CBD and depression

CBD and depression

The use of CBD oil to alleviate symptoms caused by depression is safe and, according to user experiences, also effective. Depression is a very common state of mind and when it becomes chronic, it makes life difficultugh.

In this article, we look at the factors behind depression and whether CBD oil or CBD capsules could help with the symptoms caused by it.

 

Depression causing low energy

 

Depression is at the same time one of the most underrated and the most common mental health disorders. Many depressed people must have heard that they are just a lazy, tired or boring guy who never goes anywhere. In fact, he is really exhausted and down, and may not even be able to cook, let alone go to the store. In Finland, there are approx. 6% of the population and the main symptoms are similar; the person experiences a strong decrease in interest and the feeling of pleasure, as well as deep feelings of depression (1).

 

Chronic depression is often a co-morbidity

 

Chronic depression is often a co-morbidity, but it also affects people who do not have any underlying long-term illness. Studies show that depression is partly hereditary, especially in those cases where a person comes from challenging circumstances (1,2). Despite numerous studies, the origins of depression have not been reached, it is only possible to assess which factors influence its origin and what happens in the body when a person experiences depression.

 

The endocannabinoid system plays a role in the background of depression

 

Depression, like everything else that happens in the body, is influenced by the endocannabinoid system. That important system balances all body functions and tries its best to keep us healthy! The background of depression is especially affected by the CB1 receptor and endocannabinoid anandamide (2,3). These components of the endocannabinoid system play a direct role in anxiety-like behavior and stress susceptibility and are considered important pathophysiological contributors to depression (2).

 

Chronic stress contributes to anandamide deficiency by increasing the production of FAAH fatty acid amide hydrolase, which is responsible for the breakdown of endocannabinoids. Anandamide is the so-called happiness molecule, which is central to the experience of the feeling of pleasure.

A depressed person with his feet in the water.

CBD can have a mood-elevating effect that can help with depression that causes low mood.

 

The CB1 receptor plays an important role in the treatment of depression

 

In particular, the CB1 receptor has been found to play an important role as a mood regulator. Disturbance in the regulation of the CB1 receptor leads to a reduced ability to enjoy pleasure, a passive tolerance to stress and a higher susceptibility to develop depression-like symptoms (2). The CB1 receptor has a clear role in terminating the stress response mediated by the HPA axis (2,4).

 

The HPA axis and glucocorticoids

 

Dysfunction of the HPA axis, one of the key factors in depression, is strongly regulated by the endocannabinoid system. The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis regulates the action of the steroid hormone glucocorticoids in the body, and these steroid hormones are responsible for regulating the body’s stress response to internal and external threats. (2,4)

 

Depression triggers the symptoms

 

In addition to low mood, depression is also associated with other symptoms related to feelings and moods. A depressed person often feels feelings of inferiority and worthlessness, guilt and, in cases of severe depression, also thoughts related to death and suicide.

 

As depression is a disease that affects the mood very strongly, it also has physical symptoms. Depressed people often struggle in one way or another with weight and appetite. Sleep-related challenges are common, as are weakness and constant fatigue. The flow of thought may slow down and concentration may be difficult, sometimes body movements also become slower.

 

What causes depression?

 

The actual cause of depression is not known, and therefore the development of antidepressants also has its own challenges. Depression is almost always caused by stress. It can also be triggered by the death of a loved one or a pet, or some other traumatic life experience that causes deep sadness. There are often different degrees of depression anxiety. Postpartum depression is also common.


Postpartum depression

 

Of the Finnish parents, approx. 10-20% experience depression after giving birth. Depression occurs most within three months after giving birth and it usually gets better within a few months. Postpartum depression can range from mild to moderate to severe depression. The symptoms of depression vary from person to person. (5)

At its worst, postpartum depression may trigger anxiety in addition to chronic depression, and episodes of depression may recur later. After the first birth, the risk of recurrence of depression for subsequent births is around 50-60%. (5)

 

No exact reason for the depressive phase of the birth mother is known yet, but it is estimated that it may be related to a general tendency to depression, thyroid gland dysfunction and overload. The young age of the mother, previous traumas, domestic violence, changes in hormone function and complications during pregnancy may also increase susceptibility to depression. (5)

 

Serotonin deficiency

 

The use of substances significantly increases the risk of developing depression. Regarding bodily functions, depression is associated with a lack of serotonin, as well as a malfunction of the HPA axis. Endocannabinoid normal production of anandamide prevents excessive release of serotonin from platelets. Full-spectrum CBD oil can help with depression, as it promotes the functioning of the endocannabinoid system by making cannabinoids available to the body.

