root cause of your problems in order to properly address it. Your doctor can also help you find the best CBD products for focus or energy and dosage.

Terpenes in the treatment of depression, anxiety and stress

Terpenes found in hemp and their effect on anxiety, depression and stress have also been the subject of research. Terpenes are found especially in the essential oils of hemp, but also in the resin of plants. Terpenes give hemp its characteristic aroma. Listed below are 4 common terpenes and their effects. Note most of the experiments have been done on mice and further studies are needed.

  • Limonene – research shows that the terpene limonene can relieve stress and anxiety (16).
  • Pinene – research shows that the terpene pinene has anti-anxiety effects (17).
  • Linalool – research shows that the smell of linalool can have anxiolytic effects (18).
  • Myrcene – research shows that myrcene has a calming effect (19).

Possible side effects of CBD

Although many studies show that CBD is generally safe, it is worth considering the fact that people are different and that different active ingredients will cause a different reaction in some people than in others. Here you can find information about the possible side effects that CBD may cause in some rare cases.

Side effects are relatively rare. However, some users may experience possible minor side effects such as Below is a list of side effects that have been obtained in the 2019 study’s mouse experiments (20).

  • Fatigue
  • Diarrhea
  • Change in appetite
  • Weight fluctuation
  • Mood swings
  • Possible interactions with medicines can reduce or strengthen the effect of the medicine.

The text on this page is not intended for product marketing. The website administrator is also not responsible for the correctness of the text and possible errors. The reader should carefully check all the sources appearing in the text. The content of the page is not intended as self-care instructions for any disease or situation. We recommend discussing possible changes in your life situation first together with an expert doctor.

Sources

  1. Ewa Poleszak et al. Cannabinoids in depressive disorders , Life Sciences, Volume 213, 2018
    https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0024320518306040
  2. Sales AJ, Fogaça MV, Sartim AG, et al. Cannabidiol induces rapid and sustained antidepressant-like effects through increased BDNF signaling and synaptogenesis in the prefrontal cortex . Mol Neurobiol 56, 1070–1081 (2019). doi:10.1007/s12035-018-1143-4
  3. Wen-Juan Huang et al. Endocannabinoid system: Role in depression, reward and pain control , Mol Med Rep. 2016. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5042796/
  4. Abir T. El-Alfy et al. Antidepressant-like effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L . Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. Volume 95, Issue 4, 2010. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0091305710000730
  5. Alexandre R de Mello Schier et al. Antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol: a chemical compound of Cannabis sativa . CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets, 2014. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24923339/
  6. Esther M. Blessing et al. Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders . Neurotherapeutics. 2015. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13311-015-0387-1?handl_url
  7. Ferber, Sari G. et al. The “Entourage Effect”: Terpenes Coupled with Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Mood Disorders and Anxiety Disorders . Current Neuropharmacology, Volume 18. Number 2. 2020. https://www.ingentaconnect.com/contentone/ben/cn/2020/00000018/00000002/art00004
  8. José A. Crippa et al. Translational Investigation of the Therapeutic Potential of Cannabidiol (CBD): Toward a New Age . Front Immunol. 2018. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6161644/
  9. Barbara Costa et al. The non-psychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an orally effective therapeutic agent in rat chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain . Eur J Pharmacol. 2007. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17157290/
  10. Sonja Vučković et al. Cannabinoids and Pain: New Insights From Old Molecules . Front Pharmacol. 2018. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6277878/
  11. Simona Pisanti. Cannabidiol: State of the art and new challenges for Therapeutic applications . Pharmacol Ther. 2017. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28232276/
  12. DC Hammell et al. Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviors in a rat model of arthritis . Eur J Pain. 2016. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4851925/
  13. Scott Shannon et al. Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: A Large Case Series. Perm J. 2019. https://www.healthline.com/health/cbd-for-insomnia#how-to-use
  14. Kimberly A. Babson. Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and Sleep: a Review of the Literature . Current Psychiatry Reports. volume 19, Article number: 23. 2017. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11920-017-0775-9
  15. Ruth E Cooper. Cannabinoids in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A randomized-controlled trial. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2017. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28576350/
  16. Naiana GPB Lima et al. A nxiolytic-like activity and GC-MS analysis of (R)-(+)-limonene fragrance, a natural compound found in foods and plants. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2013. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22995322/
  17. Tadaaki Satou et al. Daily inhalation of α-pinene in mice: effects on behavior and organ accumulation. Phytother Res. 2014. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25340185/
  18. Hiroki Harada et al. Linalool Odor-Induced Anxiolytic Effects in Mice. Front Behav Neurosci. 2018. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6206409/
  19. T Gurgel do Vale et al. Central effects of citral, myrcene and limonene, constituents of essential oil chemotypes from Lippia Alba (Mill.) ne Brown. Phytomedicine. 2002. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12587690/
  20. Ewing Le, Skinner Cm, Quick Cm, et al. Hepatotoxicity of a Cannabidiol-Rich Cannabis Extract in the Mouse Model. Molecules. 2019; 24. https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/24/9/1694

Fatty liver and CBD

Fatty liver and CBD

Fatty liver, a disease that regularly appears in the headlines of the tabloids, is a real threat to public health and, according to estimates, up to a quarter of Finnish adults suffer from it. It is completely possible to cure fatty liver and in this article we will get to know whether CBD oil could be of any help to restore the situation to its original state. We also look at the functions of the endocannabinoid system in the background of fatty liver and find out what fatty liver actually is!

 

What is fatty liver?

 

Fatty liver is the most common liver disease and occurs especially in the so-called in welfare states. Before, it was diagnosed only in 40-60 year olds and mostly alcoholics, but as overweight becomes more common, it is found in more and younger people, and the cause is no longer alcohol but an unhealthy diet. (1,2)

According to estimates, even one in four Finnish adults has a fatty liver. Fatty liver cases caused by alcohol are only a fraction of this, as approx. 75% percent of fatty liver diagnoses are given due to diet. Fatty liver is very common in diabetics, but it is often caused by factors that are not so easy to influence (1).

In fatty liver, too much fat accumulates inside the liver cells, in the fat cells and in the abdominal cavity. This excess fat is caused by extensive metabolic disorders, the causes of which are diverse and individual. (1,2)

 

Causes of fatty liver

 

Fatty liver is mainly caused by unhealthy lifestyles. Heavy alcohol use and being overweight are the most significant factors, but it’s not always about that, but sometimes genes also predispose the liver to obesity. Very rarely, but sometimes, some medicines can cause fatty liver.

In addition to lifestyle, age and insulin resistance also affect fatty liver. Insulin resistance is a state of the body that contributes to the onset of various diseases, you can read more about it e.g. from here .

 

Symptoms of fatty liver

 

Fatty liver in itself does not cause any clear tangible or visible symptoms, but it contributes to various diseases such as diabetes and onset of hypertension. (1)

Fatty liver diagnosis at the doctor's office.

Fatty liver increases the risk of developing hypertension.

 

Diagnosis

 

Fatty liver is not associated with pain or other sensations, so it can be challenging to detect it before it’s too late. Although the clear indications of the possibility of fatty liver are usually heavy alcohol use and obesity, overweight or alcohol problems do not always occur, and the liver values may also be within the reference values despite the disease.

The diagnosis is confirmed by a blood test and an echocardiography of the liver.

 

Prevention and treatment of fatty liver

 

Healthy lifestyles are the basis of both the prevention and treatment of fatty liver.

There is no medical treatment directly available for fatty liver, but with a lifestyle overhaul, a fatty liver can usually be cured completely.

The most effective way to treat fatty liver is to reduce alcohol consumption and get rid of excess weight. It has been established that even a few percent weight loss can reduce the fat percentage of the liver by up to ten. Reducing alcohol, regular exercise and an optimal diet together is the most effective and fastest way to get rid of fatty liver, but investing in any of them is already a step in the better direction! (1)

You should add fruits, vegetables and berries to your diet instead of slow carbohydrates and use a wider range of different fat sources.

There are many perspectives on the choice of fats, but a general guideline could be to pay attention to versatility and quality. Many foods already contain a lot of fat, such as meat, eggs, avocado, nuts, etc. and there is always no need for additional fat (bread topping, frying fat, etc.) in the meal.

Sugar and hidden sugar should also be avoided in large quantities, especially when treating fatty liver. You should pay attention to the package leaflets, because even yogurts can contain huge amounts of sugar. More than half of regular white sugar contains fructose, which promotes fatty liver.

Fatty liver has long been considered a benign disease that can be completely cured, but if it is not treated in time, it can progress to inflammation, fibrosis or even liver cirrhosis. A scarred liver can no longer be healed, and in Finland the mortality from liver cirrhosis is at the top level in Europe.

 

The endocannabinoid system in the background of fatty liver

 

The endocannabinoid system that maintains the body’s balance is found in all mammals and it monitors all the processes going on in the body. Appetite and weight control have both been regulated by the endocannabinoid system for a long time. Behind these seemingly simple functions are numerous processes and events, which, roughly speaking, all functioning endocannabinoid Thanks to the CB1 receptor activated by 2-AG .

Liver cells have been shown to produce both known cannabinoids , anandamide and 2-AG, to be produced and the liver is self-sufficient in terms of them. According to animal experiments, 2-AG levels in the liver increase due to alcohol, and anadamide levels increase with fatty food. Both anandamide and 2-AG have been shown to have anti-scarring effects. (3,4,5)

Of the cannabinoid receptors, only CB1 is expressed in a healthy liver. In cases caused by both alcohol and fatty food, increased CB1 receptor levels have been noted, but the CB2 receptor appears in the liver only when the liver has cirrhosis. (5)

 

CBD oil and hemp leaf. For treating fatty liver.

CBD oil may prevent the development of fatty liver by affecting the accumulation of lipids in the tissues.

 

CBD oil for fatty liver

 

The use of the CBD oil the effect on fatty liver has been studied quite a bit as such, but CBD’s anti-inflammatory effects, as well as its antioxidant properties, are properties that may lead to some relief. As fatty liver is a completely curable disease, its primary and most important treatment is definitely reducing alcohol consumption and reducing body weight through diet and exercise, depending on which is the problem in the first place.

CBDhas been found to have an effect on preventing diet-induced liver damage by reducing the accumulation of lipids in tissues. CBD also reduces the activation of inflammation and the presence of inflammatory cytokines (6).

CBD also has antioxidant properties that have been shown to alleviate oxidative stress. Alcohol and high-fat food increase the production of reactive oxygen species and CBDThe antioxidant properties of (6)

 

Finally

Fatty liver is a very common disease that can be cured if it is detected early enough. Depending on the genes, it is very easy to take care of the health of the liver, because the basis of its well-being is mostly healthy lifestyles.

The endocannabinoid system has its own roles in the liver and also in the background of liver health and has been found to be completely self-sufficient in terms of endocannabinoid production. The use of CBD oil to support the treatment of fatty liver is still quite a gray area, but probably in the future, research will be focused on the utilization of cannabinoids due to their versatile therapeutic effects.

 

Attachments

 

  1. Mustajoki P.. 2021. Health Library Duodecim. Fatty liver. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk00070. Referred on 11/14/2022.
  2. Mervaala E., Tarnanen K. and Yki-järvinen H.. 2020. Fatty liver disease (Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease). https://www.kaypahoito.fi/khp00132. Referred on 11/14/2022.
  3. Purohit V., Rapaka R. and Shurtleff D.. 2010. Role of Cannabinoids in the Development of Fatty Liver (Steatosis). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2844512/. Referred on 11/14/2022
  4. Alswat KD. 2010. The Role of Endocannabinoids System in Fatty Liver Disease and Therapeutic Potentials. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=Alswat%20KA%5BAuthor%5D. Referred on 11/14/2022.
  5. Tam J., Liu J., Mukhopadhyay S., Cinar R., Godlewski G. and Kunos G.. 2011. Endocannabinoids in Liver Disease. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=Jan %20J% 5BAuthor%5D. Referred on 11/14/2022.
  6. Jiang X., Gu Y., Huang Y., Zhou Y., Pang N., Luo J., Tang Z., Zhang Z., and Yang L.. 2021. Frontiers of pharmacology. CBD Alleviates Liver Injuries in Alcoholics With a High-Fat High-Cholesterol Diet Through Regulating the NLRP3 Inflammasome–Pyroptosis Pathway. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2021.724747/full. Referred on 11/14/2022.
What is MCT oil?

What is MCT oil?

MCT oil is an oil concentrated from coconuts, which has a lot of good quality medium-length omega fatty acids. MCT is currently particularly popular among dieters, athletes and those who follows special diets.

The name of MCT oil comes from the words Medium Chain Triglyceride, which reflects medium-chain fats (C8 and C10). MCT consists of capric, caprylic, caproic and lauric acids. You get energy quickly from MCT oil, as it is absorbed into the body much faster than other fats. The C8 fatty acids in MCT oil are quickly converted into ketones in the body. MCT is therefore particularly suitable for a ketogenic diet and for giving extra energy to those who move a lot.

There is a lot of heated discussion about the use of fat and there is a lot of information on the subject. However, it is known that avoiding fats for weight loss is not necessarily the best solution. To function optimally, the human body needs good quality fat, e.g. for cells, brain, hormones and immunity. Fats are therefore a necessary part of natural well-being.

Other foods that contain medium-long fatty acids (MCT) include e.g. coconut oil, cheese, butter, yogurt, milk and palm kernel oil,

 

The neutral taste makes it easier to use

 

Thanks to its completely neutral taste and smell, MCT oil is perfect as a side dish to various foods and drinks. Adding MCT oil to shakes, porridge, soup, tea or coffee is nowadays a very popular way to get more energy, for example in the morning or before sports performance. Fatty coffee is also called butter coffee, strong coffee and bulletproof fat coffee. The fatty acids in MCT oil slow down the absorption of caffeine into the body, so that the stimulating effect of coffee lasts longer.

Adding oil to food and drinks gives texture, but does not affect the taste, and therefore it is easy to experiment and use in a variety of ways. MCT oil can also be consumed as is.

Butter coffee / fatty coffee on the table.

Fat coffee is easily prepared with MCT oil. Fat balances the effect of caffeine and the stimulating effect of coffee lasts longer.

MCT oil dosage and use

 

Dosage instructions vary case by case, but it is recommended to start using MCT oil with a smaller dose of 1 teaspoon to 1 tablespoon, so that the body gets used to it first. You can slowly increase the dose according to your taste. After getting used to medium fatty acids, the average recommended daily dose can be 1-3 tablespoons once or several times a day.

MCT oil is recommended to be stored at room temperature, protected from the sun. After opening, the oil stays better in a cool place, such as in the refrigerator.

 

MCT oil and frying

 


However, the versatile MCT oil is not suitable for frying and it is not recommended to heat it above 160 °C. Too high a temperature changes the chemical composition of MCT in an undesirable direction.

 

The benefits of MCT oil

 

The high-quality fatty acids of MCT oil have made this oil very popular in Finland in recent years as well. In particular, many weight-lossers and athletes have taken MCT as part of their diet. MCT oil quickly gives you more energy for training and can also be helpful for older people. In addition to other good properties, MCT oil also accelerates fat burning, so it is an excellent part of a healthy diet.

According to 2016 research, MCT oil had a significant positive effect on muscle function and strength in older people. Visible results were achieved with a daily dose of 6 grams in three months. (1)

MCT oil in coffee suppresses the effect of caffeine, and the invigorating effects of the drink last longer. MCT oil gives you quick energy without the food activating and overloading the digestive system too much.

For weight management, it is sometimes recommended to take MCT oil before going to bed, as it can help reduce the feeling of hunger the next morning. This can be a good way to fast for a short time or otherwise just to extend the intervals between meals, so that the digestion also gets more time to rest and recover.

 

MCT oil increases the level of alertness

 

MCT oil is said to improve not only the level of alertness but also the mood. The brain mainly consists of fatty acids and the good quality fats of MCT oil are easily usable food for them. In studies, MCT oil has increased the energy levels of people suffering from memory disorders and has been found to have a preventive effect on memory disorders.

 

Fatty acid composition of MCT oil

 


In its natural form, MCT oil made from coconut oil consists of four different fatty acids, which are lauric acid, capric acid, caprylic acid and caproic acid. Of these, caprylic acid (C8) is the highest quality medium fatty acid, which is absorbed very quickly and goes directly to the liver as fuel for energy.

MCT oil is also made from palm oil. In the name of health, it is good to prefer only MCT oil made naturally from non-GMO coconut. It is also essential to ensure that the ratio of fatty acids in the final product is optimal. This information is usually found on the bottle label.

Higher quality MCT oils mostly contain only the best forms of caprylic and capric acid. Poorly processed MCT oil may contain more caproic acid (C6) and lauric acid (C12) than caprylic and capric acids. In the names of medium fatty acids, the C number refers to the number of carbon atoms.

 

Capric acid (C10)

 

Capric acid is a high-quality medium saturated fatty acid, also known as decanoic acid. Capric acid has studied health effects and supports immunity, among other things. It is also used in the pharmaceutical industry and in lubricants.

 

Caprylic acid (C8)

 

Caprylic acid is the most essential form of fatty acid in MCT oil, which has been studied to have a wide variety of health benefits. Caprylic acid is absorbed very quickly and burns in the liver, giving energy almost at the same time, which makes it especially suitable for sports performances to give extra purity. Caprylic acid has a warming effect on the body from the inside.

Lauric acid (C12)

 

Lauric acid is a medium saturated fatty acid. Lauric acid is antibacterial and is found especially in coconut oil, but also in cow’s, goat’s and mother’s milk. It is not converted to energy as quickly as caprylic acid.

Caproic acid (C6)

 

Caproic acid is the shortest saturated medium fatty acid and no significant health benefits have been found. At room temperature (20 degrees), caproic acid is clear and has a liquid consistency.

 

LIST OF MCT OIL BENEFITS

 

  • Increase muscle strength (1).
  • Burns fat and helps with weight loss (2).
  • Reduces the amount of bad cholesterol (2).
  • Increases the feeling of satiety (3).
  • Eliminates hunger (3).
  • Raises the alertness level (4).
  • Promotes ketosis (4).
  • Improves mood.
  • Strengthens immunity (5).
  • Prevents memory disorders (6).
  • Enhances training and promotes endurance (7).
  • Enhances the absorption of omega-3 fats (8).
  • Helps balance blood sugar (9.)
  • Promotes digestion
  • Also suitable for skin care and as a lubricant.

.

Disadvantages of MCT oil

 

Even with good quality fats, you should be careful and moderate. Compared to other oils, MCT oil is absorbed very quickly, which means that it should not be used too much. The fatty acids in MCT oil are absorbed through the portal vein directly into the liver. Pay the room to store the extra substances in itself if there are too many of them. A high intake of MCT oil may cause fatty liver, which should be avoided. (10)

Fatty liver means that excess fat accumulated in the liver causes the liver to expand. According to the definition of fatty liver, if more than 5% of the liver tissues are made up of fat, we can talk about fatty liver. Also excessive use of alcohol or 2. type 2 diabetes can cause fatty liver. (10)

With fat coffee containing MCT, you should also observe moderation and drink no more than one cup a day, so that the oil does not become too much in the dosed sump.

Poorly processed MCT oil may contain more caproic acid (C6) and lauric acid (C12), which may cause diarrhea, flatulence, or digestive issues.

CBD oil with MCT oil in a bottle.

MCT oil enhances the absorption of cannabinoids from CBD oil.

 

MCT oil and CBD oil

 

CBD oils are usually sold extracted into liquid vegetable oil. Vegetable oils are usually MCT oil, sunflower oil, olive oil or hemp seed oil. MCT oil has been found to be the best possible carrier oil also in the ingredients of CBD oils, which is why MCT oil is currently by far the most popular carrier oil in CBD oils.

 

Why is MCT the best carrier oil for CBD oils?



The fast-absorbing MCT oil enhances the effect of the cannabinoids in the CBD oil. In addition, MCT has a neutral taste and, due to its antibacterial properties, it also improves the shelf life of CBD oils. MCT oil remains liquid even when cool, making it easier to dose and use.

 

Differences between MCT and coconut oil

 

MCT oil is extracted from coconut meat, but coconut oil also has similar effects on human brain function and memory as MCT oil. Coconut oil also acts as fuel for the brain, which can affect alertness, the flow of thoughts and clarity. Coconut oil also promotes fat burning.

Most of the fats in coconut oil (93%) are saturated fatty acids. In the same way as MCT oil, coconut oil does not need additives to be preserved, so it is a 100% natural product. Coconut oil is also antibacterial and therefore can be used as well for skin care , irritated or damaged skin, intimate areas and as a deodorant substitute.

The smoking point of coconut oil is 180 °C degrees, i.e. slightly higher than MCT, and therefore it is more suitable for heating than MCT, which is not recommended to be heated above 160 degrees.

Separating MCT oil from coconut oil enables a better fatty acid composition. MCT nightshade naturally contains only C6, C8, C10 and C12 acids. Almost half of coconut oil (42%) is lauric acid.

 

MCT Oil vs. Hemp Oil

 

Hemp oil and MCT oil both contain good quality fatty acids. The main difference between these oils is the taste, color and fatty acid composition. Hemp oil provides plenty of essential omega-3 fatty acids in a good ratio to omega-6 fatty acids. Hemp seed oil also contains omega-9 fatty acids.

MCT oil contains caprylic acid (C8), capric acid (C10), lauric acid (C12) and caproic acid (C6).

MCT oil has been found to promote the absorption of omega-3 fatty acids, so it is ideal for use in combination with hemp oil.

 

You can order CBD oils made from MCT oil from Hamppumaa’s online store .

 

Sources

 

  1. Abe S. et al. 2016. The Journal of Nutrition. Medium-Chain Triglycerides in Combination with Leucine and Vitamin D Increase Muscle Strength and Function in Frail Elderly Adults in a Randomized Controlled Trial https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27075909/. Referred on 07.06.2022.
  2. Ria et al. 2016. Nutrients. Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Health: The Potential Beneficial Effects of a Medium Chain Triglyceride Diet in Obese Individuals. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4882694/. Referred on 15.06.2022.
  3. St-Onge et al. 2015. Eur J Clin Nutr . Impact of medium and long chain triglycerides consumption on appetite and food intake in overweight men. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4192077/. Referred on 07.06.2022.
  4. WMADB Fernando et al. 2015. Br J Nutr. The role of dietary coconut for the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: potential mechanisms of action . https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25997382/. Referred on 15.06.2022.
  5. Michael Shilling et al. 2013. J. Med. Food. Antimicrobial effects of Virgin Coconut oil and its medium-chain fatty acids on Clostridium difficile . https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24328700/. Referred on 15.06.2022.
  6. Candida J Rebello et al. 2015. BBA Clin. Pilot feasibility and safety study examining the effect of medium chain triglyceride supplementation in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: A randomized controlled trial. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26675661. Referred on 15.06.2022.
  7. Nasako et al. 2009. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). Effect of ingestion of medium-chain triacylglycerols on moderate- and high-intensity exercise in recreational athletes . https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19436137/. Referred on 07.06.2022.
  8. Kondreddy et al. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 2016. Medium-chain triglycerides and monounsaturated fatty acids potentiate the beneficial effects of fish oil on selected cardiovascular risk factors in rats . https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26878786/. Referred on 07.06.2022.
  9. Eckel et al. 1992. Diabetes. Dietary substitution of medium-chain triglycerides improves insulin-mediated glucose metabolism in NIDDM subjects . https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1568535/. Referred on 07.06.2022.
  10. Turola Ilona. Over. 2014. A new hit oil landed in Finland . https://yle.fi/uutiset/3-7422146. Referred on 15.06.2022.
CBD, coffee and caffeine

CBD, coffee and caffeine

Coffee has a strong established position in our culture. Relative to the population, Finland drinks the most coffee in the world. Coffee is often the first thing offered wherever you go in Finland. About 91% of Finns drink coffee at least once a day, and during the year coffee is consumed by every Finn, about 10 kilos.

Nowadays, the consumption of various CBD products has also become a part of everyday routines for many people, so it is timely to consider what is the difference between coffee, caffeine and CBDthe possible interaction of Read on to see how coffee and other caffeinated beverages pair up with CBD!

 

Caffeine

 

Caffeine is the world’s most commonly used psychoactive substance, which can be found naturally in e.g. from coffee, tea, cocoa, cola drinks and mate. Caffeine affects e.g. attention, mood, alertness and has a stimulating effect on the central nervous system.

The effects of caffeine begin quickly and its absorption takes place from the digestive tract into the bloodstream. Caffeine is structurally similar to the neurotransmitter adenosine, whose effect is known to be relaxing and tiring. Caffeine fogs the brain by blocking the relaxing effects of adenosine, which produces the stimulating effects of coffee (1).

The noticeable effects of caffeine often begin within 30 minutes of consuming it. The half-life of caffeine is 3-6 hours. Caffeine can reduce the quality of sleep, make it difficult to fall asleep and shorten the amount of sleep at night (2). Studies have noticed hereditary differences in how caffeine affects sleep.

 

Safe dosage of caffeine

 

The safe daily dose of caffeine for adults is less than 400 mg. The recommended maximum daily dose for pregnant and breastfeeding women is half of that, i.e. approx. 200 mg. For children and young people, less caffeine is recommended, and the guideline safe limit is no more than 3 mg for each kilogram of body weight per day. (3)

The natural caffeine content in the products varies depending on the quality, variety, maturity and processing method. Below is a comparison of the caffeine content of different products.

 

  • Coffee (2dl) contains approx. 90–160 mg of caffeine.
  • Tea (2dl) contains approx. 34-90 mg of caffeine.
  • Mate (a cup of mate) contains approx. 25–150 mg of caffeine.
  • Dark chocolate (100g) contains approx. 55 mg of caffeine.
  • A cola drink (330 ml) contains approx. 36 mg of caffeine.

 

Caffeine goes well with CBD. The picture shows the molecular formula of caffeine.

Coffee, cocoa, tea, cola drinks and mate are the most popular caffeinated drinks.

 

Coffee enhances the effect of CBD

 

According to research, coffee can enhance the effect of cannabinoids such as CBD. In a 2010 research review, it was noticed how caffeine sensitizes the GABA receptors in the brain’s striatum to cannabinoids. GABA, i.e. gamma-aminobutyric acid, is the main neurotransmitter in the brain, the purpose of which is to slow down the activity of neurons in the central nervous system. (4)

Years later, researchers discovered that the A2A adenosine and CB1 cannabinoid receptors are both directly connected to each other and thus work together. It is known that caffeine prevents the normal functioning of adenosine receptors and because of this, the body’s cannabinoid receptors signal that they want to receive cannabinoids, either produced by the body itself or exocannabinoids from the outside. (5)

In two-week mouse experiments, it has been found that caffeine enhances THC, the intoxicating ingredient found in cannabis)’s spatial memory-impairing effect (6). However, legal CBD oils and CBD products on the market are made from hemp varieties approved in the EU, with very little or no THC content.

The aromas of hemp and coffee beans have also been found to have similarities, as they both contain significant amounts of ingredients such as methyl valerate and methyl butanal .

 

CBD reduces the side effects of coffee

 

Drinking coffee is often associated with unwanted side effects caused by caffeine. They are e.g. restlessness, sweating of the hands and tremors. Others get side effects from even a small amount of coffee, but usually e.g. restlessness caused by caffeine only follows after more than one cup of coffee. (2)

If you enjoy drinking coffee more than anything, and you don’t want to reduce it even if you experience adverse effects, then you should consider consuming CBD together with coffee. CBD and other cannabinoids cancel out some of the negative effects of caffeine and make it a less stressful experience for the body. CBD can be added directly to coffee or taken separately during coffee time. Try it and be positively surprised by the combined effect of coffee and cannabinoids!

 

Making CBD coffee

 

If ready-made CBD coffee is not available, you can also prepare one yourself. CBD can be added to coffee in many different forms and it’s a matter of taste which is the best way for everyone. You can add to coffee, for example CBD oil or open a CBD capsule and empty its contents into your coffee. Otherwise, you can prepare the coffee normally just the way you want it.

Since CBD oil repels water and therefore does not mix with coffee, it is advisable to add fat to the drink, for example in the form of milk, cream, butter, MCT oil or vegetable milk. Anything with fat helps the CBD oil mix in better and also makes the drink look more delicious. If you like to drink your coffee black, that’s not a problem either. Others are happy to drink CBD coffee, even if the CBD oil is not properly mixed with it. Another essential factor in adding fat to coffee is that fat promotes Multiple absorption of CBD into the body.

See the CBD-A fatty coffee recipe recommended by Hamppukok .

 

Cocoa and CBD go well together. The picture shows cocoa flour, chocolate and cocoa beans.

Caffeine and terpenes in cocoa and dark chocolate enhance the effect of CBD and other cannabinoids. Dark chocolate can also reduce the body’s breakdown of the body’s endogenous cannabinoid anandamide.

 

Cocoa and CBD

 

Finally, it should be mentioned that coffee can of course also be replaced with cocoa containing caffeine. In general, a cocoa drink (especially milk cocoa) already contains enough fat that the CBD oil mixes easily with the drink.

Cocoa and dark chocolate contain plenty of healthy ingredients that complement the effect of CBD. It has been shown that dark chocolate can prevent the breakdown of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide in the body and can also reduce the breakdown of other cannabinoids such as CBD or THC. This means that the effect of these compounds is enhanced when used together with dark chocolate.

Another benefit of combining dark chocolate with CBD is the interaction with terpenes in chocolate, such as myrcene, linalool, and okimene (7). The combination of dark chocolate and CBD terpenes can promote a so-called synergistic effect (see Entourage effect). As research progresses, we will in the future better understand the importance of synergy and its benefits.

 

Anandamide and mood-affecting compounds in cocoa

 

In 1992, Daniele Piomelli and a team of researchers isolated a cannabinoid neurotransmitter called anandamide from chocolate (n-arachidonoylethanolamine or AEA) (8). The interesting thing about anandamide is that it is also a naturally endogenous cannabinoid found in the human brain and nervous system. Anandamide plays an important role in the overall sense of well-being. The word anandamide is derived from the Sanskrit word ananda, which means bliss, as anandamide is known to provide a general feeling of bliss and happiness.

A study published in the journal NeuroReport by the Georgia Institute of Technology and the University of California, Irvine lead researcher Arne Dietrich believes that the body releases cannabinoids that help cope with the prolonged stress and pain of moderate to intense exercise. Studies have linked anandamide to the body’s pain-relieving responses during exercise, especially running.

Although cocoa is quite low in anandamide, it also contains two other important ingredients that are present in much higher concentrations, and are more than likely the reason why we notice cocoa’s mood-enhancing effects. These are N-oleoylethanolamine (OEA) and N-linoleoylethanolamine (18:3 NAE). These two anandamide-like cousins both block the metabolic breakdown of anandamide and can potentially block the breakdown of other cannabinoids, including THC and CBD, allowing these compounds to last longer in the body. (8)

Read more about anandamide in our article: Anandamide: the happiness molecule for your brain .


Cocoa and theobromine

 

Complementing all of cocoa’s mood-enhancing benefits is theobromine, an alkaloid very similar to caffeine and cocoa’s primary stimulant. Theobromine is a well-known vasodilator that acts as a “transporter” of nutrients and chemicals to the tissues. It may also be responsible for amplifying the effects of anandamide in chocolate. (8)

In addition to anandamide and theobromine, cocoa contains serotonin, phenylethylamine, and dopamine, all of which, according to research, help us feel more optimistic and calm. All of these together give us an overall sense of well-being while providing gentle, natural and long-lasting energy. (8)

 

Sources

 

  1. M. Lazarus. 2015. Arousal Effect of Caffeine Depends on Adenosine A2A Receptors in the Shell of the Nucleus Accumbens. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3153505/#. Referred on 12/07/2022.
  2. Schwab U. 2020. Duodecim. Coffee and health . https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk01000. Referred on 07/08/2022.
  3. EFSA. 2015. Caffeine: EFSA estimates safe intakes. https://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/press/news/150527. Referred on 12/07/2022.
  4. Rossi. S. 2010. Online Library. Effects of caffeine on striatal neurotransmission: Focus on cannabinoid CB1 receptors. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/mnfr.200900237. Referred on 07/08/2022
  5. E. Moreno et al. 2017. Nature. Singular Location and Signaling Profile of Adenosine A2A-Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Heteromers in the Dorsal Striatum . https://www.nature.com/articles/npp201712. Referred on 12/07/2022.
  6. VC Sousa et al. 2010. Nature. Regulation of Hippocampal Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Actions by Adenosine A1 Receptors and Chronic Caffeine Administration: Implications for the Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol on Spatial Memor y. https://www.nature.com/articles/npp2010179. Referred on 07/08/2022.
  7. VS Bastos. 2019. J Food Sci Technol. Dynamics of volatile compounds in TSH 565 Cocoa Clone fermentation and their role on chocolate flavor in Southeast Brazil . https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6542924/. Referred on 12/07/2022.
  8. Piomelli D. 2014. More surprises lie ahead. The endocannabinoids keep us guessingg. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23954677/ . Referred on 11.07.2022.

Does CBD soothe restless legs?

Does CBD soothe restless legs?

Every tenth person in the world suffers from the symptoms of restless legs either regularly or occasionally. It is a disease affecting the quality of sleep and mood for which there is no curative treatment. In this article, we’ll find out what restless legs are and whether you could CBD oil calms them down!

 

Restless legs

 

Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is classified as a neurological, sensorimotor disease that has only become more common in recent decades. Often, when making a diagnosis, it turns out that people who suffer from restless legs have had symptoms since childhood, and there is usually a genetic link to the disease. (1) The name of the disease, restless legs, is incorrect in the sense that the symptoms are not necessarily limited to the legs, but there are often sensations in the arms as well.

 

Symptoms of restless legs

 

The symptoms manifest as a strong need to move the limbs, especially the legs. The sensations are obviously difficult to describe, but we are talking about pressure, tingling, burning, itching and an unpleasant feeling deep inside the leg. The symptoms start in the evenings before going to bed and for some even when they sit down to calm down at the end of the day. You might think that restless legs need rest and peace, but it seems that the right amount of exercise eases the symptoms or even stops them temporarily. Lightly moving your legs when the symptoms start may relieve them and make you feel easier enough to catch up on sleep. (1,2,3)

A woman is lying on the grass and swinging her restless legs.

The symptoms of restless legs often occur at night and in the evenings when the legs are at rest. Restlessness in the legs may force you to get up and swing your legs, even if the person is otherwise tired and ready to sleep.

Anxiety, which occurs as a side effect, is relieved by CBD oil

 

Restless legs may cause side effects of insomnia and daytime fatigue after a bad night’s sleep. The need to move and the strong compulsion in the legs wakes up throughout the night and sometimes requires even getting out of bed. (1,2) Anxiety and stress are also commonly mentioned side symptoms. For anxiety relief with CBD oil can read here and about the effect of CBD oil on stress here. CBD oil is versatile in its care, and its effects that support the body’s functions also help restless legs, at least indirectly. CBD oil may also help with sleep-related challenges and you can read more about it here .

 

Reasons behind restless legs

 

The origin of restless legs is not completely known, but in addition to hereditary factors, iron deficiency anemia and a disturbance in dopamine production contribute to the onset (1,3). Lack of exercise, coffee, tobacco, alcohol and some medications may also increase and maintain symptoms (1).

 

Iron deficiency underlying the symptoms

 

According to studies, iron deficiency in the substantia nigra of the brain is behind restless legs (3). The iron content of the blood does not yet tell whether there is enough iron in the tissues and the brain, and it has been found that iron deficiency occurring in the substantia nigra of the brain can cause symptoms of restless legs.

Disturbance in dopamine production

 

The neurotransmitter hormone dopamine is involved in many things and is also involved in body movements. Its lack causes e.g. dystonia, i.e. involuntary movement of the body.

Dopamine levels in the nervous system naturally decrease towards evening, and are at their lowest at night. Dopamine’s involvement in the production of body movement and its natural production rhythm is directly related to when restless legs begin to show symptoms.

Studies have found an increase in dopamine production related to restless legs and this is interpreted as a disturbance in dopamine production. An increase in production can be a sign of bad signaling in the brain, and despite the overproduction, the effect of dopamine weakens for certain brain cells at certain times of the day more than usual.

Dopamine is produced by the substantia nigra of the brain, and it is the lack of iron in the dopamine cells in people suffering from restless legs that supports the theory of the combined effect of a dopamine disorder and iron deficiency in the emergence of the syndrome. It is still unclear how there can be too little iron in the brain when iron levels in the blood are normal. (3)

 

Restless legs during pregnancy

 

During pregnancy, a woman’s body adapts to work in more cramped conditions than normal. In addition to the nerve pathways being pinched and the blood vessels constricted, the legs are suddenly subjected to more weight than they are used to carrying. Symptoms of restless legs during pregnancy are 3 times more common than in the general population, and they usually stop soon after pregnancy. The risk of getting restless legs during pregnancy is increased by being overweight and the age of the expectant mother. (4)

 

Restless legs syndrome treatment

 

In the absence of a working form of treatment, the treatment for restless legs currently consists of small pieces that each person with symptoms assembles according to their needs. Sufficient exercise helps most people as long as it is not too late in the evening. You should also avoid consuming caffeine, alcohol and tobacco too close to bedtime. Restless legs strongly affect the quality of sleep for most people, so you should take care of suitable conditions for sleeping, such as a good bed, suitable temperature and relaxation before settling down to sleep.

 

Magnesium and other minerals relieve symptoms

 

Restless legs are also treated by taking care of iron reserves and iron absorption. It would be important to get the iron levels of the tissues and brain to a good level, and therefore it is also essential to consider other minerals that affect the absorption and transport of iron to the right places. Especially copper and magnesium are important minerals for the absorption of iron, and their adequate intake should be taken care of in a varied diet and possibly also in the form of a supplement. Well-absorbed iron and other minerals to support the body are e.g. in humic and fulvic acid capsules which can be found here .

 

Restless legs on the pier relax thanks to CBD oil.

CBD can help with the symptoms of restless legs, because CBD affects nerve function by optimizing and balancing it as needed.

 

CBD oil to soothe symptoms?

 

The effectiveness of CBD oil in people with restless legs syndrome may be based on CBD ‘s ability to prevent excessive dopamine release by restoring nerve activity to a more normal state (5).

CBD oil has been shown to be an effective aid in the treatment of various neurological diseases such as epilepsy and MS . The relief of the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease with CBD oil has also been studied with good results, as well as fibromyalgia. All of these diseases, with the exception of fibromyalgia, have the same involuntary, life-affecting movements of the body and precisely these symptoms CBD oil has been found to bring relief or even release.

You can read more about alleviating the symptoms of epilepsy with CBD oil here. Also for the treatment of MS There is an article written on CBD , which you can read here. Restless legs associated with fibromyalgia are very common and due to the effect of CBD on fibromyalgia can read here .

The treatment of restless legs with CBD oil has been studied unfortunately little, but the few studies and the numerous experiences of users give good promises of a positive treatment response. A study of six participants was conducted in France, of which 5/6 stated that they had received help for restless legs (6) and in connection with a study in Canada, it was found that more than half of the participants who had restless legs as one of the symptoms received CBD oil helps with symptoms (7).

 

CBD foot cream

 

Although there is no direct cure for restless legs, you can try a 100% natural CBD foot cream specially designed for tired legs to treat its symptoms, which includes several active substances. CBD foot cream reduces swelling, warms and relaxes the feet. At the same time, it also stimulates peripheral blood circulation and makes the legs feel fresh and light. The product does not contain parabens, artificial colors, flavors or preservatives CBD foot cream can be ordered Hemp from the online store .

 

In summary

Restless legs is a disease that occurs either by itself or along with another disease. Treating it with CBD oil has not been studied yet, but since the endocannabinoid system is so important behind the body’s functions, it is possible that cannabis-based medicines will still be developed, also for restless legs.

 

Sources

 

  1. Saarelma O.. 2022. Duodecim health library. Restless legs syndrome. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk00294. Referred to on 30/06/2022.
  2. Partinen M.. 2006. Duodecim periodical book. Restless legs. https://www.duodecimlehti.fi/duo96142. Referred to on 30/06/2022.
  3. Johns Hopkins Medicine. Causes of restless legs syndrome. https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/neurology_neurosurgery/centers_clinics/restless-legs-syndrome/what-is-rls/causes.html. Referred to on 30/06/2022.
  4. Jansson M.. 2017. Patient’s medical journal. Restless legs are monitored during pregnancy. https://www.potileanlaakarilehti.fi/uutiset/levottomat-jalat-valvottavat-raskausaikana/. Referred to on 30/06/2022.
  5. Wenk G.. 2020. Psychology today. Cannabis for restless legs syndrome. https://www.psychologytoday.com/intl/blog/your-brain-food/202007/cannabis-restless-leg-syndrome. Referred to on 30/06/2022.
  6. Megelin T. and Ghorayeb I.. 2020. More evidence of cannabis efficacy in restless legs syndrome. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31820197/. Referred to on 30/06/2022.
  7. Samaha D., Kandiah T. and Zimmermann D.. 2020. Cannabis Use for Restless Legs Syndrome and Uremic Pruritus in patients treated with maintenance dialysis: A Survey. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7488602/. Referred to on 30/06/2022.

Does CBD relieve nausea?

Does CBD relieve nausea?

My stomach bubbles and I feel a lump in my throat. Maybe a little high and hot. A big glass of cold water and a lying position are on my mind. You probably don’t dare to close your eyes, lest your head start spinning. It is nausea, the body’s natural important protection and cleansing mechanism, which seems to be a familiar feeling to everyone! In this article, we’ll explore nausea, the endocannabinoid system behind it, and For CBD oil as a nausea reliever.

 

What causes nausea?

 

Nausea is an intense disgusting feeling that can be caused by almost anything. It may be triggered by a smell, excessive spinning, seeing something disgusting, medicine, stress , alcohol, spoiled food, headache, pregnancy or, for example, noise, but basically nausea starts in the nucleus accumbens of the brain, which is responsible for the body’s involuntary reactions such as sneezing, nausea and breathing. (1)

Nausea is the body’s way of reacting to various bacteria and viruses (1). So it is an important function that always has a message. Some people are more prone to vomiting than others, but eventually everyone vomits when the stomach bug hits!

 

Symptoms of nausea

 

The symptoms of nausea are clear, although they can be different depending on the situation and the person. Sometimes it is accompanied by stomach ache or headache and vomiting, but symptoms can also include weakness, dizziness, a lump in the throat, upset stomach, cold sweat, thirst, or some combination of these. (1)

 

Vomiting disease

 

Vomiting disease is a general name for various diseases that cause nausea and vomiting. Vomiting diseases include symptoms caused by viruses and bacteria, which include diarrhea, vomiting and nausea. Norovirus circulates during the winter, rotavirus, which is rarer today in small children, and sometimes vomiting is also caused by rarer bacteria such as Salmonella and coli. In most cases, vomiting goes away in a few days. If it is accompanied by bloody diarrhea, severe deterioration of condition, unconsciousness, very high fever, severe dehydration, etc. or the symptoms do not seem to go away, it is worth seeing a doctor to check that it is not a situation that requires immediate treatment, especially if it is a child. (2)

 

Symptoms of vomiting sickness

 

The symptoms of emesis are clear. It usually starts with stomach pain or sudden vomiting. Depending on the patient, some are more prone to diarrhea and others to vomiting, but the underlying purpose is to empty the intestines and body of unwanted bacteria or viruses as efficiently and quickly as possible. Sometimes the illness is also accompanied by fever, loss of appetite, fatigue and muscle pains. (2)

 

Contagion of vomiting sickness

 

Stomach disease is transmitted by droplet infection and through contact. It catches on really easily, especially among children. Good hand hygiene and careful wiping of door handles and table surfaces prevent the spread of infections, but it is practically impossible to avoid an epidemic, especially in schools and kindergartens. The incubation period for vomiting sickness is 12 hours to a few days. (2)

 

Sickness of pregnancy, also known as morning sickness, is common during pregnancy. In the picture, a sick and pregnant woman.

Also known as morning sickness, pregnancy sickness is common and almost everyone experiences it during pregnancy. A more serious form of pregnancy sickness is called hyperemesis, which is accompanied by more intense vomiting than usual.

 

Nausea of pregnancy

 

Pregnancy sickness is a common, almost every woman’s pregnancy symptom, which is also called morning sickness. Typically it starts in the early weeks of pregnancy and ends around week 12, but for some it starts practically right after conception and ends when the baby is born. This less frequent, very strong and life-threatening nausea is called hyperemesis. The cause of it, or morning sickness in general, is not known and there is no medicine or treatment for it. (3)

When examining people suffering from hyperemesis, it was found that at least there was no fluctuation in the levels of the most common endocannabinoids, and there did not seem to be anything special in the functioning of the receptors. (4)

 

Motion sickness

 

About one fifth of people experience motion sickness on car and plane trips. The topic has also been studied to some extent from the point of view of the endocannabinoid system, and it has been found that especially the endocannabinoid anandamide levels vary between asymptomatic and sick people. Differences have also been observed in 2-AG (2-arachidonylglycerol) levels; in those with motion sickness, those levels were low and remained constant, while in asymptomatic travelers, 2-AG levels increased during the trip. (5)

Motion sickness affects the function of the related endocannabinoid system. Enhancing its communication could be a potential treatment for individuals who do not respond to currently available treatments. (5)

Motion sickness is considered to be the result of intense brain-gut interaction in a stressful situation and this interaction is regulated by the endocannabinoid system. (5)

 

Motion sickness can be alleviated with the help of cannabinoids such as CBD. In the picture, a child experiencing motion sickness in a car.

Motion sickness arises in a stressful situation from a strong interaction between the brain and the gut. Nausea can be reduced by affecting the functioning of the internal cannabinoid system.

 

Nausea occurring as a side effect of disease treatment

 

Many diseases include nausea as an unpleasant side effect, which often occurs without vomiting. Often, the nausea in question is the result of either drugs or treatments, such as strong painkillers or chemotherapy used to treat cancer.

Research focused on chemotherapy and cannabinoids in particular has been done extensively, and both synthetic and natural cannabinoids such as THC and CBD have been found to be effective chemotherapy-induced nausea relievers, both in the light of research and user experience.

You can read more about the effect of cannabinoids related to cancer and chemotherapy here , but it should be mentioned that a few synthetic cannabinoid preparations and exogenous cannabinoids have shown to be very significant nausea reducers for chemotherapy induced nausea! (6)

 

The endocannabinoid system and nausea

 

The endocannabinoid system balances the body and tries to keep vital functions functioning as well as possible. It affects everything in the background and is therefore also involved in the regulation of nausea.

In animal experiments where the endocannabinoid system has been blocked from functioning, it has been noticed that blocking it promotes nausea. In animals whose poisoning reaction is vomiting, the reaction has been successfully stopped by the power of cannabinoids.

 

Cannabinoids

 

Cannabinoids protect against nausea, e.g. by cooperating with CB1 and 5-HT receptors. (7)

An anandamide-degrading enzyme, fatty acid amide hydroxylase (FAAH), has been found in brain regions involved in vomiting and has been shown to have antiemetic effects. Anandamide’s anti-nausea effects appear to be mediated through activation of the CB1 receptor. (8)

Cannabinoid receptors

 

The CB1 receptor is mainly found in the brain, also in the nucleus accumbens, where nausea originates. It is involved in the regulation of nausea and vomiting reflex. (4,6)

Serotonin receptors

 

The cannabinoid system closely interacts with serotonin receptors. There are seven 5-HT receptors and they are named 5-HT1, 5-HT2, 5-HT3, etc.