The nerve cell and the effect of CBD on it.

According to research, CBD has effects that protect the nervous system and reduce inflammation in the body

 

CBD protects the nervous system

 

CBDThe mechanism of action of ) is still largely a mystery. It is known that it responds to CB receptors rather poorly, but it is also known that it has more than 60 other receptors in the body that it positively affects. Related to depression, it inhibits the activity of FAAH fatty acid amide hydrolase. FAAH is a molecule that breaks down cannabinoids and its overactivity causes a deficiency for anandamide .

 

CBD has been found to have protective effects on the nervous system, as well as anti-inflammatory effects in the body (2). CBD has been found to weaken physiological and behavioral reactions in stressful situations (2,3). It inhibits the activity of the HPA axis and activates the serotonin receptor.

Depression can be caused by inflammation

 

Silent inflammation is low-grade inflammation in the body that occurs slowly over a long period of time. It is different from, for example, an infection caused by bacteria. In recent years, theories related to depression have been turned in the direction that the underlying cause might be inflammation and therefore also a disturbance in the immune response. The reason for this change in direction is the ineffectiveness of serotonin-related drugs and the assumption that the actual cause of depression is somewhere other than the reuptake of serotonin, although that disorder is also usually found in the background of depression. (6,7)

 

Silent inflammation is affected by diet, stress, amount of exercise, etc., exactly the same things that seem to be behind all imbalances in the body. Cannabinoids CBD and cannabigerol (CBG) produce anti-inflammatory effects and have a broad effect on all kinds of skin inflammation, including inflammation of the nervous system, which is thought to be the cause of depression…

CBD has been shown to calm key inflammatory mediators, free radicals and nitric oxide production.

 

Finally

 

Both depression and CBD are so multidimensional and challenging in their actions that it is difficult to give direct answers to how CBD oil helps depression. According to user experiences and research, supporting the endocannabinoid system with CBD oil can be an effective and versatile aid for various depressive symptoms. The endocannabinoid system also plays a significant role in the underlying physiology of depression.

 

Sources

  1. Duodecim ; depressive state, i.e. depression. 2022. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk00389. Referred on 5/15/2022
  2. Gallego-Landin I., Garcia-Baos A., Castro-Zavala A., Valverde O.. 2021. Reviewing the Role of endocannabinoid system in the pathophysiology of depression. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Gallego-Landin 20I %20I% %5D&cauthor=true&cauthor_uid=34938182. Referred on 5/15/2022
  3. Cannabidiol: A Potential New Alternative for the Treatment of Anxiety, Depression, and Psychotic Disorders. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Sala %20F% 5BAuthor%5D&cauthor=true&cauthor_uid=33228239. Referred on 5/15/2022
  4. Viinamäki H., Lehto SM, Palvimo J., Harvima I., Valkonen-korhonen M., Koivumaa-Honkanen H., Hintikka J., Honkalampi K., Niskanen L.. Duodecim ; The connection of glucocorticoids to the origin and symptoms of depression. 2012. https://www.duodecimlehti.fi/duo10282#s2. Referred on 5/15/2022
  5. Thl.fi. 2022. Postpartum depression. https://thl.fi/fi/web/lapset-nuoret-ja-perheet/sote-palvelut/aitiys-ja-lastenneuvola/neuvolatyon-sisallot-ja-menetelmat/synnytyksen-jalkeinen-masennus. Referred on 31/05/2022
  6. Pure ; Low-grade inflammation can underlie many diseases. https://www.puhti.fi/tietopaketit/matala-asteinen-tulehdus/. Referred on 5/15/2022
  7. Duodecim ; Depressive symptoms possibly related to inflammation. https://www.duodecim.fi/2022/01/05/masennusoireet-mahdollisesti-yhteydessa-tulehdukseen/. Referred on 5/15/2022
What is decarboxylation?

What is decarboxylation?

What is decarboxylation and how does it relate to CBD oil ? Hemp contains a huge range of different cannabinoids, the most famous of which are probably THC and CBD . In growing hemp, or in a freshly dried hemp flower, these cannabinoids are not actually present at all. They only contain cannabinoid precursors, cannabinoid acids. Cannabinoid acids must go through a chemical process called decarboxylation, where those cannabinoid acids are converted into cannabinoids. In this article we will learn about decarboxylation and what it has to do with CBD oil!

 

From cannabinoid acid to cannabinoid

 

The creation of cannabinoids is a multi-step process. During the growing season, the hemp grows a flower in which small crystals are formed, just like small crystals. These crystals are called trichomes and most of the cannabinoid acids produced by hemp accumulate in them. The compounds in hemp are first transformed into cannabigerolic acid ( CBG-A ) and from there into cannabinoid acids such as CBD-A , THC-A , CBN-A, etc. In the fall, the completed inflorescence is harvested and dried, which is when the transformation of cannabinoid acids into cannabinoids begins. Heat, oxygen, light and time bring about a process called decarboxylation, which transforms cannabinoid acids into a neutral form into cannabinoids CBD , THC , CBN , etc.

 

Heat causes decarboxylation

Decarboxylation is a natural process that can happen in two ways. Naturally by the influence of light, heat, oxygen and time or mechanically with the help of heat, speeding up that natural process. The natural decarboxylation process is slow, lasting even months, but with the help of sufficiently high heat, the molecular reaction can be accelerated to take place in a few hours.

 

Decarboxylation is a molecular reaction

 

Decarboxylation is perhaps a familiar term from biology or chemistry classes. It is a molecular reaction in which the carboxyl attachment detaches from the molecule, releasing carbon dioxide at the same time. The molecules of all cannabinoids are different from each other, but all of them, or their precursor cannabinoid acid, have in common the carboxyl bond carbon-oxygen-oxygen-hydrogen (-COOH). The bond of the carboxyl group to the molecule is not very strong and is easily broken by heat. The carbon released from the molecule releases carbon oxide and thus converts the cannabinoid acid into a neutral cannabinoid. (1,2)

 

Is decarboxylation necessary?

 

Cannabinoid precursors such as CBD-A found in hemp also correspond to the endocannabinoid system. CBD-A has been less studied than its cannabinoid form CBD, but it is also versatile and effective in its effects. According to user experiences, CBD-A helps e.g. to relieve stress. It has been found to lift the mood and calm a restless mind.

CBD has been found to have more good properties than CBD-A, which is perhaps only due to the fact that CBD has been studied more.

On the other hand, it is believed that CBD-A is, as it were, inactive, while CBD is the active form. It is thought that CBD would have more therapeutic effects and that it would respond better and more widely to the endocannabinoid system. However, there is no absolute certainty about this.

 

Is CBD oil decarboxylated?

 

The answer is yes and no. Most of the CBD oils on the market have gone through the decarboxylation process, but we also have unique CBD-A oils available.

 

How does decarboxylation affect other compounds?

 

120 different cannabinoids have been identified in hemp. In addition to them, hemp has a huge number of other effective compounds such as terpenes , flavonoids and minerals. In order to convert the cannabinoid acid CBD-A into CBD, but at the same time preserve other active ingredients such as terpenes, you have to be careful with the temperature and time. Some of the compounds are destroyed at lower temperatures than the decarboxylation of cannabinoids, so not everything can be preserved. On the other hand, the boiling temperature of many active compounds is higher than that required for the formation of CBD, so some of the other compounds survive gentle heating well.

 

Common decarboxylation methods

 

A few different methods have been developed to speed up the decarboxylation process. Different cannabinoid acids have their own relationships to the temperature and time in which decarboxylation into cannabinoids takes place. Studies have shown that, for example, TCH is formed at a lower temperature, but more slowly than CBD (1). CBD-A starts to decarboxylate at 120 degrees, and the boiling point of CBD is 160°. After crossing the boiling point, CBD starts to evaporate and thus disappear completely. (1,3)

 

An oven where CBD can be decarboxylated.

Decarboxylation of CBD-A can be easily done at home in the oven.

Decarboxylation in the oven

 

Of the decarboxylation methods, the oven method is probably the most familiar and used, where the hemp blossom or CBD-A juice capsule juice powder is heated in the oven, on the oven tray. According to research, CBD concentrations are at their highest when the oven is kept at 130 degrees approx. 40 minutes. (1,3)

 

Decarboxylation by vacuum method

 

Another, more effective method according to user experience, is the vacuum method, where hemp flowers placed in a vacuum bag are immersed in water in a pot. The temperature of the water in the boiler is kept at 95-100 degrees approx. for an hour. The water must not boil. The vacuum method is slower, but gentler, because there is no risk of burning the flowers!

Decarboxylation of CBD oil

 

CBD oil should no longer be decarboxylated once it has been bottled. CBD oil is decarboxylated during its extraction stage by heating. The CBD oils sold in the world are largely decarboxylated, but today, more and more, there are oils available with, for example, half of the oil extracted from raw hemp and half of decarboxylated CBD oil . There is also oil extracted from raw hemp only, which is the so-called CBD-A oil .