The 5-HT3 receptor in particular seems to be the receptor influencing the occurrence of vomiting and nausea, and its cooperation with cannabinoids is behind the anti-nausea effect. (4,7,8)

Activation of the 5-HT1A receptor prevents the release of serotonin and thus ultimately also prevents nausea. (4,7,8)

 

CBD relieves nausea

 

CBD (cannabidiol) has been found to relieve nausea. Due to the strong nausea associated with chemotherapy and its difficult treatment, it was decided to study the antiemetic, i.e. nausea-relieving, effects of cannabinoids. (4,7,8)

CBD is both an anti-nausea and anti-emetic cannabinoid. Synthetic cannabinoids have been on the list of drugs allowed to relieve nausea in North America since 1980.

CBD has an anti-nausea effect by adding anandamide amount in the nucleus accumbens of the brain by inhibiting the activity of the FAAH molecule that disperses it. (4,7,8)

The findings suggest that both CBD and its acid precursor CBD-A are both effective anti-nausea relievers, with CBD-A being slightly more effective (4). In the medicinal use of hemp, an essential consideration is the synergistic effect (Entourage effect ), which is based on the view that the best benefit from the effects of hemp can be obtained when all the active substances obtained from the plant are used.

 

Herbs that reduce nausea include e.g. chamomile, ginger, mint. The picture also shows tea with lemon and honey.

In addition to CBD, nausea can be relieved by many herbs such as chamomile, peppermint, ginger, lemon balm, fennel and licorice root. The combination of honey and lemon has also been found to effectively reduce nausea.

 

Many herbs and plants relieve nausea

 

Many herbs such as chamomile, peppermint, ginger, lemon balm, fennel and licorice root relieve bad feelings. The combination of honey and lemon has also been found to reduce nausea and can easily be added to herbal drinks to enhance the combined effect. An upset or recovering stomach can be soothed and nourished with grated raw carrot, and apple or apple-carrot-ginger juice is also good.

Finding a suitable eating rhythm is a significant prevention of nausea. Small portions of something cool, light food such as yogurt is light and easy for the body to digest, and they sometimes relieve nausea, even over a long period of time. Similarly, calm breathing at the onset of nausea may prevent vomiting. Being in the fresh air can also make you feel better!

In summary

 

Nausea is one of the most common side effects of medications and various treatments such as chemotherapy. Nausea significantly affects the quality of life, and the life of someone who constantly suffers from it can be really challenging and depressing. Nausea during pregnancy can stop life completely for a while, and people who get motion sickness often organize their lives so that they don’t have to travel too long distances, at least backwards or in a car without air conditioning….

The endocannabinoid system and CBD as a nausea reliever have been studied a lot, and according to user experiences, it is an effective and gentle form of treatment to prevent various types of nausea!

 

Sources

  1. Mustajoki P.. 2021. Duodecim Health Library. Nausea and vomiting. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk00054. Referred on 08/01/2022
  2. Health house. Stomach disease can cause both vomiting and diarrhea. https://www.terveystalo.com/fi/tietopaketit/vatsatauti/. Referred on 08/01/2022
  3. Hyperemesis RY. What is hyperemesis?. https://hyperemeesi.fi/fi/tietoa-hyperemeesista/mita-hyperemeesi-on/. Referred on 08/01/2022
  4. Rock EM and Parker L.. 2016. Frontiers. Cannabinoids As Potential Treatment for Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2016.00221/full. Referred on 08/01/2022.
  5. Chouker A., Kaufmann I., Kreth S., Hauer D., Feuerecker M., Thieme D., Vogeser M., Thiel M. and Schelling G.. 2010. Plos one. Motion Sickness, Stress and the Endocannabinoid System. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0010752. Referred on 08/01/2022.
  6. Darmani N.. 2010. Mechanisms of Broad-Spectrum Antiemetic Efficacy of Cannabinoids against Chemotherapy-Induced Acute and Delayed Vomiting. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4034105/. Referred on 01/08/2022
  7. Taylor B, Mueller M and Sauls RS. 2021. Cannaboinoid Antiemetic Therapy. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK535430/. Referred on 01/08/2022
  8. Parket L., Rock E. and Limebeer C.. 2011. Regulation of nausea and vomiting by cannabinoids. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3165951/. Referred on 01/08/2022

ADHD and CBD

ADHD and CBD

ADHD is a neurological disorder that causes hyperactivity, especially among children. It becomes common rapidly, and the symptoms do not necessarily subside even in adulthood. In this article, we find out what ADHD is and whether CBD oil could be helpful in alleviating the symptoms.

 

What is ADHD?

 

ADHD is short for attention deficit disorder. Today, almost every tenth child suffers from it. In adults, ADHD occurs in just under five percent, being more common in men and boys compared to the female population. Childhood ADHD sometimes calms down by adulthood, but approx. 70% have some level of symptoms throughout life. (1)

The background of ADHD is a disturbance in the development of the neural networks that regulate the brain’s attention and alertness. It is a partly hereditary syndrome, the origin of which is affected by certain genes, but its onset is not dependent on them (1). It has also been noticed that there is some degree of disturbance in dopamine production.

Although diet is hardly the sole cause of the onset of ADHD, deficiencies of certain nutrients have been observed in diagnosed children. Zinc, iron, magnesium and vitamin B6 deficiencies and an imbalance in omega fatty acids are typical. (2,3)

The Huminiqum product is a well-researched, high-quality and well-absorbed supplement that, in addition to its versatile vitamin content, contains fulvic and humic acids. You can familiarize yourself with the product and more detailed nutrient content better from here .

 

Symptoms of ADHD

 

The symptoms of ADHD are related to attention, concentration and vivacity. Some find it difficult to focus on lessons, storybooks or games, others do not learn things such as reading, and others have challenges related to an impulsive way of reacting to things. The symptoms can be really strong and really make life difficult for the sufferer. Often there are few of these symptoms in each area and sometimes only some of them occur. The spectrum of symptoms is wide and each ADHD patient is an individual entity. (1)

The child’s challenges often appear in kindergarten or at the latest in school, where one should remain quietly during the lesson, listen to instructions and still act according to them. Non-existent ability to concentrate can be seen in school grades and in the behavior of a restless troublemaker in lessons.

In adults, ADHD manifests as inner restlessness, perhaps a challenge in memory, concentration and planning, not so much as hyperactivity and behavioral disorders as in children. Maarit Virta and Anita Salakari have written a survival guide for adults with ADHD, which according to readers is a useful guide for adults suffering from ADHD symptoms!

 

Side effects

 

In addition to the typical symptoms of ADHD, both adults and children have side symptoms, e.g. insomnia, anxiety and challenges in social relationships. Problematic substance use is typical for adults and young adults.

with CBD oil has researched positive effects on the most common side symptoms of ADHD. CBD’s effect on sleep challenges can read here. You can read about anxiety, depression and the effect of CBD oil on them from here. There is an article on addictions and CBD from here .

 

Making a diagnosis of ADHD with the help of tests and examinations.

ADHD diagnosis is made with the help of various tests and examinations for both adults and children.

 

ADHD test, examination and diagnosis

 

In children, ADHD studies usually start based on the observations of parents or persons involved in education, such as teachers. Adults can take an indicative ADHD test online, and apply to a doctor’s office for further examinations based on the results and symptoms. You can find an ADHD test on the Internet from here (4).

Getting a diagnosis is a lengthy process, which ensures that there are enough symptoms and that they correspond to a large enough extent to the diverse symptom picture of ADHD. Since ADHD does not show up in blood tests or any other physical measure, making a diagnosis is based on various behavioral tests, tasks and conversations with a health history in mind. (1)

 

ADHD treatment and medications

 

According to Valvira, children’s ADHD is always treated non-medically first, and adults are also tried to be helped outside of medicine. The drugs used to treat ADHD are really strong and often cause strong side effects, and therefore they are mainly used to control the most difficult symptoms. (5) ADHD cannot be cured by drugs, but natural treatments such as diet, CBD oil and occupational therapy together, or without drugs, can get the symptoms well under control.

ADHD is therefore also treated with diet. In the case of ADHD, functional nutritional therapy focuses on the well-being of the intestines and digestion and ensuring that the body gets all the fatty and amino acids and nutrients it needs. A healthy, vigorous body is able to heal even difficult diseases by itself, and therefore supporting general well-being for all diseases and syndromes is of primary importance!

 

The endocannabinoid system and ADHD

 

The body of all mammals is balanced by an almost identical system. The endocannabinoid system is an ingenious system that influences the background of all body functions. It controls and monitors individual events with the help of endogenous cannabinoids, i.e. endocannabinoids. These endocannabinoids, as well as exocannabinoids from outside the body, respond to different receptors in the body. This system has its own receptors, the most studied of which are CB1 and CB2, but they also respond to other receptors in the body.

The endocannabinoid system closely interacts with dopamine production, which is one factor behind ADHD (6). Dopamine affects e.g. to the reward system and the feeling of motivation, and the challenges in experiencing these feelings significantly decrease a person’s willingness to do tasks, learn new things, etc., which usually results in feelings of success and pleasure.

The endocannabinoid system also plays a significant role in stress reactions, nervous system function , learning and memory.

 

Endocannabinoids

 

Endocannabinoids are produced in the body as needed and are everywhere in the body. Endocannabinoids are special in that they can be too little in one part of the body and too much in another. In the case of ADHD, the anandamide concentration in the blood is high compared to a healthy person, but in the brain, where dopamine production takes place, there is too little anandamide (6).

Anandamide is another of the most well-known endocannabinoids and one of its functions is to release dopamine and enhance its production. The underlying cause of the dysfunction of the dopamine system is thought to be too low anandamide concentration in the brain. Certain phytocannabinoids obtained from plants such as CBD increase the production of anandamide and prevent their breakdown.

A clinical dysfunction of the endocannabinoid system, which is thought to be at the root of all diseases, can be a system disorder just like this, where the body’s internal cannabinoid concentrations are out of balance.

 

Receptors

 

CB receptors have been found in every corner of the body, but they have their own specific areas of action. The CB1 receptor is mainly found in the brain and nervous system, and thus it is also largely involved in the functions underlying ADHD.

 

Does CBD help those diagnosed with ADHD?

 

There are still many opinions on the matter without consensus. It seems that there are effects associated with cannabinoids that can make symptoms worse for some. On the other hand, CBD oil soothes and is especially effective in controlling side symptoms.

Hemp has a huge number of different active substances. More than 120 different types of cannabinoids are known, and there are more than 450 active compounds in total. The effect of hemp is based on synergy, i.e. when all the effective active ingredients of hemp are used, the benefit is more complete than using only an isolate, i.e. using one or a few isolated cannabinoids. More about joint effects, i.e. the so-called The Entourage effect can read here .

In the case of ADHD, it has been noticed that the positive effect of CBD oil on the symptoms is a result of the action of several cannabinoids. Hemp terpenes have also been found to have an effect on alleviating ADHD symptoms. CBD (cannabidiol), CBN (cannabinol) and CBG (cannabigerol) affect the production of dopamine and CBD in turn helps the production of serotonin. (6,7)

Part of CBD oil’s effectiveness in treating ADHD is related to balancing the nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for e.g. from the emergence of a stress reaction, while the parasympathetic nervous system restores the body to balance after a stress reaction. CBD balances these two nervous systems, reducing hyperactivity and sympathetic overstimulation by calming and alleviating impulsivity.

According to user experiences, CBD oil is used with good results to manage the side symptoms of ADHD, such as insomnia, substance addictions and depression.

Peanuts, which contain Biochanin A, which can help with ADHD symptoms.

Disturbances in dopamine production have been observed in ADHD patients. Getting Biochanin A flavone from food can optimize dopamine production and help with ADHD symptoms. The flavone in question is found especially in peanuts, chickpeas and soybeans.

 

Other health balancing treatment

 

Since ADHD is a neurological challenge, its symptoms can and should be alleviated with ordinary health-supporting means. Both adults and parents of ADHD children have noticed that minimizing screen time alleviates symptoms. Computer games and violent programs seem to increase problematic behavior, while exercise, staying in the forest and a good long night’s sleep improve concentration and calm a restless mind.

The diet takes care of the condition of the intestines and digestion and improves nutrient levels in the body so that the body can function as optimally as possible. Biochan’s isoflavone A is a natural FAAH inhibitor, which in turn is a molecule that breaks down the endocannabinoid anandamide. Adding this flavone to the diet may improve dopamine production by preventing the breakdown of anandamide. Biochanin A is especially found in peanuts, chickpeas, red clover and alfalfa sprouts (8).

At home, you should get rid of all harmful chemicals such as laundry detergents, detergents and cosmetics and replace them with natural, non-toxic alternatives. The substances in chemicals are harmful to both people and the environment, and their negative effects on health have been studied for a long time.

 

In summary

 

ADHD is a growing syndrome for which there is currently no cure. The symptoms continue well into adulthood, and when drug treatment is the last resort, or at least that’s what is recommended, along with drug treatment, usual health-supporting measures such as diet, outdoor activities and minimizing screen time have been recommended. More research is still needed on the use of CBD oil for ADHD symptoms, but according to the current information, CBD oil can be effective in treating at least some of the underlying causes of ADHD, such as enhancing dopamine production and balancing the nervous system.

 

Sources

 

  1. Huttunen M. and Socada L.. 2019. Duodecim health library. ADHD (activity and attention deficit disorder). https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk00353. Referred on 9/8/2022.
  2. Riikka Torniainen and Noora Holopainen. 2014. Jam. Thesis. Consideration of nutrition in the occupational therapy of children with ADHD symptoms. https://www.theseus.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/79515/Holopainen_Noora%20Torniainen_Riina.pdf;jsessionid=2F2CB6A7E31F41925E6E9A6199C34623?sequence=1. Referred on 9/8/2022
  3. https://suomenravintoterapia.fi/adhdn-paras-vaihtoehtoinen-hoito-ravitsemus/. Referred on 9/8/2022
  4. Klaus Karkia. ADHD test. http://karkia.me/adhd/. Referred on 9/8/2022
  5. Valvira. Health care. ADHD and drug prescribing. https://www.valvira.fi/terveydenhuolto/hyva-ammatinharjoittaminen/laakehoidon-erityistilanteita/adhd-ja-laakkeiden-maaraaminen. Referred on 9/8/2022
  6. Dawson D. and Persad C.. Targeting the Endocannabinoid System in the Treatment of ADHD. https://scivisionpub.com/pdfs/targeting-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-the-treatment-of-adhd-1604.pdf. Referred on 9/8/2022
  7. Hergenrather JY, Aviram J., Vyotski Y., Campisi-pinto S., Lewitus GM and Meiri D.. 2020. Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal. Cannabinoid and Terpenoid Doses are Associated with Adult ADHD Status of Medical Cannabis Patients. https://www.rmmj.org.il/userimages/1036/1/PublishFiles/1038Article.pdf. Referred on 9/8/2022
  8. Manach C. 2018. FoodComex. Biochanin A (PC001057). https://foodcomex.org/foodcomex_compounds/PC001057. Referred on 28/08/2022

Toothache and CBD

Toothache and CBD

Toothaches have existed for thousands of years! It is definitely one of the most uncomfortable pain conditions and almost always a sign of the need for treatment. A toothache should always be taken seriously, but you can try to relieve it at home with natural means. In this article, we will learn about dental health and the possible effects of cannabinoids and CBD oil in the treatment of toothache!

What causes a toothache?

 

Usually, the cause of toothache is a hole caused by damage to the tooth enamel, which has progressed to the root of the tooth. Through the created hole, the root system and nerves can get into the pulp, which causes pain. There can be other reasons for cracking, for example a cracked tooth, a blow to the teeth or an infection at the root of the tooth. Tooth extraction also causes pain, as well as crooked or rubbing teeth can be painful and cause challenges, e.g. I bite. Nighttime teeth grinding may be accompanied by both toothache and stiffness and pain in the jaws, neck and temples. (1)

After various procedures, such as filling or tooth extraction, toothache is quite common. If it does not go away in a few days, it is necessary to contact the doctor treating the tooth again.

 

Toothache symptoms

 

The first feeling of a hole starting is a small tingling sensation caused by cold or heat, which passes in a moment. Slowly, if left untreated, the hole deepens and the swelling increases, eventually causing swelling in the jawbone. At this stage, it is usually a good idea to go to the dentist to treat the hole at the latest, because as it progresses further, the hole will drill all the way to the root, and food and drink reaching the nerve at the root will cause pain, which no painkiller can help with anymore. (1)

Inflammation of the sinus may radiate to the teeth as a throbbing pain. At its worst, the pain can cause insomnia and anxiety . A severe, unbearable toothache indicates an acute need for treatment, which is no longer worth treating only with home remedies. Then you should make an appointment with the dentist without delay and tell them about the need for immediate treatment.

Toothache can cause insomnia.

An unbearable toothache can cause insomnia and anxiety.

Backgrounds of dental health

 

Today, we are lucky to have the opportunity to correct even difficult oral problems with the help of dentistry. Effective anesthetics even offer a completely pain-free treatment experience, and regular check-ups help prevent the biggest challenges.

Things haven’t always been this good. Dental inspections only started in Finland at the end of the 19th century, and earlier information about human dental health comes mainly from archaeologists familiar with osteology and their studies. It seems that, at least during the last few centuries, human teeth have been in very bad shape already at the age of 20-30, and that is why the treatment of toothache has been one of the most important medical skills. (2)

 

Maintenance of dental health

 

Keeping your teeth in good condition is not simple, but in the end it’s all about the little things. The condition of the teeth is influenced by both genes and environmental factors, but also by your own way of caring for your teeth.

The quality of the food eaten is of great importance, and it already starts with the diet during pregnancy. Teeth need different minerals and trace elements to stay strong and shiny. When teeth are bones, they especially need calcium, magnesium, vitamins A, C and D (3).

Hunter-gatherers didn’t seem to have much of a problem with their teeth. It wasn’t until the introduction of grains to the dining table 10,000 years ago that teeth also started to change, and by no means in a positive direction. (2)

Dental care is an important part of the daily routine. In addition to brushing your teeth in the morning and evening and flossing once a day, regular oil brushing is a research-based treatment that promotes oral health.

Acid attacks, or actually the amount of them, is a significant factor behind dental health. Acid attack is caused by the reaction caused by the sugars and carbohydrates contained in the food eaten, where the bacteria in the mouth form acids that dissolve the minerals of the tooth enamel. Teeth can withstand 5-6 acid attacks a day and almost every food and drink causes them. From the point of view of the teeth, it is important to create a regular eating rhythm and stick to it, avoid constant snacking and eat treats immediately after food! (4)

 

Oil pulling with coconut oil is a popular way to clean the mouth.

Coconut oil for oil pulling. By adding CBD to the pulling oil, it can help e.g. for gingivitis, canker sores and mouth ulcers.

 

Oil pulling

 

Oil pulling is an ancient Indian Ayurvedic tradition of treating the mouth and teeth. The oil that ends up between the teeth and in the gum pockets cleans and cares for the teeth and gums, but also collects bacteria. The oil is carefully squirted in the mouth right after waking up approx. 20 minutes, after which it is spit out. (5)

For oil pulling, you should reserve an antibacterial oil, such as coconut oil. Sesame seed oil or a mixture of several oils is also often recommended. (5)

In Canada, several dentists recommend the use of CBD oil to promote dental health. Adding CBD oil to the pulling oil could be a very significant help for gingivitis, periodontitis, canker sores and ulcers, as well as promoting a good bacterial balance in the mouth. (5)

 

Drug treatment for toothache

 

A toothache can be relieved with common painkillers available at the pharmacy, but it is almost always good to find out the cause of the toothache. Sometimes the pain may be caused by food stuck between the tooth and the gum or slightly inflamed gums, but if the pain does not subside with natural means, with a standard mild painkiller or within a few days, the cause is probably something that needs to be fixed by a dentist. The medical treatment after the procedures is decided by the treating dentist!

 

Toothache home treatment

 

Toothache can also be relieved with natural means at home, but depending on the cause of the pain, it should be done carefully. Cloves are numbing, and gargling with clove water may relieve the pain, as can chewing fresh ginger. Gargling with salt water cleans the mouth and may calm swollen gums. Pressing a piece of ice inside the cloth against the cheek where the tooth hurts can also help!

According to studies, there are many ways to prevent a starting hole from growing. Gargling the mouth and teeth after eating cleans the mouth and between the teeth. Correcting the diet in a grain-free direction may help, as well as avoiding sugar and especially sugary drinks. Careful tooth brushing and interdental cleaning are the minimum requirement for healthy teeth and significantly reduce cavities, gum damage and periodontitis (inflammatory disease of the mouth caused by bacteria). (3)

By investing in home dental care, you can avoid visits to the dentist.

Regular tooth brushing and interdental cleaning significantly reduce cavities, gum damage and oral inflammatory diseases.

 

The endocannabinoid system in dental health

 

The endocannabinoid system is the body’s general regulator, which monitors the body’s functions and tries to keep everything in as good a balance as possible. The endocannabinoid system consists of endogenous endocannabinoids and their dispersing molecules, as well as cannabinoid receptors. The endocannabinoid system is also involved in the background of the functions that take place in the teeth, oral mucosa and gums.

Both cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) and endocannabinoids AEA and 2-AG are present in the mouth. A third cannabinoid receptor, GP55, has also been detected in teeth and oral mucosa. (6)

The best-known endocannabinoids are AEA or anandamide and 2AG, or arachinodylglycerol. In studies targeting the common dental disease periodontitis, it has been found that AEA has an anti-inflammatory effect on dental health, while 2AG seems to promote inflammatory processes (7).

 

CBD oil to support toothache and dental health

 

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) has been used especially in Asian medicine for thousands of years. It has been used for toothache and probably also for caries and to maintain general oral health. Based on current research, dental health is also affected by other active substances in hemp, such as terpenes. (6) This is called a synergistic effect and it can read more here .

CBD oil is not a miracle substance that removes toothache like a painkiller, but it may be helpful in general dental care and at the time of pain.

CBD is a cannabinoid found in hemp that has many properties that have a positive effect on health. CBD is e.g. anti-inflammatory (anti-inflammatory), antibacterial and tissue growth-promoting cannabinoid. It has also been found to have pain-relieving properties.

 

Cannabinoids

 

In addition to CBD (cannabidiol), many other phytocannabinoids have also been recognized as promoting dental health. One study compared the effects of cannabinoids and well-known toothpastes on plaque, and cannabinoids were the clear winner! The study involved CBD (cannabidiol), CBC (cannabichromene), CBN (cannabinol), CBG (cannabigerol) and CBGA (cannabigerolic acid). (8)

A study has also been conducted on mouthwashes which showed that cannabinoids are as effective or more effective than alcohol and chlorhexidine commonly used in mouthwashes (9).

CBD is also availabletoothpaste containing CBD toothpaste contains a full-spectrum hemp extract, which, in addition to CBD, also contains other hemp active substances and cannabinoids. About toothpaste and its more specific content, you can read more here.

 

summary

 

Taking care of your dental health is important, as bad teeth can even lead to a heart attack in the worst case scenario. The positive effect of CBD on dental health has been recognized, but more studies are still needed so that cannabinoids can be used even better and more widely in the future. Especially on the foreign market today, there are a wide variety of dental care products containing CBD, which may be of significant help in the prevention of various dental problems. However, the most important thing is to take care of a versatile diet and take care of your teeth daily!