 

Finally

 

Although decarboxylation may seem like a necessary and important reaction at first glance, the fact is that we are not completely sure if decarboxylation is as essential as we think. CBD-A has been found to have many good effects in studies, despite the fact that almost all studies focus on CBD. In principle, you could even say that the studies distort the idea that only the cannabinoid CBD is effective and therapeutic.

 

Sources

  1. Decarboxylation Study of Acidic Cannabinoids: A Novel Approach Using Ultra-High-Performance Supercritical Fluid Chromatography/Photodiode Array-Mass Spectrometry. 2016. Wang M., Wang YH., Avula B., Radwan M., Wanas AS, Antwerp J., Parcher JF, ElSohly MA, Khan I.. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc /articles/PMC5549281/ . Referred on 02/28/2022
  2. What is decarboxylated CBD. 2021. Keehn J., El-hajj S.. https://cbdschool.com/what-is-decarboxylated-cbd/ Cited 2022-02-28
  3. Evaluation of thermo-chemical conversion temperatures of cannabinoid acids in hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) biomass by Pressurized liquid extraction. 2021. Olejar K., Kinney C.. https://jcannabisresearch.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s42238-021-00098-6 Cited 28/02/2022

https://hamppumaa.fi/what-are-cbd-and-cbd-a/?lang=en

https://hamppumaa.fi/mita-on-cbn-eli-kannabinoli/

https://hamppumaa.fi/mita-on-thc/

https://hamppumaa.fi/entourage-effect-ja-cbd-oljyn-taysi-spektri-selitettyna/

https://hamppumaa.fi/mita-ovat-terpeenit/

https://hamppumaa.fi/mita-on-cbd-ja-cbd-a/https://hamppumaa.fi/mita-on-cbd-ja-cbd-a/

The effect of CBD on well-being

The effect of CBD on well-being

CBD’s effect on well-being is versatile. On this page you will find studies on the effects of cannabinoids such as CBD, e.g. for the treatment of depression, anxiety, stress, insomnia and pain conditions.

During the past decades, a significant amount of research has been done on the effects of different cannabinoids. In particular, CBD has been extensively studied using various tests and methods. Several studies have taken into account the relationships of cannabinoids to each other, as well as their effect together and separately. However, research is still in its early stages and it is generally known that the factors affecting the endocannabinoid system are not yet fully understood. However, it has been shown to be true that external cannabinoids can be useful for a wide range of imbalances in the body, both in humans and in other mammals.

Depression

It seems that the endocannabinoid system is involved in the treatment of depression , although its role is not yet fully understood. Based on the published data, the endocannabinoid system provides new ideas and options in the treatment of depression, but further studies are still needed to determine which patient group could benefit from such treatment (1).

A 2018 study published in the journal Molecular Neurobiology concluded that CBD is a promising fast-acting antidepressant. While traditional antidepressants typically take some time to work, a study in rodents showed that CBD had rapid and sustained antidepressant-like effects (2).

There are many individual cases in the world where cannabis has helped research patients in the treatment of depression. In addition, new studies have been conducted that report the importance of the role of the endocannabinoid system in depression, indicating that there is a link between endocannabinoid dysfunction and depression. The TGA (Therapeutic Goods Administration ) is known to approve cannabis for patients with depression, which suggests that cannabis plays a role in the treatment of depression (3).

We still lack high-quality clinical studies that emphasize depression or the improvement of depression as the most important outcome. However, there are mouse experiments that show that cannabis can help with depression. Other studies, such as the Sativex studies, have shown a significant improvement in the well-being of people using cannabis medicines (4).

The anti-depressant effects of cannabis, as well as the interaction between antidepressants and the endocannabinoid system, were reported in a study in 2010. The study in question was conducted to evaluate the antidepressant-like effects of delta9-THC and other cannabinoids. The results of the study show that delta9-THC and other cannabinoids have an antidepressant-like effect and can therefore influence the mood-enhancing properties of cannabis (4).

Anxiety

Studies that were conducted on animals and performed various tests such as the forced swim test (FST), Elevated plus maze (EPM) and Vogel conflict test (VCT), suggest that CBD has anti-anxiety and anti-depressant effects in research animals (5).

Overall, the existing preclinical evidence strongly supports the potential of CBD in the treatment of anxiety disorders. CBD has multifaceted effects that are relevant in several different areas related to anxiety (6).