 

Sources

 

  1. Könönen E.. 2021. Health Library Duodecim. Toothache. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk00810. Referred on 19/09/2022
  2. Kimari L.. 2016. Medical magazine. Witches did invaluable work in a time before dentists. https://www.hammaslaakarilehti.fi/fi/uutinen/noitamuorit-tekivat-korvaamamonta-tyota-aikana-ennen-hammaslaakareita. referenced on 19/09/2022
  3. Honkala S.. 2019. Health Library Duodecim. Structure and development of teeth. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/trv00003. Referred on 19/09/2022
  4. Finnish Dental Association. Healthy eating habits. https://www.hammaslaakariliitto.fi/fi/suunterveys/yleistietoa-suunterveydesta/ravinto-ja-suunterveys/terveelliset-ruokatottumukset#.Yy9MMi06pQI. Referred on 19/09/2022
  5. VKL Shanbhag.. 2017. Oil pulling for maintaining oral hygiene – A review. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5198813/#__ffn_sectitle. Referred on 19/09/2022
  6. Lowe H., Toyang T., Steele B., Bryant J., Ngwa W. and Nedamat K.. 2021. The Current and Potential Application of Medicinal Cannabis Products in Dentistry. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8466648/. Referred on 19/09/2022.
  7. Andrukhov O., Bantleon HP, Moritz A., Rausch-Fan X. and Özdemir B.. 2014. Endocannabinoids and Inflammatory Response in Periodontal Ligament Cells. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4165771/. Referred on 19/09/2022
  8. Stahl V. and Vasudevan K.. 2020. Comparison of Efficacy of Cannabinoids versus Commercial Oral Care Products in Reducing Bacterial Content from Dental Plaque: A Preliminary Observation. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6991146/. Referred on 19/09/2022
  9. Vasudevan K. and Stahl V.. 2020. Cannabinoids infused mouthwash products are as effective as chlorhexidine on inhibition of total-culturable bacterial content in dental plaque samples. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7819473/. Referred on 19/09/2022

Diabetes and CBD

Diabetes and CBD

Finland has the highest incidence of childhood diabetes in the world. In this article, we will get to know the topic of diabetes, the factors influencing its development, the endocannabinoid system behind diabetes and whether CBD oil could be helpful in managing symptoms.

 

What is diabetes?

 

Diabetes is classified as a group of metabolic diseases that involve pancreatic dysfunction and long-term elevated blood sugar. It is the seventh most common cause of death and is estimated to affect less than 10% of the entire world’s population. Type 2 diabetes in particular is rapidly becoming more common. Diabetes occurs in people of all ages, and its onset is not solely due to hereditary factors. (1,2)

Diabetes is a disease affecting the production and reception of insulin produced by the pancreas, and its different forms are numerous. The most common of them are type 1 and 2 diabetes and LADA diabetes.

 

Type 1 diabetes

 

Type 1 diabetes is a disorder of insulin production in the pancreas, where the pancreas eventually stops producing insulin completely. There is an autoimmune inflammation of the insulin-producing beta cells, which prevents the cells from functioning and eventually destroys them. Insulin replacement therapy is required for treatment. Usually, when type 1 diabetes is diagnosed, diabetes has already been present for months or years and less than one fifth of insulin-producing cells remain. (1,2)

 

Type 2 diabetes

 

Type 2 diabetes is largely a quality of life disease and its background is almost always overweight and unhealthy lifestyles. It is significantly more common than type 1 diabetes, as 75-80% of all people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes. (1,2)

In people with type 2 diabetes, the effect of insulin on its own receptors has been preserved, but numerous problems have been observed in intracellular signaling (3).

Years before the rise in blood sugar, the body has a condition called insulin resistance, which can be seen e.g. as waist obesity, fatty liver, high blood pressure and lowering of good cholesterol (1,2).

 

LADA diabetes

 

LADA-diabetes (Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults) is a sort of intermediate between the two above-mentioned types of diabetes. As the name suggests, it only breaks out in adulthood, approx. 40-60 years old, and is also an autoimmune inflammation occurring in the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas. In general, LADA is interpreted as slowly developing type 1 diabetes, and its symptoms can be easily controlled with a healthy lifestyle. (1,2)

 

Gestational diabetes

 

Gestational diabetes means elevated blood sugar for the first time during pregnancy. It is determined with a sugar stress test and monitoring continues at home by measuring blood sugar. Elevated blood sugars are e.g. in the background of preeclampsia.

Gestational diabetes is caused by an increased amount of fat and hormones to which insulin production does not respond sufficiently. (4)

 

The symptoms of diabetes are listed in the picture.

The most common symptoms of diabetes are increased thirst, fatigue, exhaustion, hunger and the need to urinate.

 

Symptoms of diabetes

 

The first symptoms of diabetes are quite clear, but not unequivocal because they can also be caused by other reasons. Weight loss, increased need to urinate, constant thirst and dehydration are typical initial symptoms, which are stronger in type 1 diabetes. Based on these, blood sugar is measured, and if it is over 11/mmol, further tests are started. (1,2)

Type 1 diabetes can be fatal if left untreated. Hypoglycemia is a condition related to low blood sugar that can also lead to death. Hypoglycemia is the result of too much insulin, which lowers blood sugar to a dangerous level. Low blood sugar is caused by eating too little, alcohol, exercise and too much injected insulin, also in relation to exercise, amount of food and alcohol. (5)

 

Insulin resistance

 

Insulin resistance refers to any abnormal response to insulin in its target tissues (4). It is also called metabolic syndrome and is the basis of obesity, fatty liver and cardiovascular health in addition to type 2 diabetes. (3)

The body uses insulin e.g. to transfer sugar (glucose) from the blood to the cells. In order for the sugar to move, the body uses more insulin and it temporarily raises blood insulin levels. In insulin resistance, the cells that produce insulin can no longer meet the increased need for insulin, which is caused by the reduced ability to absorb insulin caused by the accumulated fat around the organs. (6)

 

Diabetes and the equipment and medicines intended for its treatment.

Diabetes is often treated with medication, but the importance of a suitable diet also plays an important role in keeping its symptoms under better control.

 

Diabetes treatment and medicines

 

Diabetes is treated with both drugs and diet, which is actually the basis of all treatment. Type 1 diabetes requires insulin replacement therapy, i.e. a synthetic equivalent to the insulin produced by the pancreas, but diet is an important part of successful treatment. Special attention is paid to the diet of people with type 1 diabetes and the aim is to use carbohydrates to reduce it in such a way that blood sugar remains as even as possible throughout the day and weight control is easy. (1,2) The diet of type 1 diabetics must be planned together with their medical staff!

Type 2 diabetes is also treated with medication, but it can largely be prevented and treated by following a healthy lifestyle. At the latest at the point when the first symptoms of insulin resistance start to appear, it should be necessary to make changes to at least your eating habits. The food should provide a sufficient amount of nutrients in relation to the amount of food eaten and the use of bad fats, additives and industrial sugar should be as minimal as possible.

Type 2 diabetes and also gestational diabetes can be prevented and treated by eating food that does not raise blood sugar unnecessarily. Empty carbohydrates such as pasta and rice raise blood sugar and it would be good to replace part of their amount with vegetables. You should eliminate all unnecessary sugars, hidden fats, processed products and additives from your diet and eat plenty of vegetables, fruits and berries. Appropriate quality meat and, if desired, a reasonable amount of eggs. Clean food made from raw ingredients, adequate exercise and good quality clean water.

 

Diabetes and feet

 

Foot-related side effects of diabetes account for more hospital days than all other symptoms of diabetes combined. Foot challenges are usually basically caused by pain caused by the nervous system and reduced blood circulation. Even small wounds can become badly inflamed and in the worst case even lead to limb amputation.

Foot care and prevention of problems is important for diabetics. Good shoes, careful treatment of all kinds of wounds, good hygiene and good physical condition of the feet are small but important ways to prevent bigger problems.

Foot cream containing CBD stimulates blood circulation, soothes the skin, relaxes the feet and reduces swelling.

Endocannabinoid system underlying diabetes

 

The endocannabinoid system balances the functioning of the entire body and is e.g. in the background of vital functions affecting body weight regulation, insulin resistance, fat metabolism and appetite. The situation is therefore a little complicated, because it is also a system that takes care of life in the long term and thus knows how to take full advantage of abundant times. In other words, when food is readily available, the endocannabinoid system begins to direct the mind and body in the direction that fat is stored and energy accumulates in abundance…

Referring to the above, several studies support the theory that an overactive endocannabinoid system is the underlying cause of type 2 diabetes in particular.

As a result, the body stores more energy, fat and glucose metabolism weakens, and the effects that promote cell death also increase in the beta cells of the pancreas. (7,8)

The CB1 receptor is part of the endocannabinoid system a receptor that occurs mainly in the central nervous system, but also e.g. in the spleen, lymphocytes and reproductive system. They include e.g. in the reward system, metabolic systems and fatty acid synthesis and with these also the background of diabetes. (8)

 

Symptoms related to diabetes can be eased with the help of CBD oil. The picture shows CBD oil drops.

According to research and user experience, CBD can be of considerable help in the common symptoms of diabetes, such as weight control, improving appetite and treating wounds. CBD also has a positive effect on the well-being of blood vessels.

 

CBD and diabetes treatment

 

According to animal and human studies, CBD has been found to have many therapeutic effects in the treatment of diabetes. Vasodilatation, i.e. the expansion of blood vessels, is possible when CBD activates the CB2 receptor and the serotonin receptor (5-HT1A). CBD has been found to affect diabetic neuropathy, i.e. damage to nerve function. CBD also seems to heal wounds that occur in the thin cell membrane and nerve cells of the inner wall of the intestine. In addition, CBD counteracts the nitration of tyrosine, which is involved in the accumulation of glutamate and the death of neurons. (9)

CBD is a naturally occurring cannabinoid in hemp, which has been studied to have properties that have a positive effect on health. CBD is e.g. anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and tissue-protecting cannabinoid. In addition to the aforementioned properties, CBD has been found to e.g. improving mitochondrial function and could have a significant benefit in treating and preventing complications caused by diabetes. (8)

CBD cannot directly affect insulin production, but according to studies and user experiences, it can be useful for general symptoms such as weight control, appetite and wound treatment. CBD also has a positive effect on vascular health.

Cosmetics containing CBD can help with foot challenges such as nerve pain, skin condition and peripheral blood circulation improvement. A foot cream that contains CBD can be a product worth trying also as a preventive treatment.

 

Summary

 

Type 2 diabetes is becoming more and more common among younger people, and since it is largely a disease caused by lifestyle, prevention and treatment is quite possible and not at all difficult. Changing lifestyles requires persistence, but it’s not rocket science. CBD can be a good help, especially for the side symptoms of diabetes such as challenges related to the feet, but more research is still needed on how CBD affects diabetes overall and the factors behind it.

 

Sources

  1. Pirjo Ilanne-Parikka. 2021. Duodecim Health Library. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk00011. Referred on 30/08/2022
  2. Diabetes. Diabetes Association. https://www.diabetes.fi/diabetes. Referred on 30/08/2022
  3. Mäkinen S., Skrobuk P., Nguyen T. and Koistinen H.. 2013. Duodecim periodical book. Mechanisms of insulin resistance. https://www.duodecimlehti.fi/duo11275. Referred on 30/08/2022
  4. Diabetes Association. Diabetes.fi. Gestational diabetes. https://www.diabetes.fi/diabetes/raskausdiabetes. Referred on 30/08/2022
  5. Mustajoki P.. 2022. Doctor’s book Duodecim. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk00886. Referred on 30/08/2022
  6. Diabetes Association. Diabetes.fi. Metabolic syndrome. https://www.diabetes.fi/diabetes/tyypin_2_diabetes/metabolinen_oireyhtyma_mbo. Referred on 30/08/2022.
  7. Frisher M., White S., Varbiro G., Voisey C., Perumal D., Crome I., Khideja N. and Basford J.. 2010. The British journal of diabetes and vascular disease. The role of cannabis and cannabinoids in diabetes. https://bpspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/bph.13226. Referred on 30/08/2022.
  8. Gruden G., Barutta F., Kunos G., and Pacher P.. 2016. Role of the endocannabinoid system in diabetes and diabetic complications . https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4941127/. Referred on 30/08/2022.
  9. Atalay S., Jarocka-Karpowicz and Skrzydlewska E.. 2019. Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Cannabidiol. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7023045/#B25-antioxidants-09-00021 . Referred on 8/10/2022

Pregnancy, breastfeeding and CBD

Pregnancy, breastfeeding and CBD

CBD oil has been researched as a gentle and safe support for many ailments, but can it be used during pregnancy and breastfeeding?

In this article, we find out how the endocannabinoid system works during pregnancy and breastfeeding and whether the use of CBD oil is safe at that time.

The period of pregnancy and breastfeeding is very special

 

During pregnancy and breastfeeding, a woman is not only responsible for her own body and health, but also for the growth and development of the little person. During pregnancy, the baby is protected to some extent by the placenta, the purpose of which is to act as an intermediary between mother and baby by nourishing and filtering toxins. Although the placenta is an effective filter, it does not protect against everything. It has been found in animal experiments that CBD also passes through the placenta into the baby’s body, and therefore it is possible that its use during pregnancy and breastfeeding is not completely safe.

 

You can prepare for pregnancy and breastfeeding

 

You can and should prepare in advance for well-being during pregnancy, a gentle birth and successful breastfeeding.

During pregnancy, mental well-being, body care and high-quality nutrition take on a completely new meaning and it’s worth of investing in them. Pregnancy can be a roller coaster of emotions and constant vomiting until delivery. It may be a time of intense quieting down and deep introspection. It is perhaps also accepting a new life situation and probably a mixed bag of all this.

Preparing for birth can be challenging, because each birth goes in its own way, and nothing can really be determined in advance. The best thing is to strengthen your body connection and trust that a woman’s body was created to give birth. The body knows how to work properly together with the baby, when the birth is given peace, time and freedom to go with its own weight. Labor and birth is a powerful event for both the mother, the baby and the whole family, and it should be treated with deep respect and genuine encounter between the parents.

Breastfeeding is a natural continuation of childbirth and, depending on the circumstances, it is certainly basically possible for all women who have given birth. Milk production is initiated by hormones, and the reason behind unsuccessful breastfeeding is often stress and insufficient breastfeeding support. The background of breastfeeding guidance is unfortunately often the rush and excessive monitoring of the baby’s weight gain, in which case breastfeeding may cause frustration and fear of its success. Fortunately, there is a lot of information on social media and the internet to support a successful breastfeeding experience, and in many places it is possible to get face-to-face help from volunteers for problems related to breastfeeding.

Mother is breastfeeding the child on the bed. Can CBD be used while pregnant?

Despite the fact that the endocannabinoid system is involved in the processes of pregnancy, it does not mean that the use of CBD during pregnancy is completely safe.

The endocannabinoid system in pregnancy

 

The endocannabinoid system monitors all body functions. Although the body’s different systems work independently, there is the endocannabinoid system plays a significant role as their balancer and supreme observer.

The endocannabinoid system is involved in several different functions during pregnancy. It plays a role in enabling pregnancy and is involved in e.g. in the attachment of the fertilized egg and the development of the placenta. (1) The endocannabinoid system affects the receptivity of the uterus, the regeneration of the placenta and the development of the embryo. (2) The endocannabinoid system is also involved in and about the functions related to the menstrual cycle you can read more here .

 

Cannabinoid receptors

 

There are two receptors of the endocannabinoid system, CB1 and CB2 receptors. The reproductive system generally has more CB2 receptors, but both have been found in the placenta and ovaries. The CB1 receptor seems to play a role in the normal duration of pregnancy. (1,2)

 

Endocannabinoids in pregnancy

 

The endocannabinoid system includes two natural cannabinoids produced within the body. Anandamide ( AEA) and 2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) have their own important functions during pregnancy, from conception to delivery. Anandamide levels have been found to be higher during early pregnancy than during the second and last trimesters, when they decrease until they rise sharply again just before labor begins. The actual significance of this event is not yet known, but it has been observed in both human and animal experiments. Anandamide is considered important in the interaction between the embryo and the uterus. (1)

 

Endocannabinoids in breast milk

 

Breast milk contains huge amounts of nutritious fatty acids, which are usually enough to cover the baby’s entire energy needs until the baby is 6 months old. The quality and quantity of fatty acids vary depending on how the mother eats. The dominant fatty acid is arachidonic acid, which is also a precursor to endocannabinoids.

According to one small sample study that measured endocannabinoid levels in breast milk, both anandamide and 2-AG were clearly present, although the 2-AG levels are significantly higher. The 2-AG levels may be affected by the breastfeeding mother’s overweight, as the concentrations of the cannabinoid 2-AG clearly varied between the breast milk of different weight categories.

The importance of endocannabinoids in breast milk is still unclear, but it is definitely an object that arouses interest. (3)

It has been found in animal experiments that the baby’s meals are possibly related to the activation of the CB1 receptor and that it plays a big role in the initiation of sucking as well as in early development. (3)

 

Breast milk that contains cannabinoids such as anandamide and 2-AG.

A baby gets its first cannabinoids from breast milk shortly after birth. Breast milk contains both endocannabinoids, anandamide (AEA) and 2-AG.

Use of CBD oil during pregnancy

 

Although the endocannabinoid system is involved in the initiation, progression and even delivery of pregnancy, it does not necessarily mean that CBD oil use during pregnancy would be completely safe. Cannabidiol ie CBD does not actually act through the body’s cannabinoid receptors, but through other receptors, and thus does not directly affect the functioning of the endocannabinoid system.

CBD is a naturally occurring cannabinoid in hemp that belongs to the large family of phytocannabinoids. There are many different types of them, and more than 120 different types have been found in hemp. Other active substances such as more than 450 terpenes and flavonoids have been identified, and the combined effect of all these ( Entourage effect ) creates hemp’s healing properties.

The use of the CBD oil understandably, there are quite a few studies on use during pregnancy. Some animal experiments have been done, and based on the results obtained from them, it is probably safe to leave hemp products containing CBD and other cannabinoids for less use in the early stages of pregnancy and to continue their regular and large-scale use only after the end of breastfeeding.

According to some animal experiments, using CBD, especially in the early stages of pregnancy, may cause behavioral disorders in childhood and adulthood.

CBDThe use of cannabinoids may also be involved in premature birth, low birth weight and early pregnancy miscarriages, but these research results may be affected by the fact that most studies focusing on cannabinoids and pregnancy/breastfeeding are based on the cannabis , i.e. psychoactive hemp, as well as the fact that the results have not taken into account other factors affecting the course of pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding, such as the mother’s health and diet.

 

Use of CBD oil during breastfeeding

 

CBD is a fat-soluble cannabinoid that is also excreted in breast milk. A child’s brain develops strongly in early childhood, and the effects of CBD as a fat-soluble cannabinoid may be similar to exposure to CBD during pregnancy.

CBD oil works as an anandamide reuptake inhibitor, meaning it increases the amount of anandamide available in the brain amount. In women prone to depression and anxiety, increased levels of anandamide in the brain can reduce the effects and possibly even the onset of postpartum depression.

In summary

 

Although CBD products are widely used and found to be safe, they should not necessarily be used during pregnancy and breastfeeding, at least not very regularly. Very little research has been done on the topic and it is still impossible to say what kind of dose could be safe. The endocannabinoid system plays important roles throughout pregnancy and endocannabinoids have also been detected in breast milk. CBD oil is a safe and versatile nature’s own nurse, whose regular use is safe to return to immediately after stopping breastfeeding at the latest.

Sources

 

  1. Kozakiewicz M., Grotegut CA and Howlett AC. 2021. Frontiers of endocrinology. Endocannabinoid System in Pregnancy Maintenance and Labor: A Mini-Review. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fendo.2021.699951/full. Referred on 17/10/2022
  2. Ezechukwu H., Diya C., Shrestha N and Hryciw D.. 2020. American journal of physiology. Role for endocannabinoids in early pregnancy: recent advances and the effects of cannabis use. https://journals.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/ajpendo.00210.2020. Referred on 17/10/2022.
  3. Datta P., Melkus M., Rewers-Felkins K., Patel D., Bateman T., Baker T. skea Hale T.. 2021. Human Milk Endocannabinoid Levels as a Function of Obesity and Diurnal Rhythm. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=Hale %20TW% 5BAuthor%5D. Referred on 17/10/2022.
  4. Health feedback. Endocannabinoids in human breast milk are important for human development, but not present in cannabis. https://healthfeedback.org/claimreview/endocannabinoids-in-human-breast-milk-are-important-for-human-development-but-not-present-in-cannabis/. Referred on 17/10/2022

Autism and CBD

Autism and CBD

Autism and the autism spectrum are associated with a number of different neurological disorders, which usually complicate the life of the sufferer. The spectrum of autism includes various factors affecting the ability to function, which can vary individually with large differences. Even perfectly healthy people are very different in many ways, and the same applies to autistic people. Everyone has their own individual traits and ways of experiencing the world.

Some of those diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder are able to live independently, while some need help to survive in everyday life throughout their lives. An autistic person’s need for help can vary, e.g. depending on life situation, age and support measures. (1)

The word spectrum refers to the variation and intensity of symptoms arising from disorders. Autism spectrum disorder is recognized much more often in men than in women. Out of the entire population in Finland, less than one percent (0.7%) of the population suffers from autism. It is not yet known exactly what causes the differences in prevalence, but it is thought to be related to biological differences between the sexes. (2)

 

Traits of autism

 

Autism affects a person’s way of experiencing and sensing the environment. Most of the time, the interaction and communication of an autistic person differs from “normal”, so to speak.

Common features for autistics are e.g. difficulties in controlling one’s own activities, difficulties in social situations (communication), a different way of interpreting and sensing situations, and sensitivity to nervous system overload and stress. However, the features vary from case to case. (1)

Autism features also include areas that can manifest as exceptional talent, such as the ability to pay attention to details and solve even difficult puzzles. In addition to them, autistic people can have excellent concentration and a clear understanding of right and wrong. (1)

 

The characteristics of the spectrum of mild autism in a child can be determined with the help of research.

Common features for autistic people are difficulties in controlling their own activities, communication difficulties, and sensitivity to nervous system overload and stress.

 

Autism spectrum disorders

 

Autism spectrum disorders (Autism Spectrum Disorders, i.e. ASD) and related brain development disorders become apparent at an early stage. The characteristics and challenges in functioning of autistic people can vary significantly.

List of autism spectrum disorders:

  • Autism
  • Asperger syndrome
  • Pervasive developmental disorder (atypical autism)
  • Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Specified (PDD-NOS)
  • Rett syndrome
  • Disintegrative developmental disorder (Heller’s disease)

 

There is not only one clear cause behind the disorders, but several biological factors influence it. Although the exact causes have not yet been identified, in any case, hereditary factors influence the prevalence of the disorder. According to current data, 65-90 percent of autism spectrum disorders are inherited. (2)

In the entire population, the autism spectrum is observed in about 1 percent of people. In developed countries, the number is higher (1.5%) and has almost doubled in 10 years. (3)

 

Asperger syndrome

 

Autism-related diagnoses have become more specific. Once thought of as a rare childhood disorder, Asperger’s syndrome is now classified as a lifelong illness. The syndrome in question was named after the Austrian pediatrician Hans Asperger and was introduced in Finland in the 1990s.

Asperger’s syndrome and autism are now classified as part of the autism spectrum disorder and those terms have been removed from the classification (ICD-11 and DSM-5). The autism spectrum is defined on a case-by-case basis from mild to severe. (3)

 

Symptoms of Autism

 

Autism-related symptoms usually appear already during early childhood, within the first three years of age. Sometimes the symptoms are only noticed in preschool or later. An autistic child usually has difficulty understanding verbal and non-verbal communication. Often, maintaining eye contact has also proven to be challenging. (2)

The symptoms related to autism are therefore especially manifested in social situations and interactions with others. The disorder may include certain repetitive behaviors and special interests that an autistic person easily becomes immersed in. Each person suffering from autism spectrum disorders has their own characteristics, and some may live very independently, while others may have a great need for help with everyday tasks. (2)

 

The most common symptoms related to autism spectrum disorder

 

  • Difficulty understanding the feelings and thinking of others
  • The challenges of starting and maintaining a conversation
  • The difficulty of working in a group
  • Difficulty accepting new situations and changes
  • Avoiding eye contact
  • Little use of sign language and facial expressions
  • Difficulty forming lasting friendships. (4)

 

It is also possible that the symptoms are not noticed until later in life, when the pressures of working life or postgraduate studies increase. Potential disorders should also be diagnosed by adults, so that work, study and the necessary measures related to rehabilitation can be planned in the necessary way and the risk of being marginalized can be prevented. (3)

 

Autism is diagnosed and tested using various tests for both children and adults.

Getting a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder is a multi-step process that is done together with the help of an expert doctor. Various tests, examinations and interviews are needed for diagnosis.

 

Autism test

 

Although the symptoms of autism spectrum disorder usually become apparent at an early stage, no specific age limit has been set for its definition. It is possible to make the diagnosis even for an adult, and for that there are tests that support the definition of autism. (5)

If you suspect an autism spectrum disorder in yourself or someone close to you, the general recommendation is to seek a doctor’s consultation and prepare for the appointment by thinking about and writing down all the observed features classified as autism spectrum that occur in everyday life. The doctor has the option of separately requesting an appointment with a neuropsychologist, where the matter can be examined in more detail with the help of various examinations. (5)

Getting an official diagnosis is a multi-step process and is usually done with the help of a doctor familiar with the subject through various examinations and interviews. In addition, the diagnosis often also requires interviewing close people, seeing a psychologist and therapist. In the studies, special attention is paid to functional ability, communication, interaction skills and interests throughout life. School certificates, birth records and other documents related to growth and development should be included to make the process easier, as comprehensive examinations to make a diagnosis often require a lot of time. (5)

 

Screening

 

There are various tests and screening tools to support the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Filling out the form can make the doctor’s work easier and speed up the diagnosis.

In the links below, you can find screening forms to support the definition of autism in children and adults.


Digital CHAT evaluation form (in Finnish)

 

Digital M-CHAT-R extended evaluation form , (in Finnish)

 

The AQ-10 screening form intended for adults may be helpful at the doctor’s office when assessing the need for additional tests to make a possible diagnosis in an adult who does not have major learning difficulties.

AQ-10 evaluation form for identifying the autism spectrum in adults

 

The ASSQ screening form, designed for parents of children, can clarify and be helpful in the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders.

ASSQ assessment form for parents

 

The GQ-ASC screening form below is designed to identify autism-related behaviors and abilities in cis and trans women.

GQ-ASC assessment form (cis and trans women)

 

An autistic child is playing on the floor. A person with an autism spectrum disorder can get help from CBD oil.

An autistic child easily drifts into playing only his own games. In the behavior of an autistic child, deficiencies are also often observed in relation to language development and making eye contact.

 

An autistic child

 

Some autistic children manage well independently, while others may need daily support. At worst, an autistic child can also significantly challenge the lives of the child’s loved ones. (1)

In addition to genetics, there are also physiological factors involved in the manifestation of autism. Upbringing has not been found to have a connection with the prevalence of autism. (1)

Autism may appear in a child very early, before the age of 1 year. In general, deficiencies are noticed in the behavior of autistic children, e.g. in eye contact, language development and the way they play with other children. The child may also have a different way of answering questions and expressing emotions. An autistic child may get irritated easily and drift off to play only his own games. The importance of familiar and repeated routines is emphasized in an autistic child. (6)

 

Autism treatment

 

Autism spectrum disorders are congenital, and no curative treatment has yet been invented.

In the revised disease classification, autism is not currently separated into separate diagnoses and e.g. Asperger’s syndrome, a mild form of autism, is now considered part of the autism spectrum disorder.

Although there is no known cure for autism spectrum disorders, its symptoms can be alleviated and individual development can be supported with, for example, occupational therapy and speech therapy. In addition, it is important for an autistic child and his parents to accept the prevailing situation and learn to live with the personality traits that are associated with it. (7)

If the symptoms significantly challenge everyday life, it is worth discussing the matter together with an expert neuropsychologist, with whom the treatment of the situation and the need for different forms of support can be planned in an appropriate way. Usually, support and rehabilitation takes place in cooperation with kindergarten, healthcare or school. (7)

The control of one’s own actions and the development of the brain continue until at least the age of 25. The symptoms related to the autism spectrum may decrease after reaching adulthood, if the child receives the necessary support along the way and participates in a rehabilitation program. In some cases, with the help of successful rehabilitation and support, the symptoms can decrease so much that the previous diagnosis no longer matches the picture of the symptoms. (7)

 

Autism spectrum treatment with CBD

 

Symptoms of the autism spectrum are currently also treated with CBD products such as CBD oil and CBD capsules. This alternative and natural form of treatment has spread worldwide in popularity, when several doctors and parents of autistic children have publicly shared their positive experiences and results related to autism treatment.

Some studies have shown that cannabinoid products reduced the number and/or intensity of symptoms associated with the autism spectrum, including hyperactivity, self-harm, sleep disturbances , feelings of anger, anxiety , irritability, restlessness , psychomotor agitation, aggression, and depression .. In addition, they observed improvement in cognition, sensory sensitivity, attention, social interaction and language. The most common side effects were sleep disturbances, restlessness, nervousness and changes in appetite. (8)

Especially for minors, the safety of using CBD should always be evaluated on a case-by-case basis together with an expert doctor.

CBD is hardly a panacea that cures the disorder completely, but for many it seems to be a significant help in everyday functioning and in alleviating the symptoms. Read more in the next paragraph about how the endocannabinoid system and autism are connected.

 

The role of the endocannabinoid system in autism

 

The vital functions of almost every animal are controlled and balanced by an internal cannabinoid system. It is absent only in insects and protozoa. Complicated endocannabinoid system consists of a network of receptors covering the entire body, which are affected by neurotransmitters. It is known to influence and regulate e.g. brain, kidney, liver and immune system function. (9)

Based on new evidence, people with autism spectrum disorder have anandamide the amount found to be lower than in a healthy control group. Anandamide is an endocannabinoid, also known as the happiness molecule, or internal cannabinoid, and based on this research result, the internal cannabinoid system and the imbalance of cannabinoids can have an effect on the manifestation of the disorder. (10)

Autism-related disorder has also been linked to the amount of oxytocin in the body. Oxytocin, also known as the love hormone, is a neuropeptide consisting of amino acids that is expressed in mammals and acts as a messenger and hormone. Oxytocin is produced in the brain’s hypothalamus, from where it passes through the pituitary gland into the bloodstream. Today it is known that oxytocin plays a significant role in e.g. in the formation and maintenance of the attachment relationship between the child and its parents. In addition to that, oxytocin is also associated with social, emotional, cognitive functions. Since the production of oxytin is also regulated by the internal cannabinoid system, you can from CBD and some others of cannabinoids be useful in connection with its normal production. (11)

Researchers think that the interaction between anandamide and oxytocin and the correction of their deficiency states related to autism could provide relief in treating the symptoms (11).

The internal cannabinoid system also seems to play an important role in relation to social interaction skills and emotions, which CBD and certain cannabinoids can activate. By affecting the receptors of this body system, it may also have an effect on alleviating the symptoms of autism.

 

THC and autism

 

Although research is still ongoing, there are indications that THC-cannabinoid may reduce internal anandamide concentrations in the body. The concentrations of anandamide are already low in people with autism, so it should be avoided the continuous use of THC. Anxiety is also a common symptom associated with autism, and THC and THCV may make it worse for some. However, the experiments were done on rats and with strong THC-containing cannabis products, so how it affects humans is not yet fully understood.

Generally, in CBD oils, the traces of THC are minimal enough to be detrimental to anandamide levels. Understanding the issue is also complicated by the fact that, according to studies, full-spectrum CBD products are prone to side effects (see entourage effect) are therefore more effective for many diseases and imbalances in the body than isolated cannabinoids (isolates). Full spectrum means that the final product also contains THC, although often only in very small amounts.

If you are considering CBD products for the treatment of an autism spectrum disorder and want products containing as little THC as possible, you should consider CBD products activated by heating, because their THC concentrations are usually significantly lower. See more about how heating works decarboxylation affects the final product.

Sources

 

  1. Autism Association. 2022. Basic information about autism. https://autismiliitto.fi/autismi/perustietoa-autismista/. Referred on 12/09/2022
  2. Health house. Autism and autism spectrum disorders. https://www.terveystalo.com/fi/tietopaketit/autimi-ja-autismikirjon-hairiot/#Mit %c3% a4 %20on% 20autismin%20kirjo . Referred on 12/09/2022
  3. Hanna Raaska & Raija Vanhala. 2020. Medical journal. Why and how do the diagnostic criteria for autism change? https://www.laakarilehti.fi/tieteessa/katsausartikkeli/miksi-ja-miten-autismin-diagnostiset-kritierit-muuutuvatt/?public=7fcf41d96a001eee7da91094299e5b86 . Referred on 08/12/2022
  4. Mielenterveystalo.fi. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD). https://www.mielenterveystalo.fi/lapset/ammattilaisille/hairiot/autismikirjon_hairiot/Pages/autisimikirjon_hairiot_ASD.aspx. Referred on 13/09/2022
  5. Autism Association. 2022. Diagnosing the autism spectrum. https://autismiliitto.fi/autismi/diagnosointi/. Referred on 13/09/2022
  6. Autism Association. 2022. Autism in different stages of life. https://autismiliitto.fi/autismi/autismikirjo-eri-elamanvaiheissa/. Referred on 09/04/2022.
  7. Pekka Räisänen & Ulla Boshkov. Autism in a child. https://www.mehilainen.fi/lasten-mehilainen/autismi-ja-autismikirjo. Referred on 13/09/2022
  8. Estácio Amaro da Silva Jr. and others 2022. Trends Psychiatry Psychother. Cannabis and cannabinoid use in Autism Spectrum disorder: a systematic review. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34043900/. Referred on 15/09/2022
  9. Ethan Russo. 2015. Phytecs. Introduction to the Endocannabinoid System . https://www.phytecs.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Russo-Introduction-to-the-Endocannabinoid-System-corr-January-2015.pdf . Referred on 14.09.2022
  10. Debra S. Karhson et al. 2018. Molecular Autism. Plasma anandamide concentrations are lower in children with autism spectrum disorder.https://molecularautism.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13229-018-0203-y. Referred on 15/09/2022
  11. Don Wei et al. 2015. Pnas. Endocannabinoid signaling mediates oxytocin-driven social reward. https://www.pnas.org/doi/full/10.1073/pnas.1509795112 . Referred on 15/09/2022

Anti-inflammatory CBD

Anti-inflammatory CBD

One of the most well-known and researched properties of CBD is the reduction of inflammation. The body’s inflammatory reaction is very common and occurs with every small wound, but sometimes it contributes to the emergence of diseases! In this article, we will learn about different types of inflammation, the endocannabinoid system behind inflammation, and how CBD can reduce inflammation in the body.

 

What is inflammation?

 

Inflammation is the body’s natural reaction against an external pathogen, which originates from messages from the tissue level about dangerous situations. Activated immune cells produce both anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory mediators and this is regulated endocannabinoid system (1). The purpose is that the inflammatory reaction would only be a quick transient situation where the pathogen is eliminated, because if it continues for a longer time it causes damage to the tissues. (2)

There are huge numbers of cells in the human body that control the functioning of the body through messages through the nervous system, and inflammation alone is caused by dozens of different messengers and enzymes. CBD has been found to affect several different inflammatory pathways, while often drugs, for example aspirin, only affect one pathway (1).

 

What causes inflammation?

 

There are different types of inflammation and they can be caused by many different reasons. Next, we will go through slightly different types of inflammation.

Wound inflammation

 

The mechanism behind all inflammations is the same. A microbe enters the body, which causes a natural reaction. However, an inflamed wound is not the same as the inflammatory reaction associated with normal wound healing, which is essential for healing. If dirt remains or gets into the wound, or if it does not heal properly for one reason or another, the body starts to form an inflammation as a reaction, which may spread widely if left untreated. (3)

 

Local inflammations

 

Viruses and bacteria sometimes cause local inflammation, which is usually acute and sometimes resolves on its own. For example, in bronchitis, a bacterium causes inflammation of the mucous membranes of the bronchi and larynx, onychomycosis is caused by bacteria that got under the nail, and tendonitis is caused by stress.

Chronic inflammation in the elbow that CBD can relieve.

According to research, CBD can effectively reduce chronic or low-grade inflammation.

 

Low-grade or chronic inflammation

Low-grade inflammation in the body is also called chronic or silent inflammation and is mainly caused by bad lifestyles and lack of exercise. It is not an actual disease in itself, but a state of the body in which inflammatory mediators are secreted more than necessary. (4)

The background of chronic diseases is often elevated inflammatory markers and inflammatory mediators, and inflammation is the background of many long-term illnesses. These diseases and The effect of CBD on them has been extensively studied with positive results.

CBD and also other cannabinoids available from hemp have been found to have therapeutic effects on many inflammatory diseases (5). Such are e.g. psoriasis, MS and rheumatoid arthritis . Inflammatory intestinal diseases such as Crohn’s disease may also be relieved with the help of CBD. Today, it is known that inflammation also plays a role in the background of depression .

 

Symptoms of inflammation

 

Symptoms of wound inflammation include pain at the wound site, spreading redness and often suppuration of the wound. The inflammation may also raise the fever. An untreated inflamed wound can cause blood poisoning and, in the worst case, even amputation of a limb. (3)

Low-grade inflammation in the body causes both diseases and milder symptoms. This condition is often called silent inflammation because it does not cause the same visible and palpable symptoms as, say, an inflammation of a wound. Silent inflammation develops slowly and can exist for years before symptoms actually appear. Often mysterious skin problems, overweight, allergic symptoms without allergies, elevated cholesterol and blood pressure values give indications that there may be low-grade inflammation in the body. (4,6)

Local inflammations are associated with symptoms of inflammation that are very different depending on where the inflammation is located. Appendicitis is felt in the stomach, urethritis when urinating and tooth infection in the jaws. Many infections heal on their own, but if the symptoms continue for a long time, become intense or cause unbearable pain, you should find out with your doctor whether acute treatment is needed.

 

Symptoms of arthritis in the hands.

Slow-developing silent inflammation develops slowly and can exist for years before its symptoms begin to appear. Several skin problems, overweight, allergic symptoms, elevated cholesterol and blood pressure values point to low-grade inflammation.

 

The most common infections

 

Inflammation is a very common reaction and is also associated with many acute underlying diseases and viral infections. The most common ones are e.g. ear infection, kidney basin, gall bladder, inflammation, eyelid, tear duct and cornea infections, appendicitis, small intestine and colon infections. Common infections such as root canal and gingivitis also occur in the mouth.

 

Treatment of inflammation

 

Inflammations are treated in different ways, depending on what kind and where it is. Often the infections will heal on their own, but sometimes natural treatments or medicines are needed.

It is important to clean the wounds properly and protect them from dirt until they heal. A wound also needs oxygen to heal, so it is not good to cover the wound at least constantly, but to give it air when changing the bandages. In the treatment of a wound, pitch ointment has been found to be very good, as well as various herbal patches such as the leaf of the gardenia plant can speed up the healing of the wound. (3,7).

Depending on the inflammation, local inflammation can be treated with either home remedies or antibiotics. It is always good to treat a serious infection with a doctor, but mild and incipient infections may be treated, for example, with the help of various herbs and plants such as rosemary, elderberry and sage. Various infections are also treated successfully with homeopathy.

 

Medicines that reduce inflammation

 

Medicines that reduce inflammation can be found in both antibiotics and over-the-counter medicines at the pharmacy. Many common painkillers are also anti-inflammatory and reduce fever, while they affect the sensation of pain. Such drugs include e.g. Burana, Ibuxin and Aspirin. Medicines available without a prescription should not be used to treat the inflammation for more than a few days, especially if the symptoms continue to be severe. If necessary, the inflammation should be medicated and treated with the help of a doctor.

 

Diet and lifestyle changes

 

When the body is in good shape and the body feels good, even wounds heal faster and cleaner. Although correcting lifestyles contributes to the healing of chronic inflammation while also preventing it, the change in life has a positive effect on the entire immunity and thus also on susceptibility to illness.

Inflammation can also be alleviated with the help of diet. Foods that reduce inflammation include e.g. various berries (blueberries, strawberries, raspberries), fatty fish (salmon, herring), ginger, turmeric, dark chocolate, broccoli, avocado, green tea, chilies, peppers, grapes, olive oil, and many herbs.

 

Endocannabinoid system underlying inflammation

 

The endocannabinoid system is a body balancer system found in all mammals that monitors all body functions. In the event of an accident, the endocannabinoid system is the one that sends the necessary cells to the wound and points out that the wound has now been healed enough. It doesn’t actually do anything by itself, but is in the background monitoring and regulating various body functions so that the healing is as optimal, effective and fast as possible.

The endocannabinoid system is involved both in the creation of inflammation, but also in its prevention. Its functions as an anti-inflammatory are related to preventing cytokine production, preventing cell proliferation and regulating cell death. The endocannabinoid system regulates the inflammatory response by preventing excessive activation, proliferation and migration of immune cells in the body, and by activating the death of immune cells. Endocannabinoids regulate the inflammatory response at both the innate and adaptive immune levels. (1)

Endogenous cannabinoids, or endocannabinoids, prevent the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increase the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines throughout the inflammatory response. (8,9)

 

Anti-inflammatory CBD

 

Chinese doctors have already said thousands of years ago that hemp eliminates rheumatism. One way or another, different cannabinoids have been found to have anti-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory effects. Also with other cannabinoids such as for example CBG (cannabigerol) has been found to have both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.

CBDhas been studied extensively specifically in relation to inflammatory diseases. It does not actually affect our body through the endocannabinoid system’s own receptors CB1 and CB2, but through other receptors such as serotonin receptors. Inflammation involves the cooperation of CBD and the GRP55 receptor, as well as the interaction between the TRPV receptor and CBD. (1,8,9)

The antioxidant effects are related to CBD’s free radical blocking and transforming effects. CBD breaks their chain reactions, captures them and converts them into less active forms. (8)

CBD also supports the activity of antioxidant enzymes by preventing the reduction of trace element concentrations. CBD has been found to be an even stronger antioxidant than vitamins A and C. (8)

 

CBD oil bottles to treat inflammation.

CBD has been found e.g. reducing the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, preventing the proliferation of inflammation-related cells and promoting their death.

 

Does CBD oil help with inflammation?

 

In the case of inflammations, dosage probably plays a big role in terms of success, and inflammations are often treated with quite large doses.

The action of CBD oil in the body supports the activity of the endocannabinoid system and has been found to increase the endocannabinoid anandamide levels, which in turn affects cannabinoid signaling. This is also why CBD oil promotes anti-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects. (1,8)

Studies have shown that CBD oil reduces the levels of cytokines that promote inflammation, prevents the proliferation of cells associated with inflammation, promotes their death, and reduces the movement and activity of immune cells. (9)

 

in summary

 

Inflammation is a necessary and completely natural reaction, but sometimes inflammation can even cause long-term illnesses. It is possible to treat inflammations with gentle home remedies, but they are also treated with, for example, antibiotics and homeopathy.

CBD oil and CBD have been extensively studied for their anti-inflammatory properties and have been shown to have therapeutic effects. CBD oil is generally a well-tolerated and gentle form of treatment, which may be of significant help for severe inflammatory diseases such as MS and arthritis.

 

Sources

 

  1. Chouinard F., Flamand N., Lefebvre JS and Turcotte C.. 2015. Journal of Leukocyte Biology . Regulation of inflammation by cannabinoids, the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol, arachidonoyl-ethanolamide and their metabolites. https://jlb.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1189/jlb.3RU0115-021R. Referred on 8/10/2022.
  2. Hänninen A.. 2011. Period book Duodecim. Immunological regulation of the acute inflammatory response. https://www.duodecimlehti.fi/duo99721. Referred on 8/10/2022.
  3. Acute wound inflammation. Health village. https://www.terveyskyla.fi/haavatalo/tietoa-haavoista/akuutit-haavat/akuutin-haavan-paranemista-hidastavat-syyt/akuutin-haavan-tulehdus. Referenced 1/10/2022
  4. Uusitupa M. and Schwab U.. 2014. Period book Duodecim. Diet and mild inflammation. https://www.duodecimlehti.fi/duo11787. Referred on 8/10/2022.
  5. Henshaw FR, Dewsbury LS, K.Lim C, and Steiner GZ. The Effects of Cannabinoids on Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines: A Systematic Review of In Vivo Studies. 2021. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8266561/. Referred on 8/10/2022.
  6. Low-grade inflammation can underlie many diseases. Zip. https://www.puhti.fi/tietopaketit/matala-asteinen-tulehdus/. Referred on 8/10/2022.
  7. Lohi J., Jokinen JJ, Sipponen A., Mäki-Paakkanen J., Peltola R., Rautio M., Laakso T., Saranpää P., Papp A. and Sipponen P.. 2008. Period book Duodecim. Effects of spruce resin ointment on wound healing. https://www.duodecimlehti.fi/duo97315. Referred on 8/10/2022.
  8. Atalay S., Jarocka-Karpowicz and Skrzydlewska E.. 2019. Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Cannabidiol. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7023045/#B25-antioxidants-09-00021. Referred on 8/10/2022
  9. Lorena C ., Robaina C., Keir-Rudmana S., Hornimanb N. and Clarkson C.. 2021. The anti-inflammatory effects of cannabidiol and cannabigerol alone, and in combination. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1094553921000596. Referenced 1/10/2022

CBD and stress

CBD and stress

Stress is defined as any stimulus that upsets the body’s balance. The stimulus can be real or imaginary, and regardless of it, stress can be prolonged very easily and become a state of being that dominates life. In this article, we will consider stress, the mechanism of its occurrence, the most common symptoms and whether it could CBD oil can help relieve stress.

What is stress?

 

In the past, stress was mostly seen as negative distress, but today it is known that short-term stress is actually good and makes us strive for things (1). A demanding job that needs to be completed, overdue library books that need to be returned, an empty fridge that requires a trip to the food store. Things like this will be handled specifically with the help of stress; a person can’t get an undone task out of his mind and rather tackles it than constantly running the same thought over his mind. Also events related to survival, such as threatening situations, are often triggered by the “fight or flight” reaction caused by positive stress.

 

Chronic or prolonged stress

 

When there are too many challenges or burdensome things in life, a person experiencing stress can also notice physical symptoms. Challenges related to sleep, brain fog, problems related to concentration, forgetting things, etc. are symptoms from which it can be concluded that stress has been prolonged. With chronic stress, hormonal activity may change and go into a knot, and it may take a long time to recover from it.

Stressed woman reads books.

Stress can be short-lived and it can get unfinished business done. Chronic, i.e. prolonged, stress may, on the other hand, cause visible harm such as a stress belly, rashes and pimples on the face.

 

Stress on the body and mind level

 

Nothing in itself directly causes stress. Many things influence its experience, such as a person’s worldview, their current resources, tolerance and resistance, and their attitude to life (1). Not all stress is bad either; what matters is whether the stress is short or long-term and whether there are ways to alleviate it!

 

Stress affects several body systems and quickly causes changes in neurobehavioral processes. These changes cause symptoms of stress such as sweating, headaches or tension.