Since endocannabinoids appear to play an important role in major depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and bipolar disorder, the Cannabis sativa plant is suggested for their treatment. The endocannabinoid system covers a wide range of the entire body, including the brain, and is responsible for a wide range of different body functions. The system in question is linked to mood and related disorders. Exogenous cannabinoids can alter its activity. CB1 and CB2 receptors mainly act as binding sites for endocannabinoids and phytocannabinoids produced by cannabis flowers. However, cannabis is not a single compound, but is known for its complex molecular profile, which produces numerous phytocannabinoids and many different terpenes. Thus, synergism has a positive effect due to the addition of terpenes to cannabinoids (7).

Read more in the article CBD oil can relieve anxiety .

Stress

A study published in 2018 found that CBD has stress-reducing effects that can reduce stress-related depression. The results of the study suggest that in chronically stressed mice, CBD prevents stress-induced reduced hippocampal neurogenesis and stress-induced angiogenesis, i.e. new blood vessel formation (8). Read more in the article CBD and stress .

Nerve pain

According to the study, cannabidiol (CBD), the significant non-psychoactive component of cannabis, has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. This study investigated its therapeutic potential in the treatment of neuropathic and inflammatory pain in rats. The results of the study show that CBD has potential for therapeutic use in painful chronic pain conditions (9).

Pain

A 2018 review , Cannabinoids and Pain: New Insights From Old Molecules , evaluates how well CBD works for chronic pain relief . The review looked at studies conducted between 1975 and March 2018. These studies looked at a variety of pain conditions, including cancer pain, neuropathic pain, and fibromyalgia. Based on these studies, researchers concluded that CBD was effective in general pain management and did not cause negative side effects (10).

Inflammations

One 2017 review found that CBD’s anti-inflammatory properties may help with the following conditions (11):

A 2016 study looked at the effect of CBD on rats with arthritis . Researchers found that topical CBD gel reduced joint swelling and pain in rats. No significant side effects resulted from the experiment. Research shows that CBD cosmetics have therapeutic potential for reducing the behavior and inflammation associated with arthritis pain without apparent side effects (12).

Insomnia

Several studies on CBD, anxiety and sleep have found that many patients do not notice a difference immediately. A 2019 study found that subjects took about a month to notice a difference (13). So be patient and remember that the desired results may take time.

The final sample consisted of 72 adults with primary concerns of anxiety (n = 47) or poor sleep (n = 25). Anxiety scores decreased during the first month in 57 patients (79.2%) and remained low during the duration of the study. Sleep quality improved during the first month in 48 patients (66.7%), but varied over time. In this chart review, CBD was well tolerated in all but three patients (13).

CBD may also be promising for those suffering from REM sleep disorders and excessive daytime sleepiness. The synthetic cannabinoid nabilone can reduce PTSD-related nightmares and improve sleep among patients with chronic pain (14).

Read more in the article CBD oil and insomnia .

Effects of CBD on concentration

CBD has several properties that not only improve our general well-being, but also increase concentration and energy. It stimulates the endocannabinoid system, one of whose functions is to regulate attention, memory, concentration and energy. By helping the endocannabinoid system to function better, CBD also helps increase our productivity (15).

If your inattention and inability to concentrate are due to health issues, we strongly recommend that you consult your doctor for diagnosis and treatment. While CBD can help improve concentration, focus, and energy, it is still necessary to find the root cause of your problems in order to properly address it. Your doctor can also help you find the best CBD products for focus or energy and dosage.

Terpenes in the treatment of depression, anxiety and stress

Terpenes found in hemp and their effect on anxiety, depression and stress have also been the subject of research. Terpenes are found especially in the essential oils of hemp, but also in the resin of plants. Terpenes give hemp its characteristic aroma. Listed below are 4 common terpenes and their effects. Note most of the experiments have been done on mice and further studies are needed.

  • Limonene – research shows that the terpene limonene can relieve stress and anxiety (16).
  • Pinene – research shows that the terpene pinene has anti-anxiety effects (17).
  • Linalool – research shows that the smell of linalool can have anxiolytic effects (18).
  • Myrcene – research shows that myrcene has a calming effect (19).

Possible side effects of CBD

Although many studies show that CBD is generally safe, it is worth considering the fact that people are different and that different active ingredients will cause a different reaction in some people than in others. Here you can find information about the possible side effects that CBD may cause in some rare cases.

Side effects are relatively rare. However, some users may experience possible minor side effects such as Below is a list of side effects that have been obtained in the 2019 study’s mouse experiments (20).