 

HPA axis

 

The first event of stress is the activation of the sympathetic nervous system, and the second is the activation of the HPA axis. The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis regulates the body’s stress response and is responsible for producing cortisol. The HPA axis is involved in the regulation of acute, chronic, psychological and physical stress.

 

Cortisol

 

Stress activates the hypothalamus in the brain, which sends signals to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands produce a steroid hormone called cortisol, which is also known as a stress hormone. The HPA axis is responsible for producing cortisol, and its function is regulated by the endocannabinoid system. The secretion of cortisol in a stressful situation is normal and necessary, and its amount naturally varies during the day. However, as a result of chronic, prolonged stress, cortisol production may be disturbed and it may cause e.g. insomnia, immune system disorders or even heart disease and diabetes .

 

Stress and the endocannabinoid system

 

The endocannabinoid system, and the system’s signaling, extends to all body functions, including the brain, where stress also occurs. The endocannabinoid system is one of the most important regulators of the stress response; it restores the HPA axis and facilitates the habituation of the stress response to repeated stress experiences (2,3). The endocannabinoid system also regulates the stimulating and balancing effects of neurotransmitters. In addition to these, the endocannabinoid system also affects stress at higher levels such as emotional and cognitive levels. (3)

 

Endocannabinoids from a stress perspective

 

There are two known endogenous cannabinoids in the body, anandamide and 2-AG ( 2-arachidonoylglycerol). Studies show that the concentration of the cannabinoid 2-AG increases in the hypothalamus of the brain during stress, while the amount of anandamide decreases. A decrease in anandamide activates the HPA axis and contributes to the generation of stress. Correspondingly, an increase in the amount of 2-AG prevents stress and calms the HPA axis. (2,4)

The insufficient presence of endocannabinoids is caused by the accelerated activity of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). FAAH is a molecule that breaks down cannabinoids and its activity accelerates in the almond nucleus up to 24 hours after a stress reaction.

 

Cannabinoid receptors in a stress situation

 

CB1 receptor activation is essential as a negative feedback provider of the stress response in addition to its neuroprotective properties (3,4). It has also been suggested that the CB1 receptor is responsible for the ability of the endocannabinoid system to suppress the HPA axis (2).

 

Symptoms of stress

 

The symptoms of stress can really be anything. There is no clear, specific kind of pimple or one and only feeling that defines the body as a state of stress, but anyone suffering from chronic stress will certainly feel the symptoms of stress and notice if it has been prolonged.

The most typical physical symptoms are e.g. headache, stressed stomach, skin rashes , palpitations, nausea, flu cycle and sweating. Mental symptoms include irritability, anxiety , depression , tension, memory problems, fatigue and insomnia . Stress can also affect relationships, e.g. as the isolation of the stressed (5).

 

Headache caused by stress

 

Headache may even be the most common physical symptom associated with stress. Headache occurs as a symptom of both acute and chronic stress and is also caused by unconscious stress.

 

A person suffering from stress stomach and symptoms of stress keeps his hands on his stomach.

A stressed stomach is a common symptom of stress. Prolonged stress can cause challenges for the stomach’s function and it can also appear as a rash.

 

Stressful stomach

 

As a result of stress, the body’s protective mechanisms may be weakened and the result may be sensitization of the nervous system and disturbance of the sense of pain. Although a stressed stomach is not a physical problem, studies show that stress has real effects on bowel function and the feeling of stomach pain. Symptoms of a stressed stomach include, for example, bloating, flatulence, constipation/diarrhea and abdominal pain. (5) CBD has positive effects bowel function and you can read more about it here .

 

Stress pimples and stress-related rashes

 

Stress can also cause rashes. Even a short-term stressful situation can raise pimples on the chest and face. Pimples are caused by rapid hormonal changes in the body caused by stress. As a result of prolonged stress, the skin may start to develop lines, acne and various rashes. by the effect of CBD oil you can read about eczema and other skin symptoms here and here.

 

CBD oil can relieve stress

 

CBD is a versatile cannabinoid. It has been found to have a relatively weak direct effect on the known cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, but it also affects other targets in the body. CBD seems to prevent stress-induced changes related to the serotonin receptor (5-HTA1) and promotes receptor signaling (2,3,4). CBD also has an alleviating effect on stress-related neuroinflammation, and it appears to bind to stress, depression and to anxiety contributing TRPV1 receptor. (2,3,4)

It has been shown that CBD:n one of the most significant tasks in relation to stress would be to increase the activity of CB1 and CB2 receptors by preventing the breakdown of anandamide (2). CBD can help reduce acute stress-related anxiety, but also normalize abnormal stress reactions. (3,4)

 

Natural treatment for stress

 

Fortunately, however, there are many natural and easy ways to relieve stress quickly. During difficult times, you should remember your own well-being and take care of versatile, nutrient-rich food and a sufficiently long, restful night’s sleep. Silencing smart devices, taking a sauna and walking in nature are simple but effective ways to calm down. It is essential to try to prevent stress, and it can be made easier by getting to know your own resources and finding suitable ways to deal with acute stressful situations.

CBD oil dosing for dogs.

The symptoms of stress in dogs are similar to those in humans and can be alleviated with CBD oil.

 

Pets also experience stress

The stress of other family members, such as a dog or other pet, can also cause concern and cause similar symptoms of stress, which personal challenges can also cause. Domestic animals and pets are easily stressed by big changes in their living environment. Traveling and loneliness in particular can cause stress. CBD oil is also given to dogs, cats and other household pets. Read more about the dosage of CBD oil for pets .

 

In summary

 

The body’s balancing endocannabinoid system is a fascinating multifaceted entity that is present everywhere, but not solely responsible for anything. It is even involved in the creation and calming of stress, embodying that reaction caused by the senses that strongly affects peace of mind. CBD oil has been in several studies, and in connection with the studies, it has emerged as an effective and safe aid for many physical and mental symptoms caused by stress!

 

Sources

 

  1. Duodecim ; Stress. 2022. Mattila A.. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk00976. Referred on 23/05/2022
  2. Functional Interactions between Stress and the Endocannabinoid System: From Synaptic Signaling to Behavioral Output. 2010. Hill M, Patel S, Compolongo P, Tasker JG, Wotjak C, Bains JS.
  3. Enhancing Endocannabinoid Control of Stress with Cannabidiol.. Henson J., Viettää L., Quezada M., Hall S.. https://www.mdpi.com/2077-0383/10/24/5852/htm. Referred on 23/05/2022
  4. Neurobiological Interactions Between Stress and the Endocannabinoid System. 2015. Morena M, Patel S, Bains JS, Hill MN. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=Hill%20MN%5BAuthor%5D. Referred on 23/05/2022
  5. Bee ; Stress. https://www.mehilainen.fi/mielenterveys/stressi. Referred on 23/05/2022

CBD and epilepsy

CBD and epilepsy

Epilepsy, which causes uncontrolled bursts in the electrical activity of the brain, is the most common of the disorders related to brain activity. It’s a challenging, life-affecting disease for which you can’t always find a suitable medicine, at least not a very easy one. In this article, we explore epilepsy, the endocannabinoid system behind it, and whether it could CBD oil can be helpful in the treatment of epilepsy.

 

What is epilepsy?

 

Epilepsy is a chronic brain disease that affects the brain’s electrical activity. It is the most common of the serious neurological diseases and occurs more in men than in women. Epilepsy also occurs in children and animals such as dogs and cats. Globally, the diagnosis of epilepsy is approx. percent of people.

Epilepsy involves both a disorder of the brain’s electrical activity and inflammation of the nervous system in the brain. (1)

A disturbance in the electrical activity of the brain is either excessive discharge or synchronous activity of neurons (1). Inflammation of the nervous system is believed to be part of the cause of epileptic seizures because it occurs both before and after seizures (2). Inflammation of the nervous system is a normal, natural reaction of the body, but it seems that there is an overreaction in the sick brain. The endocannabinoid system is involved in inflammatory pathways and is involved in both the activation of the inflammatory response and its extinguishment (2,3), CBD oil has been found to alleviate inflammation (4,5) .

 

Epilepsy symptoms

The symptoms of epilepsy are clear and very similar in almost all sufferers. Epilepsy is accompanied by episodes of unconsciousness or loss of consciousness, during which the body can convulse violently. The symptoms vary slightly depending on the type of epilepsy and the patient, but the characteristic features are very similar to each other.

Epilepsy can occur in connection with another disease, such as a brain tumor, and sometimes a brain tumor or another neurological disease can cause an epileptic seizure. A seizure, which is the clearest and first symptom of epilepsy, is often a frightening experience for both the person having the seizure and their loved ones. After the first seizure, other possible seizure-causing diseases are ruled out, and if there are more than one seizures and no reason for the seizure is found, it is always treated as epilepsy. (1)

 

Epilepsy with local onset causes premonitory symptoms

 

Localized epilepsy occurs in the brain only in the neurons of the other hemisphere, usually very locally. These attacks are characterized by premonitory symptoms, which appear as sensory hallucinations such as auditory and visual hallucinations. Soon after, the consciousness becomes blurred, and the person no longer reacts to external stimuli. Limbs may jerk and make uncontrollable movements, and the others did not have any of this. Seizures of local onset usually last a few minutes and may progress to a convulsive attack. (6)

 

Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy

 

Adolescent myoclonic epilepsy (Janz’s epilepsy) is often difficult to detect. To get a correct diagnosis, an EEG study that measures the electrical activity of the brain and an in-depth picture of the disease are always needed. Adolescent myoclonic epilepsy usually starts between 13 and 16 years of age and is characterized by mild absence seizures and especially morning muscle twitching. Video games, sleep deprivation and heavy alcohol consumption increase myoclonic symptoms. (7,8)

Epilepsy is caused by bright and flashing lights and can be alleviated by CBD.

Bright and flashing lights may trigger epileptic seizures or symptoms typical of epilepsy, even if epilepsy has not been diagnosed.

 

An epileptic seizure

 

An epileptic seizure can happen to anyone. One in ten people will have a one-time epileptic seizure during their lifetime, but a single seizure is not yet actually a sign of the disease. An epileptic attack is the result of too large an electrical discharge in the neurons of the brain (1) and they are classified according to the types into three; focal, generalized and unknown seizures.

An epileptic seizure is characterized by violent spasms of the body and twisting of the limbs. Often during an attack, a person bites their tongue and may also defecate underneath. Foam may form at the mouth and there is a risk of suffocation. The attack usually passes within a few minutes, but the confusion and fatigue can continue for hours after the attack. (1,10)

CBD oil seems to reduce seizures even surprisingly effectively. Studies have shown that depending on the dose, type of epilepsy, etc. depending, the seizures clearly decreased in almost half of the participants in the studies. (4,5,12)

 

A long history of epilepsy

 

Epilepsy has existed among humans and animals since the beginning of time. It was originally believed that epilepsy was a demon sent by the moon god and the two even had the same name; Puppet. Later, more demons were added to the list of culprits, and for a long time epilepsy was believed to be of supernatural origin. Epilepsy was treated with exorcism spells and magic, but also with hemp extracts. By the time the attack was over in a few minutes, as it happens today, false notions arose that belief treatments such as spells had made the patient more effective and cured. Today, it is no longer believed that epilepsy was caused by a demon, but its birth and origin is still as big a mystery as it was thousands of years ago (9).

Epilepsy of a child

 

The reasons behind a child’s epilepsy can be very diverse. It can be a structural defect, brain damage at birth or hereditary sensitivity. Sometimes no explanation can be found. In children, epilepsy is slightly less common than in adults, but the seizures are very similar. On the other hand, children often have more seizures than adults and they can be very violent. They include loss of consciousness or blacking out, as well as muscle and body twitching and convulsions. The quality, number and type of scenes may vary, but their basic features are very similar.

Epilepsy in children is usually treated quite well with medication, and only about a third need more than one medication. (10)

Medicines do not work for epilepsy in about a third of patients. Children often have more severe forms of epilepsy and their treatment with CBD has been studied surprisingly much. For example, Epidiolex®, a product containing CBD isolate approved by the FDA for epilepsy in 2018, has been studied and also used as a medicine, either alongside other treatments or individually. It is prescribed from the age of 1 and has been found to be both suitable and has a good effect on children. (5,13)

 

Charlotte’s web

 

Charlotte Figi, an American girl born in 2006 (d. 2020), who suffered from genetic childhood epilepsy from the age of 3 months deserves a special mention. Charlotte had up to 300 strong epileptic seizures every month, which of course eventually affected her age-appropriate development as well. Charlotte’s epilepsy was drug-resistant, meaning that the seizures could not be controlled with existing drugs, and finally Charlotte’s parents decided to try CBD oil as medicine. The rest is history, as Charlotte’s Web is a cannabis strain renamed after Charlotte. CBD oil made from that variety contains very little THC relative to and when CBD is present full spectrum oil, it is more effective than isolate in its treatment. Charlotte’s seizures lessened CBDwith the use of , to 2-3 nocturnal seizures per month and his development was able to continue. Slower than his twin sister, but he learned to talk, walk and eat independently. Charlotte’s story of the relief brought by CBD was widely covered in the media and has greatly contributed to the research of CBD and epilepsy. (11)

Cannabinoid receptors and the neural network of the brain, epilepsy and cbd.

Researchers have noticed that the number of cannabinoid receptors in the brain of people with epilepsy is clearly lower compared to healthy people. Activation of cannabinoid receptors reduces inflammation in the nervous system and protects against possible damage from an epileptic attack.

 

The endocannabinoid system and epilepsy

 

The endocannabinoid system is central to neurological function. It has been found in several different studies to be an observant regulator of all the body’s different systems and to be involved in epilepsy as well. A disturbance in the functioning of the endocannabinoid system is essentially related to the emergence of epilepsy. During an epileptic seizure, the state of discharge of the resting voltage of neurons can lead to the activation of the endocannabinoid system, and the activation reduces the inflammation of the nervous system. This notion is supported by observations that the amount of endocannabinoids in tissues increases after seizures. (2,3,5)

 

Endocannabinoids

 

The amount and quality of endocannabinoids is one factor that seems to vary between a healthy and a sick person, both in epilepsy and in many other diseases. Cannabinoids have been reported to have regulatory properties related to the occurrence and severity of epileptic seizures, which is probably related about the factors affecting the neuroinflammation of the endocannabinoid system .

It seems that the regulation of the rise and fall of the cannabinoid 2-AG is critical for the anti-epileptic effect. 2AG levels and the amount of the enzyme that synthesizes this endocannabinoid are lower in people with epilepsy than in healthy people, but the amount of 2AG has been found to increase immediately after an epileptic attack.

Anandamide levels are also lower in people with epilepsy, which is apparently caused by an increase in the FAAH enzyme that breaks down cannabinoids. CBD acts on anandamide reuptake and increases its amount in the brain while increasing the levels of CB1 receptors. These have been speculated to be part of the antiepileptic effect of CBD. (2,3)

 

Cannabinoid receptors

 

The number of cannabinoid receptors is also reduced in epilepsy patients compared to healthy ones. Changes have been noticed e.g. in the hippocampus of the brain. (2) The activation of the endocannabinoid system caused by an epileptic seizure directs the endocannabinoids to respond to the CB1 receptor, which both reduces the inflammatory reaction of the nervous system and mitigates and protects against the damage caused by the seizure (12).

 

TRPV, serotonin and other receptors affecting epilepsy

 

The TRPV receptor is not actually a receptor of the endocannabinoid system, but it has its own big role in epilepsy. It is involved in the regulation of seizure and epilepsy and CBD affects the TRPV receptor, sensitizing its functions. CBD has been found to affect the epilepsy-related functions of the TRPV receptor by inhibiting them, but this is still open to interpretation as so little research has been done on the subject.

The serotonin receptor, which is divided into five different classes, is also involved in epilepsy, and CBD has been found to have a good response to the receptors of the serotonin family. It is thought that dysregulation of the 5-HT2 receptor responsible for neurotransmitters in the brain is one of the factors behind epilepsy.

CBD also affects the opioid receptor OR and the GRP55 receptor responsible for regulating neurotransmitters.

CBD seems to affect all of these receptors, calming the neurotransmitters in their nerve connections, and it is thought that part of CBD’s antiepileptic effects arise from this interaction. (5)

Treatment and prevention of epilepsy

 

Successful treatment of epilepsy is not always simple, and according to the current understanding, it cannot be completely cured. Epilepsy is mainly treated with an individually selected drug, of which there are many different ones available. In one third of the patients, the attacks continue despite drug treatment, one third need more than one drug and one third the drug treatment works well. The best natural treatments are a sufficient amount of sleep, a healthy, varied diet and a life as smooth and stress-free as possible. (1,10)

Especially in situations where the patient has drug-resistant epilepsy, good results have been obtained from the use of CBD oil in all age groups. Epilepsy treatment CBDis not always successful either, and the treatment plan must be made carefully with possible medicines incompatible with CBD. Studies have reported surprisingly high rates of mild side effects, even though the reduction in seizures has been significant and clearly noticeable. It has been speculated that mild side effects such as diarrhea, nausea, intestinal problems, etc. could be treated with transdermal dosing, as the doses used to treat epilepsy are quite large. (5,13)

Since the exact origin of epilepsy is not known, it is difficult to say how it could be prevented. Blows to the head could be prevented by using a helmet in situations where it could be useful and it would be good to avoid heavy alcohol consumption, as it has been found that alcoholics have epileptic seizures other than after heavy blows to the head.

The symptoms of epilepsy in dogs can also be treated with CBD.

Epilepsy in dogs can also be treated with CBD oil in the same way as in humans.

 

CBD oil for dog (canine) epilepsy

 

Epilepsy in dogs is very similar to epilepsy in humans. If no reason for the seizures is found and the seizure does not remain unique, they are always treated as genuine epilepsy. Epilepsy attacks can also be caused by an illness in animals, such as a brain tumor, liver inflammation or metabolic disorders. Genuine epilepsy rarely occurs in old dogs, usually it appears already at 1-5 years of age. (14) Treating dogs with CBD oil has been studied and tried to some extent. In general, about the dosage and use of CBD oil for dogs, you can read more here.

Feline epilepsy is also similar to human epilepsy, but it occurs in percentages slightly more in cats, approx. 3% of cats get a true diagnosis of epilepsy. Even in cats, an epileptic seizure can be a single one, and only when two seizures have occurred within 24 hours, it is started to be examined and possibly treated. (15)

 

In summary

 

Few diseases have been around as long as epilepsy. It has remained almost unchanged since the beginning of time, but still no sure working method has been found for its successful treatment or improvement. The quality and intensity of epileptic seizures varies from case to case, but in their main features, epilepsies are similar to each other. The endocannabinoid system also has a strong effect on the background of epilepsy, and CBD oil has had very good results in mitigating or even completely eliminating convulsions.

 

Sources

 

  1. Atula S.. 2019. Duodecim ; Epilepsy in adults. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk00012. Referred on 12/06/2022
  2. Cheung KK, Peiris H., Wallace G., Holland O., Mitchell M.. 2019. The Interplay between the Endocannabinoid System, Epilepsy and Cannabinoids. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6929011/. Referred on 12/06/2022.
  3. Kerna N., Merz I., Brown T.. 2018. Medcrave. An alternative medicine perspective on the role of the endocannabinoid system in the treatment of epilepsy. https://medcraveonline.com/IJCAM/an-alternative-medicine-perspective-on-the-role-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-the-treatment-of-epilepsy.html. Referred on 12/06/2022.
  4. Melody R.. 2020. Cannabidiol in epilepsy : The indications and beyond. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7653733/. Referred on 12/06/2022
  5. Silvestro S., Mammana S., Cavalli E., Bramanti P., Mazzon E.. 2019. Use of Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Epilepsy: Efficacy and Security in Clinical Trials. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6514832/. Referred on 12/06/2022.
  6. The working group established by Duodecim of the Finnish Medical Association and the Finnish Neurological Association. 2020. Good treatment. Epilepsies (adults). https://www.kaypahoito.fi/hoi50072. Referred on 12/06/2022.
  7. Kai Eriksson, Tapani Keränen and Matti Koivikko. 1997. Duodecim magazine. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. https://www.duodecimlehti.fi/duo70324. Referred on 12/06/2022
  8. Mikael Ojala, Pekka Tani and Marja-Liisa Granström. 1997. Duodecim magazine. Adolescent myoclonus epilepsy: Do you recognize a common syndrome?. https://www.duodecimlehti.fi/duo70333. Referred on 12/06/2022
  9. Larsen A.. 2007. Journal of Duodecim. The hand of God – what a Babylonian doctor knew about epilepsy. https://www.duodecimlehti.fi/duo96922. Referred on 12/06/2022.
  10. Metsähonkala L.. 2021. Duodecim. Epilepsy of a child. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk00121. Referred on 12/06/2022.
  11. Charlotte’s Web. https://www.charlottesweb.com/blog/charlotte-figi-the-girl-who-changed-the-world. Referred on 12/06/2022.
  12. Medeiros D., Cota V., Oliveira A., Moreira F., Morares M.. 2020. Frontiers. The Endocannabinoid System Activation as a Neural Network Desynchronizing Mediator for Seizure Suppression. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnbeh.2020.603245/full. Referred on 12/06/2022.
  13. Metsähonkala E., Linnakivi T.. 2018. Medical journal. Cannabidiol in the treatment of epilepsy. https://www.potileanlaakarilehti.fi/site/assets/files/0/51/22/296/sll502018-3007.pdf. Referred on 12/06/2022
  14. Go N.. Get dog. Epilepsy. https://www.hankikoira.fi/koirateitoa/koiran-terveys/koiran-sairaudet/epilepsia. Referred on 12/06/2022.
  15. Pääkkönen T.. 2021. Vetcare. Epilepsy in cats. https://www.vetcare.fi/kissojen-epilepsia/. Referred on 12/06/2022.

CBD for migraines and headaches

CBD for migraines and headaches

Headaches and migraines, both are painfully familiar to people today, and CBD oil may even be a significant help in alleviating the various symptoms. In this article, we look at whether CBD oil could reduce the symptoms or even stop headache and migraine attacks completely!

 

Headache is a regular occurrence for every second patient

 

Different types of pain in the head area, which are not caused by an accident, injury or illness, have touched almost every person’s life. It is estimated that about every second person in the world experiences frequent headaches, and the reasons for this are manifold. It can be caused by, for example, stress, drinking too little water, lack of minerals in the body, too much staring at the screen, lack of oxygen to the brain, noise, menstrual cycle, caffeine addiction… Almost anything!

 

The things that bring relief are individual

 

Since a headache can be caused by so many factors, it is quite clear that there is no single treatment for this problem. The use of the CBD oil to relieve various types of headaches has been studied somewhat and may help in some cases. User experiences show that it has beneficial effects, especially for migraines, but for occasional headaches, CBD oil only helps in some situations, perhaps depending on the cause.

Whatever the underlying cause, headaches, like migraines, are associated with overactivation of the trigeminovascular pathway and suppression of neural activity (1,2).

A man experiences a headache and holds his hand to his forehead.

On average, every second person suffers from a headache.

There are many ways to relieve headache symptoms

 

If headache symptoms occur often, it is good to stop and think about the causes, so that you can learn to control and ease the pain attacks. It is important to take care of daily outdoor activities and to try to calm everyday life and work in such a way that they do not cause too much stress. Adequate intake of minerals and trace elements relative to the amount of food consumed, as well as a good night’s sleep, reduce the possibility of headaches. A grateful and confident quality of mind is also suitable for reducing stress and thus also for preventing pain attacks.

 

CBD oil is a versatile helper

 

In some cases, CBD oil may reduce headaches if they occur without apparent reason. In this light, it is important to think about why the head hurts in order to be able to find out whether CBD oil could help. The active ingredients of hemp cannabinoids, flavonoids and terpenes affect the endocannabinoid system, which also affects the occurrence, quality and frequency of headaches (3).

 

Migraine with aura is surprisingly common

 

Migraine, with or without aura, is a surprisingly common condition that involves a debilitating headache along with other symptoms. What makes migraine interesting is that women are three times more likely to suffer from it than men. On average, one in ten suffer from migraines. Its symptoms include a severe, throbbing headache lasting up to three days on one side, photophobia, nausea and visual disturbances (4).

Despite the long and extensive research history, very little is known about the origin of migraine. Today, it is assumed that migraine is a gradually progressing neurological syndrome affecting the brainstem (5).

According to user experiences, migraines really get easier and the attacks decrease with regular CBD oil as a result of consumption. Since in addition to the external causes of the affected body, there is also a chronic lack of endocannabinoids, it is obvious that exocannabinoids could balance the functioning of the endocannabinoid system (2).

CBD oil and hemp leaf. For headaches and migraines.

According to research, CBD can help with headaches and can reduce the number of migraine attacks, as well as ease other migraine symptoms.

 

CBD oil reduces the number of seizures

So far, no cure has been found for migraines, but an attack can be prevented by avoiding the things that usually trigger them. Hustle and bustle, bright sun with a spring breeze, incorrect work posture, bad night’s sleep, etc. are for many almost certain triggers for migraines. In addition to avoiding, also full-spectrum CBD oil can reduce the number of attacks and ease other symptoms of migraine (1,3), as CBD has been found to e.g. stress-relieving, nausea-reducing and anxiety-relieving effects.

 

Contribution of the endocannabinoid system to headache and migraine

 

The endocannabinoid system is essentially related to all bodily functions, including headaches and migraines. Studies have found that during migraines, the gene encoding the CB1 receptor is reduced and the production of endocannabinoids is disturbed (1,2).

 

In the background, the rapid breakdown of anandamide

The endocannabinoid anandamide overproduction of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which is responsible for breaking down, has been observed especially in women with migraines. Overproduction of FAAH reduces the amount of endocannabinoids produced in the body, because FAAH breaks down the cannabinoids produced by the body too quickly (1). Cerebrospinal fluid and platelet studies have shown that migraine sufferers have a clear deficiency of anandamide, and increased activity of endocannabinoid transporters (EMT) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) (1,3). Migraines may also be caused by the excessive release of serotonin from blood platelets. Cannabinoids have been found to balance platelet function and prevent the release of serotonin from platelets during migraines. (1)

The effects of endocannabinoids on the neurological and vascular systems show that they affect the regulation of several functions responsible for migraine.

 

Clinical endocannabinoid deficiency

 

Endocannabinoid system has been studied extensively and for a long time. Based on the findings, it has been suggested that the underlying cause would almost always be a chronic disease endocannabinoid deficiency or dysfunction of the endocannabinoid system. This condition in the body is called clinical endocannabinoid deficiency and the theory was put forward by long-time cannabis researcher Ethan B. Russo.

The basis of the theory is both research on the subject and also the fact that exocannabinoids have been found to have a positive effect on e.g. for migraines, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), fibromyalgia and other chronic diseases. (2)

 

Finally

 

Although headaches and migraines are researched topics, neither of them has yet been found a completely preventive or curative medical treatment. A headache is often relieved by a painkiller and a migraine may be suppressed with migraine medication, but it does not remove the root cause of the problem and therefore only brings temporary relief. CBD oil is a product worth trying that may surprise you with its effectiveness. With the likely cause being a clinical endocannabinoid deficiency, CBD oil can be a key factor in reducing headaches, e.g. by increasing the amount of cannabinoids in the body.

 

Sources

 

  1. The Use of Cannabis for Headache Disorders. 2017. Lochete B.C., Beletsky A., Samuel N., Grant I.. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5436334/. Referred to 8.5.2022.
  2. Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency Reconsidered: Current Research Supports the Theory in Migraine, Fibromyalgia, Irritable Bowel, and Other Treatment-Resistant Syndromes. 2016. Russo E.B.. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5576607/. Referred to 8.5.2022.
  3. Medical Cannabis, Headaches, and Migraines: A Review of the Current Literature. 2021. Poudel S., Quinonez J., Choudhari J., Au Z., Paesani S., Thiess A., Ruxmohann S., Hosameddin M., Ferrer G., Michel J.. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Quinonez%20J%5BAuthor%5D&cauthor=true&cauthor_uid=34589318. Referred to 8.5.2022.
  4. Terveyskirjasto; Migreeni. 2019. Sari Atula. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk00047. Referred to 8.5.2022.
  5. Facultas; Krooninen päänsärky. 2008. Haanpää M., Kauppila T., Eklund M., Granström V., Hagelberg N., Hannonen P., Kyllönen E., Kyro M., Loukusa-Nieminen T., Luutonen S., Telakivi T., Ylinen A., Pakkala I. https://terveysportti.mobi/dtk/tyt/avaa?p_artikkeli=fac00020#s5. Referred to 8.5.2022.

CBD, Immunity and Autoimmune Diseases

CBD, Immunity and Autoimmune Diseases

Autoimmune diseases are increasing rapidly. There are more than 100 different autoimmune diseases and it is estimated that around five percent of the population has an autoimmune disease. Autoimmune diseases are often challenging to treat, and there is not always an effective medicine for them. In this article, we look at immunity, autoimmune diseases and whether CBD has an effect on them.

 

Natural immunity

 

Immunity is a natural synergistic ensemble of the body’s defense systems, which includes all defense and protection systems that protect us from various physical external harms, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites and harmful microbes. The most important function of the immune systems is to divide the elements moving in the body into own and foreign, threats and safe.

Immunity builds up strong already during childhood forest trips. It is important to be exposed to microbes as widely as possible from early childhood, because the phenomenon called the hygiene hypothesis can already be seen. The hygiene hypothesis means that people who grew up in too clean an environment are more prone to allergies and e.g. for asthma because they have not had enough contact with different microbes and pathogens so that the body could have created a strong immunity when encountering them (1).

Immune system dysfunction

 

The body has two ways to fight pathogens; lymphocytes, i.e. lymphocytes, circulate in the blood destroying pathogens, or cells specialized in fighting diseases produce antibodies circulating in the blood, which can neutralize pathogens by their action. Sometimes the functioning of the immune system can be disrupted. It can be mild, in which case the systems only work overactively, and as a result, e.g. asthma, allergies or skin symptoms such as atopic dermatitis. A more serious disorder in the immune system causes autoimmune diseases. (1,2)

 

What is an autoimmune disease?

 

The background of an autoimmune disease is always a malfunction of the immune system that causes inflammation in the body. For some reason, the body’s defense mechanisms do not work as they should, and they no longer separate pathogens from the body’s own cells and tissues. Defense and protection systems turn against the body itself as an inflammatory reaction. (2)

Autoimmune disease is caused by low immunity, an external pathogen, and in some cases also a hereditary factor. (1) According to the current understanding, there is no preventive treatment, but immunity can be strengthened by many means.

Joint pain is a common symptom of autoimmune disease.

Rheumatoid arthritis is a very common autoimmune disease in which the structures of the small joints have a continuous tissue-damaging inflammatory state. Other common autoimmune diseases include celiac disease, various allergies, asthma, psoriasis and thyroid disorders.

There is a long list of autoimmune diseases

 

More than 100 different forms of autoimmune diseases are known. All of them have in common the difficulty of being medicated and a large number of questions. Although there is a theory about how autoimmune diseases break out, their origin is still largely a mystery. The most common autoimmune diseases are thyroid dysfunction and rheumatoid arthritis. Asthma, allergies, celiac disease, chronic fatigue syndrome and psoriasis are also diseases classified as autoimmune. Rarer autoimmune diseases include e.g. adrenal gland dysfunction and myasthenia gravis causing muscle weakness. MS disease is also classified as an autoimmune disease and due to CBD oil’s effect on it, can read here.

 

Autoimmune rashes

 

Eczema and skin diseases that can be classified as autoimmune diseases include e.g. red lichen, vitiligo affecting the skin’s pigmentation and erythema multiforme with many symptoms. Many autoimmune diseases have several different symptoms. Rashes and skin symptoms are not associated with all diseases, but in some they are a significant factor. Psoriasis is a well-known skin-related disease based on immune defense. The symptoms of autoimmune diseases that appear as a rash may be relieved by CBD oil, and from that possible effect, you can read more here.

 

Endocannabinoid system behind immune defense

 

The endocannabinoid system is also part of the function of the immune response. It has an effect on the background of all body systems and, balancing, regulates the body’s immune defenses. The endocannabinoid system has been found to be present in some way in all cells of the body and their functions, including cells of the immune system. It also plays an important role in communication between these cells. (3,4,5)

Endocannabinoids activate the immune response

 

With endocannabinoids AEA (anandamide) and 2-AG (2-arachidonoylglycerol) have many important functions in the functioning of the immune system and can be considered effective immunomodulators. They e.g. both activate and inhibit immune system function and inhibit cytokines that cause inflammation. (5) Cells of the immune system have been found to have cannabinoid transport and degradation mechanisms and express both cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2).

Red blood cells and chronic inflammation due to autoimmune disease.

Autoimmune disease involves inflammation in the body, which CBD can help with. CBD has an anti-inflammatory effect.

 

The CB2 receptor prevents inflammation

 

The primary location of the CB2 receptor in the body is the organs and tissues responsible for immunity. CB2 receptors are found in the cells of the immune systems approx. 100 times more than the CB1 receptor and that makes the endocannabinoid system a significant research target in the treatment of autoimmune diseases (5). The CB2 receptor is activated in the immune system and it has been noticed e.g. as an anti-inflammatory in various diseases such as inflammatory pain and liver infections. When activated, CB2 receptors also regulate the migration of immune cells in the body and their number increases during inflammatory pain (6)

 

The well-being of the immune system

 

Strong immunity is a basic pillar of health. The good immunity acquired as a child is the basis throughout life, but it can also be strengthened in adulthood. Immunity can be weakened, for example, due to stress, antibiotic courses or chronic illness. Also smoking, heavy alcohol use, lack of vitamins, etc. decrease the body’s ability to resist external pathogens. It is known that in addition to a healthy lifestyle, the immune response is also positively affected by the well-being of the mind.

Twice Nobel laureate Dr. Linus Pauling has said:

“You can trace every sickness, every disease, and every ailment to a mineral deficiency.”

A lack of micronutrients can weaken the normal function and effect of enzymes and vitamins in the body. A lack of vitamins can be avoided with well-absorbed supplements such as capsules containing humic and fulvic acid, which promote the normal functioning of the immune system (vitamin C, iron, copper and selenium). Humic substances enhance the absorption of minerals and thus help increase energy production and support immunity. You can order humus capsules from Hamppumaa’s online store.

 

CBD oil for autoimmune diseases

 

People with autoimmune diseases often use immunosuppressive treatments, i.e. treatments that lower immunity, because the immune system is overactive and needs to be calmed down.

CBD has been found in studies to be both immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory. These properties are significant when considering the treatment of autoimmune diseases, as CBD can both slow down and stop an overactive immune system.

All autoimmune diseases differ from each other, which means that the guilty cells are also individual in each form of the disease. The contribution of endocannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system to immunity and autoimmune diseases is so significant that one could develop their own cannabinoid preparations for the diseases according to the purpose. While waiting for them, CBD oil might be of great help.

 

CBD oil dropper bottle and hemp plant in the background.

CBD has significant properties for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. CBD can slow down an overactive immune system.

 

​​

CBG (cannabigerol)

CBG or cannabigerol is a phytocannabinoid that has an anti-inflammatory or inflammation-reducing effect. It affects the function of immune cells and their neurotransmitters. CBG also acts as an anandamide reuptake inhibitor. (6).

 

Effect of terpenes

Terpenes are one of the less talked compounds in hemp. Terpenes are part of the therapeutic effect of hemp and they are involved in full-spectrum CBD oil. Carophyllenes have been found e.g. antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. 46D-limonene can be anti-inflammatory and Gamma-terpinene has an effect on cytokine activity. (6)

 

In summary

Autoimmune diseases are common, but despite all the research, still largely unknown. It is very possible that in the future, effective specific drugs from cannabinoids will be developed for autoimmune diseases.

 

Sources

 

  1. Anttila V-J.. 2021. Duodecim. Elimistön Vastustuskyky. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk01150. Referred to 5.6.2022.
  2. Mustajoki P.. 2018. Duodecim. Autoimmuunisairaudet. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk00010. Referred to 5.6.2022
  3. Nichols J. ja Kaplan B.. Immune responses regulated by cannabidiol. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=Kaplan%20BL%5BAuthor%5D. Referred to 5.6.2022.
  4. Almogi-Hazan O., Reuven O.. Cannabis, the endocannabinoidsystem and immunity – the journey from the Bedside to the bench and back. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7352399/. Referred to 5.6.2022.
  5. Pandey R., Mousawy K., Nagarkatti M., Nagarkatti P.. 2009. Endocannabinoids and immune regulation. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3044336/. Referred to 5.6.2022.
  6. Giorgi V., Marotto D., Batticciotto A., Atzeni F., Bongiovanni S., Sarzi-Puttini P.. 2021. Cannabis and autoimmunity : Possible mechanisms of action. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8313508/. Referred to 5.6.2022

CBD oil to support cancer treatments

CBD oil to support cancer treatments

According to the World Health Organization, cancer is the second most common cause of death in the world, and currently around every third person will get it during their lifetime. CBD and the endocannabinoid system have been widely studied in relation to cancer. This article examines the endocannabinoid system in the context of cancer, what cancer is and whether CBD oil could help manage cancer or cancer-related symptoms.

What is cancer?

Cancer is an umbrella term for a large number of different diseases. People with uniform cancer only have an uncontrolled distribution of cells in the body, otherwise the cancer can be anywhere, any kind and with a wide spectrum of different symptoms.

Cancer is especially a disease of the elderly, but it occurs in people of all ages, from babies to adults. Today, the prognosis for survival and recovery is good, and more and more people are making a full recovery as treatments develop. Nevertheless, it is thought that in the next few years, cancer will overtake even heart diseases in the death statistics. (1)

A benign tumor remains in place, grows moderately and is usually easy to treat. A malignant tumor forms metastases and the dividing cells spread to other parts of the body, becoming part of the body, while a benign tumor remains as its own separate body, isolated from itself by the body’s healthy cells and tissues.

 

The most common types of cancer

 

There are many different types of cancer and they are named according to where they originate. Prostate cancer is the most common in men, breast cancer in women. Cervical tumors also occur in women. Lung cancer is one of the most common, and colon and rectal cancer are the most common intestinal cancers. Less common, but common are e.g. bladder, kidney and esophageal cancer. (2)

 

Where does cancer start?

 

Tumor growth starts from a single cell, which begins to divide uncontrollably. It is usually a slow chain of events in which the information the cell inherits about cell growth and division is damaged. (1)

Genes located on chromosomes are behind everything. Human hereditary factors, i.e. genes, control the functioning of the cell and sometimes mutations occur in genes. When there are enough of these mutations in the same area of the body, they start to form a tumor. (1)

Gene activity is influenced by environmental factors such as the air we breathe, the food we eat and the atmosphere we live in. (1)

The acidity of the body is one factor in the development of cancer. The body is strongly alkaline when a child is born and it slowly becomes acidic towards old age. Acidification is natural, but it happens faster due to the influence of the environment, such as as a result of drinking a lot of coffee and unhealthy food.

 

Cancer and its many symptoms

 

The symptoms of cancer can actually be anything depending on its location. In all types of cancer, the symptoms are also different among patients, but usually they appear in the area of the body where the tumor is located. In skin cancer there are changes on the skin, in brain tumors there are disturbances in the body’s functions, in lung cancer there may be cough and breathing difficulties, in intestinal cancer bloody stools or digestive problems, etc. (1,2)

Common symptoms of cancer include e.g. pains, general weakness and loss of appetite. In addition to cannabinoids have been studied in terms of tumor eradication, their use has also been extensively studied to treat general symptoms.

 

Symptoms of the final stage of the disease

 

When it has been determined that the cancer cannot be treated medically, palliative treatment is usually used, i.e. treatment that relieves symptoms and improves quality of life. It includes alleviation of pain and symptoms, and e.g. fulfilling psychological, social and spiritual needs.

However, there is always hope. The most touching healing stories can be found on social media and blogs on the internet. People who received a death sentence from a cancer diagnosis share their own experiences of how they have miraculously recovered from cancer. Others say they drank conifer extract drink, others carrot-apple juice. Some have healed themselves with diet and supplements, and some even with fasting. What all these happy ending stories have in common is that these people sincerely trusted in their own healing. They have had hope, faith and gratitude for life and the power of healing.

According to user experiences, CBD oil is a good supportive treatment alongside palliative care, as it has been found to help precisely those symptoms that occur most often.

 

In the picture, a cancerous tumor in the lungs modeled on a computer.

Cancer can be diagnosed with a combination of different research methods, such as blood tests, imaging and test pieces. The image shows lung cancer modeled on a computer.

 

Does cancer show up in blood tests?

 

Cancer research has developed enormously in recent decades. The tumor is verified with a combination of research methods, including blood tests, scanning and taking samples.

Blood tests are already taken at the stage when cancer is suspected and cancer type markers are looked for, possible elevated kidney and red blood cell values are examined, and the concentration of blood storage iron, or ferritin, is measured. (1)

 

The endocannabinoid system and cancer

 

The endocannabinoid system is the body’s security system, whose task is to monitor and balance all the functions that take place in our body. It is present in almost all animals and humans in the world, and its malfunctions are thought to be somehow involved in all diseases of both body and mind.

In several studies, the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the origin and development of cancer has been demonstrated. Endocannabinoids and their receptors have been noticed to increase during cancer, which of course does not mean that the endocannabinoid system is actually involved in the worsening of cancer. Rather, the more endocannabinoids and receptors there are in a tumor, the more aggressive the tumor is. Endocannabinoids and the receptors that receive them are, as it were, in a larger group resisting this disease that consumes the body. (3,4)

The endocannabinoid system and its communication has been found to be involved in the regulation of cell survival, movement and death. (3,4,5)

 

Cannabinoid receptors

 

Cannabinoid receptors are everywhere in the body. CB1 receptors are mainly found in the brain, while CB2 receptors are common in tissues responsible for the immune system. Both receptors are present in tumors, but the regulation of cancer progression seems to be mainly controlled by the CB2 receptor. (4)

On a general level, we could say that both CB receptors (CB1 and CB2) and their endogenous ligands increase in tumor tissues. Their overexpression is directly related to the aggressiveness of the tumor, and the levels of the receptors can be used to predict e.g. probability of survival. (4,7)

 

Other body receptors

 

Almost all functions in the body go through receptors. There are many different types and they all have their own important tasks. A few receptors that are essentially related to cancer have been raised here.

 

TRPV receptors

 

TRPV channels are common receptors in the body. This family includes six different channels and they are numbered TRPV1, TRPV2, etc.

TRPV receptors are strongly associated with CBDand in its antitumor activities. In different types of cancer, cell death occurs through different pathways, but usually it is dependent on the activity of one of the TRPV channels. Depending on the location and quality of the tumor, some kind of combination of receptors is usually used. It has been noticed that sometimes CBD uses, for example, CB1, CB2 and TRPV1 receptors, while in the case of another tumor it uses CB2 and TRPV2 receptors. This is a great demonstration of the complexity of how the endocannabinoid system works! (3,6)

 

GRP55

 

GPR55, also called the third CB receptor, and its amount in the body is related to the rapid proliferation and movement of tumor cells in several types of tumors (4,6). In general, the effect of CBD depends on the combination of these receptors.

 

Endocannabinoids

 

Endocannabinoid levels vary greatly between different tumor types.

The levels of the most well-known endogenous cannabinoids AEA (anandamide) and 2-AG (2-arachidonylglycerol) have been found to be either lower or higher in tumors compared to healthy tissue (4,7). Endocannabinoids also work in pairs or groups and thus create an interactive effect. For example, the combination of anandamide and oleamide inhibits cell proliferation. (7)

 

Endocannabinoid system in cancer treatment

 

It has been stated several times in studies that treatments targeting the endogenous cannabinoid system are the future. According to many studies, the background of all body imbalances manifested as diseases is some degree of disturbance in the endocannabinoid system, which is why specific treatments aimed at it could be very effective. However, more research is needed, because there are always questions, especially with synthetic single endocannabinoids and exocannabinoids. Hemp has been found to work best synergistically i.e. so that all the beneficial substances in the plant such as cannabinoids, terpenes, flavonoids, etc. are used by the body.

Synthetic, i.e. man-made preparations that mimic endocannabinoids have brought good results in drug tests, despite the fact that their mechanism of action is a complex mystery. They have been reported to reduce tumor growth and aggressive metastasis. Synthetic inhibition of MAGL and FAAH enzymes, the natural degraders of endocannabinoids, has also shown anticancer activity. (3,4,6,7)

 

CBD oil to support cancer treatment. Image of bottle of CBD oil.

CBD, one of the most studied cannabinoids, has been found to have strong effects on cancer cells, as well as the ability to prevent the formation of metastases.

 

Cannabinoids in cancer treatment

 

Several studies suggest that cannabinoids are able to suppress inflammatory responses by reducing the production of cytokines and chemokines and increasing T-regulatory cells. Similar results were also obtained with endocannabinoids.

The effect of cannabinoids on inhibiting tumor growth has been demonstrated in both benign and malignant tumors. Cannabinoids can induce natural cell death and prevent the tumor’s own blood vessels from forming. (7)

Cannabinoids have been found to be effective e.g. you can read more about the treatment of insomnia here. They may also help with various pains, which you can read more about in the article Pain and CBD oil.

CBD

 

CBD (cannabidiol) is one of the most studied external cannabinoids in the body. CBD has been found to have strong proapoptotic effects. Apoptosis is the natural death reaction of cells, as a result of which cancer cells also die. CBD is also antiproliferative, meaning it prevents cells from multiplying. (3,6,8)

As an antiangiogenic CBD prevents the formation of new blood vessels in the tumor area, and as it is also anti-metastatic, it prevents the formation of metastases. (3,6,8)

The use of CBD shows, in the light of research, that it increases the possibility of survival, and mitigates several side effects of different cancer and cancer treatments.

CBN, CBC and CBG

 

The lesser-known cannabinoidsCBN (cannabinol), CBC (cannabichromene) and CBG (cannabigerol) have been found in studies to destroy cancer cells.

 

CBD oil to support cancer treatments

 

CBDhas been studied a great deal. It has been found in several studies to alleviate cancer-related symptoms, as well as to interfere with tumor growth (3,6,8). In general, CBD oil is very well tolerated and is suitable as a medicine or to support other treatment for children, adults and even animals.

Cannabinoids have been found to sensitize tumors, e.g. for chemotherapy. The body may develop drug resistance to the tumor, and cannabinoids apparently break down this tumor’s own resistance. (4)

 

Cancer treatment

 

Cancer is treated with many different methods. Chemotherapy, radiation treatments and numerous different drugs make it possible to treat even difficult cancers, but they are often followed by a wide variety of life-threatening side effects. The most common of these are probably loss of appetite, nausea and various mood challenges.

 

The selenium in Brazil nuts can

Like CBD, selenium is an antioxidant that promotes cell death. Selenium can be obtained e.g. Brazil nuts and it is in a highly absorbable form, e.g. also in Huminiqum products.

 

Natural treatment and possible prevention

 

A healthy, well-being body is the best and actually the only possible tool against cancer. Avoiding diseases is challenging, because today’s rhythm of life is extremely hectic, goal-oriented and stressful. Due to the impoverishment of the soil, we no longer get the nutrients we need from food, and the amount of pesticides and preservatives used in the cultivation of plants (including animal feed) is high. These affect the body’s resistance.

Certain vitamins have a negative effect on tumors. One of the most effective is selenium, which, like CBDis a mineral that promotes cell death. Selenium can be obtained e.g. Brazil nuts and it is in a highly absorbable form, e.g. also in Huminiqum capsules .

Selenium also has a positive effect on DNA damage, hormone production and challenges such as chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. There is only very little selenium in the Finnish diet, so the dose of selenium that protects against cancer is often missed. (9) The safe daily dose of selenium is 20-300 micrograms (µg) per day and it should be taken into account that selenium can cause poisoning when the dose is more than 4 milligrams, i.e. 4000 µg per day (10).

In addition, sulforaphane, especially found in bean sprouts and raw broccoli, is also good for cancer patients, as are foods rich in vitamin C such as oranges, rose hips and citrus fruits.

Good quality, versatile food contains plenty of different nutrients that the body needs, and because the body is wise, it knows how to heal itself and always strives to function optimally. In order to heal, the body needs time, rest and sufficient quality food with possible supplements. Clean drinking water is an important element, as is a sufficient amount of fresh outdoor air.

 

In summary

 

Cancer is often a challenging, life-stopping disease, at least momentarily. Treatment methods have increased and improved enormously in the past decades, but there is still no miracle pill for cancer treatment that would simply erase the symptoms without side effects. Researched drugs targeting the endocannabinoid system, making CBD oil a part of life and healthy optimized lifestyles are the cancer treatment of the future and support comprehensive well-being.

Sources

 

  1. All about cancer. https://www.kaikkisyovasta.fi. Referred to 20.7.2022
  2. Duodecim terveyskirjasto. Cancer. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/haku?q=syöpä. Referred to 20.7.2022
  3. Barbara Dariš B., Tancer Verboten M., Knez Z., Ferk P.. 2019. Cannabinoids in cancer treatment: Therapeutic potential and legislation. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6387667/. Referred to 20.7.2022
  4. Fraguas‐Sánchez A., Martín‐Sabroso C., ja Torres‐Suárez A.. 2018. Insights into the effects of the endocannabinoid system in cancer : a review. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6003657/. Referred to 20.7.2022
  5. Bifulco M. ja Di Marzo V.. 2002. Nature Medicine. Targeting the endocannabinoid system in cancer therapy: A call for further research. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Maurizio-Bifulco/publication/11330003_Targeting_the_endocannabinoid_system_in_cancer_therapy_A_call_for_further_research/links/00b4951dc3c337696a000000/Targeting-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-cancer-therapy-A-call-for-further-research.pdf. Referred to 20.7.2022
  6. Seltzer E., Watters A., MacKenzie D., Jr. Granat L. and Zhang D.. 2020. Cannabidiol (CBD) as a Promising Anti-Cancer drug. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=Zhang%20D%5BAuthor%5D. Referred to 20.7.2022.
  7. Velasco G., Hernandez-Tiera S., Davila D. ja Lorente M.. 2016. Science direct. The use of cannabinoids as anticancer agents. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278584615001190.Viitattu 20.7.2022
  8. Moreno E., Cavic M., Krivokuca A., Casadó V., ja Canela E.. 2009. Frontiers. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2019.00339/full. Referred to 20.7.2022
  9. K. Jaakkola. Terveyskirjat.fi. Erikoislääkäri Kaarlo Jaakkolan vastaanotolla: Selenium fights cancer. https://terveyskirjat.fi. Referred to 09.08.2022
  10. H. Jalonen. Selenium. https://www.bonusapteekki.fi/Apteekkarin-neuvot/Seleeni. Referred to 09.08.2022.

How much CBD can be given to a dog?

How much CBD can be given to a dog?

In the same way as humans, dogs and other mammals have numerous in their bodies cannabinoids maintaining receptive receptors and maintaining body balance endocannabinoid system , which is responsible for vital tasks. On this page you will find information on how much CBD can be given to a dog. Although this instruction is made for dogs, it can also be applied to other pets (mammals).

 

How much CBD can be given to a dog?

 

There is still no official standard for dosing CBD for a dog or pet. The appropriate dosage also depends on a number of different factors, such as your dog’s weight, condition, and the CBD product you choose and its strength. For safety reasons, we always recommend starting with a small dose of 1 mg CBD for every five (5) kilograms of body weight, or 1 mg / 5 kg.

 

What factors determine the correct dose of CBD oil for dogs?

 

The three most important factors that affect how much CBD you can give your dog are the size of your dog, what condition or symptom of the dog you are trying to treat, and what kind of CBD product you are giving to your dog.

 

Does the size and condition of the dog affect the dosage?

Although your dog’s weight will not always correlate with how much CBD is needed, it is a good starting point for determining the appropriate dose. We therefore always recommend starting with the lowest dose of 1 mg CBD for every 5 pounds of body weight. Sometimes, however, conditions require higher doses of CBD. If your dog’s condition is more severe, you may consider a higher dose such as 2-5 mg CBD / 5 kg body weight once or several times a day as needed.

See the table below for the recommended CBD dose by weight.

Weight (kg)Amount of CBD (mg)
5 kg1 mg
5 – 11 kg1 – 3 mg
11 – 22 kg3 – 5 mg
22 – 34 kg5 – 8 mg
34 – 45 kg8 – 16 mg
45 – 68 kg16 – 33 mg
68+ kg33 mg
This instruction is not an official recommendation, so we recommend contacting your veterinarian before starting use

 

What is the right CBD product for a dog/pet?

 

In addition to CBD oils and tinctures mainly intended for humans, there are CBD products of different strengths intended for dogs and other household pets on the market. Dog CBD products most often contain fish oil or another flavoring ingredient designed to make the product easier to taste and dispense. CBD products for human use can also be given to a dog if the products do not contain ingredients that are not suitable for the dog. So always check the ingredient list of the product carefully before giving it to your pet!

In addition to the strength of a CBD product, some products, such as CBD dog treats, may be absorbed more slowly than CBD oil or tincture, in which case you may need to give your dog a slightly higher dose to achieve the same effect.

If you plan to use CBD oil to care for your dog, you will often find clear instructions in the product on how many drops contain the desired amount of CBD.

For example, if a 5% CBD oil bottle contains 200 drops and contains a total of 500 mg of CBD, then one drop contains about 2.5 mg of CBD. If you wish, you can mix one drop with the food and, if necessary, divide it into several more portions, so that you can start using it with the lowest possible dosage.

Once you notice the results you want in your dog, such as calmer behavior, you can continue with the same dosage. However, if you do not notice a large change after several days, you can increase the dose slowly and gradually until you see the desired effects.

 

Can I give my dog too much CBD?

 

There have been many studies on CBD showing that CBD is well tolerated, even at very high doses and reasonable doses there is virtually no risk of overdose. However, we recommend that you consult a qualified veterinarian before use.

When you buy CBD products for your dog, always check with the seller, its quality and that it really contains CBD. Although CBD products are not intoxicating, they may still contain very small amounts of THC. Remember that legally CBD oil products must contain no more than 0.2% THC, which is well below the amount needed to produce psychoactive, ie intoxicating, effects.

 

Finally

 

Determining and testing the correct dose of CBD for your dog may take some time and require monitoring. Always take your dog’s/pet’s weight and condition into account, and get your CBD product from a reliable seller.

 

 

 

What are cannabinoids?

What are cannabinoids?

In this article we will discuss what cannabinoids are. Cannabinoids are compounds related to cannabinoid receptors, which are present in the body of all mammals as part of the endocannabinoid system. Cannabinoids are also found in various plants and especially in hemp, where there are at least 120 different ones (Scherma, Masia, Deidda, Fratta, Tanda and Fadda. 2018.)

Internal cannabinoids are called endocannabinoids and external cannabinoids are called phytocannabinoids. Most of the effects of all cannabinoids are still unknown, but more cannabinoid research is being conducted year after year, and existing studies illustrate that cannabinoids have a lot of health and medical potential. The most researched cannabinoids in hemp are THC and CBD , but nowadays new studies are also being found all the time on CBG, CBN and other phytocannabinoids, as well as acid-form cannabinoids, such as CBD-A , i.e. cannabidiol acid.

 

Phytocannabinoids in hemp

Hemp cannabinoids are synthesized and stored especially in hairy trichomes, i.e. resin glands, found on the surface of hemp leaves and inflorescences. These trichomes occur in both female and male plants, but the highest concentration is found in the inflorescences of female plants. In addition, cannabinoids are also present in fruit plant pollen. (Atakan 2012) The presence of phytocannabinoids in plants is explained by their properties to control various biotic (insects, bacteria, fungi) and abiotic (drought and ultraviolet radiation) stressors.

 

Biosynthesis of cannabinoids

In cannabinoid synthesis, more complex compounds are produced from smaller molecules (Marks et al., 2009; de Meijer, 2014). The first step in cannabinoid biosynthesis is the biosynthesis of geranyl pyrophosphate, olivetolic acid, and divaric acid, the precursors of cannabinoid acids. Next, geranyl pyrophosphate and olivetolic acid form cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), and secondly, geranyl pyrophosphate and divaric acid form cannabigerovaric acid (CBGVA), from which all other cannabinoid acids are formed. For example, CBGA becomes THCA , CBDA , CBCA , and CBGAM . CBGVA, on the other hand, forms the cannabinoid acids like THCVA, CBDVA, CBCVA and CBGVAM. The number and ratio of different synthase enzymes determine the cannabinoid profile of different varieties (Marks et al., 2009; de Meijer, 2014). Cannabinoids are acidic in fresh plants and decarboxylated by heat, time and UV light to cannabinoids – From CBDA to CBD and so on. Henceforth, cannabinoids of the cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabichromene (CBC) types can be degraded to cannabielson (CBE) and cannabicyclol (CBL) by oxygen and UV light. (de Meijer, 2014). Cannabinoids of the tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) type also degrade at high temperatures and upon oxidation to cannabinol (CBN).

 

Classification of phytocannabinoids

Natural compounds combined from hemp with a typical C21 terpenophenol backbone are called cannabinoids. This class of compounds also includes derivatives and metabolites that are also considered cannabinoids. Through cannabinoid research, at least 120 different cannabinoids have been isolated, which can be divided into 11 different categories:

Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) ,
Δ8-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ8-THC),
cannabigerol ( CBG ),
cannabichromene ( CBC ),
cannabidiol ( CBD ),
cannabinodiol (CBND),
cannabielsoin (CBE),
cannabidiol (CBL),
cannabinol ( CBN ),
cannabitriol (CBT)
and other cannabinoids .

 

Production of endocannabinoids in the body

Precursors of endocannabinoids include polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic acid (Omega 6). They are synthesized in postsynaptic neurons as derivatives of arachidonic acid (omega 6), which are obtained mainly from food, but the body can also produce it from linoleic acid (omega 6). Studies show that adding essential fatty acids to the diet increases endocannabinoid levels and the number of receptors. (Osei-Hyiaman et al. 2005, Berger et al. 2001).

Unlike other mediators in the body, endocannabinoids are rapidly synthesized as needed and are not stored as needed. The formation of endocannabinoids occurs through several enzymatic pathways. For example anandamidine in the synthesis, first N-acetyltransferase (NAT) attaches the cell membrane phosphatiphylethanolamine to N-arachidonyl to form N-arachidonylphosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE), which is hydrolyzed by phospholipase D (PLD) to anandamide (Di Marzo et al. 1999). 2-AG, on the other hand, can be synthesized in the body in three different ways. Phospholipase C (PLC) and diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL) contribute to its formation. In addition to arachidonic acid, anandamide is composed of ethanolamine. In 2-AG, on the other hand, ethanolamine is replaced by glycerol, and in virodhamine, ethanolamine is attached by an ester bond instead of an amide bond. Thus, in various endocannabinoids, other compounds have been linked to arachidonic acid by various bonds. (MJ Savolainen, T. Huusko, A. Keränen, S. Lindeman, A. Reponen and H. Koponen. 2004.). Shortly after synthesis, ananadamide is degraded back to arachidonic acid and ethanolamine by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). In the rat brain, for example, this occurs within minutes (Cravatt et al. 2001). Other enzymes are also involved in this degradation of endocannabinoids, such as monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), which is responsible for most of the degradation of 2-AG, and its inhibition increases the amount of 2-AG (Long et al. 2008 and Jokipii 2010.). They also produce various endocannabinoid derivatives in addition to degradation. For example, COX-2 produces prostaglandin ethanolamide and prostaglandin glycerol esters, which are more stable as long-term signal transducers (Kozak et al. 2001 and Savolainen, Huusko, Keränen, Lindeman, Reponen and Koponen 2004).

A few of the more important findings in the metabolism of endocannabinoids are FAAH and MAGL, which, by influencing the amount of activity, can regulate endocannabinoid levels in the body, as they are responsible for the degradation of anandamide and 2-AG. These are affected by different foods, spices, herbs and the medicines targeted at them.

 

Sources

 

 

  • Savolainen, T. Huusko, A. Keränen, S. Lindeman, A. Reponen and H. Koponen. 2004. Endocannabinoids – a multifunctional neurotransmitter system in the regulation of pleasure and eating behavior. Duodecim.
  • De Meijer E., 2014. The Chemical Phenotypes (Chemotypes) of Cannabis.
  • In Pertwee RG Handbook of Cannabis, p. 89-110. Oxford University Press, United Kingdom.
  • Jokipii. 2010. Endocannabinoid receptor. University of Jyväskylä
  • Scherma, P. Masia, M. Deidda, W. Fratta, G. Tanda, and P. Fadda. 2018. New Perspectives on the Use of Cannabis in the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders. Medicines. https://www.mdpi.com/2305-6320/5/4/107/htm
  • Marks MD, Tian L., Wenger JP, Omburo SN, Soto-Fuentes W., He J., Gang DR, Weiblen GD, and Dixon RA, 2009. Identification of candidate genes affecting Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol biosynthesis in Cannabis sativa.
  • J Exp Bot 60 (13): 3715-3726. Kozak KR, Crews BC, Ray JL, Tai HH, Morrow JD, Marnett LJ. Metabolism of prostaglandin glycerol esters and prostaglandin ethanolamides in vitro and in vivo.
  • J Biol Chem 2001; 276: 36993–8. Z. I attack. 2012. Cannabis, a complex plant: different compounds and different effects on the individual. Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology published online 5 September 2012
  • Osei-Hyiaman, L. Wang, G. Kunos. 2005. Endocannabinoid activation at hepatic CB1 receptors stimulates fatty acid synthesis and contributes to diet-induced obesity. The Journal of Clinical Investigation.
  • Berger, G. Crozier, T. Bisogno, P. Cavaliere, S. Innis, and V. Di Marzo. 2001. Anandamide and diet: Inclusion of dietary arachidonate and docosahexaenoate leads to increased brain levels of the corresponding N-acylethanolamines in piglets. PNAS.
  • J. Savolainen, T. Huusko, A. Keränen, S. Lindeman, A. Reponen and H. Koponen. 2004. Endocannabinoids – a multifunctional neurotransmitter system in the regulation of pleasure and eating behavior. Duodecim. 120: 1457–65.

CBD oil and insomnia

CBD oil and insomnia

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CBD oil and insomnia (insomnia) go hand in hand, for most CBD benefit users take CBD oil just in the evenings to calm down, relax, and get a better deep sleep. In this article, we examine the factors that affect sleep and what kind of effect endocannabinoid system and CBD has insomnia.

 

One third of life is a dream

 

We sleep an average of a third of our lives. So it is quite clear that what happens during that time has a big impact on how we can stay active. Sleep is a vital function during which the brain rests, the mind calms down and the body is cleansed. (1).

Sleep quality is affected by many different factors such as wakefulness, stress, health, bedding, and bedding. The endocannabinoid system, which maintains the balance of the whole body, also plays a role in the background.

A restful restful sleep should be obtained 6-9 hours a night and during it the body has a huge number of small and large tasks with which it prepares us for the new day. During the night you learn and rest, cleanse and balance. According to the population survey, about a third of Finnish adults suffer from various sleep problems and the same amount worldwide. Sleep problems are either short-lived or chronic and range from long-term insomnia through night sweats to nightmares (1). There are already good therapies for the treatment and symptoms of insomnia and other various sleep problems, both in Western medicine and in complementary therapies, but the interesting and well-proven CBD with therapeutic effects is still a potentially unknown potential sleep aid.

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a therapeutic compound that is not intoxicating. Its relaxing properties are well known and it is already widely used to treat anxiety, pain and depression. Studies have shown that it is also helpful in promoting alertness and reducing drowsiness during the day. So CBD oil can help with sleep problems.

 

Endocannabinoids are part of the circadian rhythm

 

Endocannabinoid system is, as it were, a backbone that is not actually responsible for anything, but affects everywhere. There is hardly a single physiological activity in which it would not be involved. Thus, it also plays a very important role in sleep quality and sleep cycle regulation. Not necessarily directly but through the various functions of the body. The endocannabinoid system affects sleep e.g. by regulating the sleep-wake rhythm. (2)

It appears to be responsible for the stability of the sleep-wake cycle, rather than a single function (3). Daily variations of anandamide could play a significant role in the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle. Studies in rats have shown endocannabinoids in biological samples taken e.g. spinal cord, hippocampus, and hypothalamus. In spinal fluid samples, anandamide concentrations increased during the light period and correspondingly decreased during the dark period. It has been suggested that anandamide would accumulate as a nitrogen cell in the dark and then be released when light enters the spinal cord at those sites that regulate sleep (4). The endocannabinoid system also indirectly affects sleep through knowledge of other bodily functions such as stress levels, metabolism, and pain (5).

Endocannabinoids are a lipid-based network of mediators that act by activating cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. There are receptors almost everywhere in the body. The two most potent cannabinoids, Anandamide and 2-AG, are able to be produced by almost all cells themselves, so there are a huge number of places in the body and brain where the endocannabinoid system can affect sleep (5). The location of cannabinoid receptors in the brain in areas of sleep regulation potentially activates cholinergic neurons. Anandamide – an activated cholinergic neuron expressing the CB1 receptor is known to promote the release of the mediator acetylcholine. Acetylcholine affects e.g. learning and remembering and is released most during deep sleep. This activation could trigger thalamic neuronal activity, which in turn enhances cortical desynchronization. Studies have shown that the function of the brainstem as well as the basal brain in relation to the thalamus is an important element in the regulation of sleep (4).

Fatty acids acting on cannabinoid receptors are known to show diurnal variations in nervous tissues and appear to follow a circadian rhythm (3). It has also been observed that they could act as zeitges, i.e. affect our internal clock (5). When these findings are combined with the knowledge that the endocannabinoid system maintains the body’s general equilibrium and regulates various bodily functions in the direction of equilibrium, it is clear that transient or chronic cannabinoid deficiency or endocannabinoid imbalance is inevitably reflected in sleep quality.

 

CBD oil to support sleep

 

Our body produces the necessary cannabinoids on its own, but we can help balance the cannabinoid system by utilizing plants such as hemp, which are naturally rich in cannabinoids. Hemp is known to have more than 100 different cannabinoids and the best known and most studied of these are THC and CBD . Different hemp varieties produce different amounts of different cannabinoids that respond to the cannabinoid receptors in our body. (6)

Psychoactive THC mainly responds to the CB1 receptor. The topic has been extensively studied in cannabis and sleep research since the 1970s, although it was not yet a direct study of the cannabinoid receptor (5). It has been observed that long-term cannabis (THC) users experience sleep problems, especially during weaning, and that THC use easily becomes a twist specifically related to sleep (6).

Non-intoxicating CBD responds to the CB2 receptor. It has been said that CBD has many positive effects on us. It lowers the inflammatory state of the body and, if necessary, also acts like pharmacological drugs, e.g. as an anti-acceleration and antiemetic drug. In the absence of solid evidence for the role of CBD in sleep regulation, the following hypothesis has been put forward; CBD enhances c-Fos gene expression in the hypothalamus as well as in the Raphe nucleus, both of which play a significant role in sleep production (7). Dosage appears to play a very important role in the success of treatment of sleep problems. A low dose accelerated subjects and made sleep more difficult, whereas at a higher dose, sleep problems were significantly alleviated (8). CBD is non-intoxicating, so it has a calming and stress-reducing effect on us.

 

Studies on how CBD helps with insomnia

 

There has been relatively little research on cannabinoids and sleep alone. Research on the CBD’s help with insomnia has only begun to attract researchers in recent years. Cannabis and sleep have been studied again since the 1970s, but cannabinoids and sleep only after 1990. Cannabis-related research has provided an excellent basis for more sophisticated research into the endocannabinoid system today (5). The results of research on cannabinoids and sleep have been obtained mainly in connection with other studies, but the relationship between cannabinoids and sleep itself has also been studied to some extent.

Research has been done in both humans and English bulldogs (6), but the results obtained with rats and other rodents help us better understand the effect of cannabinoids on sleep. The sleep of rodents is very similar to that of humans and samples and information can be collected from them at all stages of the sleep cycle (6). A study of sleep apnea in rats found that cannabinoids play an important role in achieving autonomic balance during sleep. Rats were given two cannabinoids (THC and Oleamide) and serotonin, all simultaneously and separately. These cannabinoids were also found to have an effect on the development and treatment of sleep apnea (5).

It is possible that studies with both different CBD products and THC preparations will give a placebo effect on the results due to the awareness of the medicinal effects of cannabis. Nevertheless, several studies have shown that CBD products in particular, when found in the right dose size, are highly effective, well tolerated, and safe. Studies have not shown any bad side effects and as a general rule, those treated have found CBD products pleasant and favorite to use!

 

Summary and concluding remarks

 

There has been so little research on the endocannabinoid system, cannabinoids and sleep that it is not yet possible to say for sure how it will affect the treatment and symptoms of insomnia, but what is certain is that it is of great importance. The results are contradicted by the fact that there are more than 100 different cannabinoids and that the individual effect of all of these is not yet known. Most studies focus mainly on THC and CBD cannabinoids and the effect of these on us is very different. However, it is undeniable that the endocannabinoid system plays a very important role in sleep and sleep quality through many different functions. A more holistic understanding of it would make a significant contribution to the treatment of many diseases and open up more to the subtle functioning of the human body. Experiences in human use and research findings on the positive effects of CBD on sleep are a gratifying perspective on the ever-increasing variety of insomnia symptoms.

 

Source list:

 

  1. Current care recommendation. Published 6/26/2020 https://www.kaypahoito.fi/hoi50067 Referred to 31.3.2021
  2. Russo, E. 2015. Introduction to the Endocannabinoid System. PHYTECS. https://www.phytecs.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Russo-Introduction-to-the-Endocannabinoid-System-corr-January-2015.pdf Referenced on March 31, 2021
  3. Kesner AJ & Lovinger DM 2020. Cannabinoids, endocannabinoids and sleep https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnmol.2020.00125/full Referenced on March 31, 2021
  4. Murillo-Rodriguez E. 2008. The role of the CB1 receptor in the regulation of sleep https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18514375/ Referenced 5.4.2021
  5. Babson KA & Sottile J. & Morabito D. 2017. Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and Sleep: a Review of the Literature https://www.med.upenn.edu/cbti/assets/user-content/documents/s11920-017-0775-9.pdf Referenced 5.4.2021
  6. Carley DW & Paviovic S. & others. 2002. Functional role for cannabinoids in respiratory stability during sleep https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12071539/ Referenced 31.3.2021
  7. Murillo-Rodriguez & others. 2014. Potential effects of cannabidiol as a wake-promoting agent https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4023456/ Referenced 31.3.2021
  8. Shannon S. & others. 2019. Cannabidiol in anxiety and sleep: a large case series https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30624194/ Referenced 31.3.2021