  • Fatigue
  • Diarrhea
  • Change in appetite
  • Weight fluctuation
  • Mood swings
  • Possible interactions with medicines can reduce or strengthen the effect of the medicine.

The text on this page is not intended for product marketing. The website administrator is also not responsible for the correctness of the text and possible errors. The reader should carefully check all the sources appearing in the text. The content of the page is not intended as self-care instructions for any disease or situation. We recommend discussing possible changes in your life situation first together with an expert doctor.

Sources

  1. Ewa Poleszak et al. Cannabinoids in depressive disorders , Life Sciences, Volume 213, 2018
    https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0024320518306040
  2. Sales AJ, Fogaça MV, Sartim AG, et al. Cannabidiol induces rapid and sustained antidepressant-like effects through increased BDNF signaling and synaptogenesis in the prefrontal cortex . Mol Neurobiol 56, 1070–1081 (2019). doi:10.1007/s12035-018-1143-4
  3. Wen-Juan Huang et al. Endocannabinoid system: Role in depression, reward and pain control , Mol Med Rep. 2016. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5042796/
  4. Abir T. El-Alfy et al. Antidepressant-like effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L . Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. Volume 95, Issue 4, 2010. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0091305710000730
  5. Alexandre R de Mello Schier et al. Antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol: a chemical compound of Cannabis sativa . CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets, 2014. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24923339/
  6. Esther M. Blessing et al. Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders . Neurotherapeutics. 2015. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13311-015-0387-1?handl_url
  7. Ferber, Sari G. et al. The “Entourage Effect”: Terpenes Coupled with Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Mood Disorders and Anxiety Disorders . Current Neuropharmacology, Volume 18. Number 2. 2020. https://www.ingentaconnect.com/contentone/ben/cn/2020/00000018/00000002/art00004
  8. José A. Crippa et al. Translational Investigation of the Therapeutic Potential of Cannabidiol (CBD): Toward a New Age . Front Immunol. 2018. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6161644/
  9. Barbara Costa et al. The non-psychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an orally effective therapeutic agent in rat chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain . Eur J Pharmacol. 2007. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17157290/
  10. Sonja Vučković et al. Cannabinoids and Pain: New Insights From Old Molecules . Front Pharmacol. 2018. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6277878/
  11. Simona Pisanti. Cannabidiol: State of the art and new challenges for Therapeutic applications . Pharmacol Ther. 2017. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28232276/
  12. DC Hammell et al. Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviors in a rat model of arthritis . Eur J Pain. 2016. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4851925/
  13. Scott Shannon et al. Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: A Large Case Series. Perm J. 2019. https://www.healthline.com/health/cbd-for-insomnia#how-to-use
  14. Kimberly A. Babson. Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and Sleep: a Review of the Literature . Current Psychiatry Reports. volume 19, Article number: 23. 2017. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11920-017-0775-9
  15. Ruth E Cooper. Cannabinoids in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A randomized-controlled trial. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2017. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28576350/
  16. Naiana GPB Lima et al. A nxiolytic-like activity and GC-MS analysis of (R)-(+)-limonene fragrance, a natural compound found in foods and plants. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2013. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22995322/
  17. Tadaaki Satou et al. Daily inhalation of α-pinene in mice: effects on behavior and organ accumulation. Phytother Res. 2014. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25340185/
  18. Hiroki Harada et al. Linalool Odor-Induced Anxiolytic Effects in Mice. Front Behav Neurosci. 2018. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6206409/
  19. T Gurgel do Vale et al. Central effects of citral, myrcene and limonene, constituents of essential oil chemotypes from Lippia Alba (Mill.) ne Brown. Phytomedicine. 2002. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12587690/
  20. Ewing Le, Skinner Cm, Quick Cm, et al. Hepatotoxicity of a Cannabidiol-Rich Cannabis Extract in the Mouse Model. Molecules. 2019; 24. https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/24/9/1694

Fatty liver and CBD

Fatty liver and CBD

Fatty liver, a disease that regularly appears in the headlines of the tabloids, is a real threat to public health and, according to estimates, up to a quarter of Finnish adults suffer from it. It is completely possible to cure fatty liver and in this article we will get to know whether CBD oil could be of any help to restore the situation to its original state. We also look at the functions of the endocannabinoid system in the background of fatty liver and find out what fatty liver actually is!

 

What is fatty liver?

 

Fatty liver is the most common liver disease and occurs especially in the so-called in welfare states. Before, it was diagnosed only in 40-60 year olds and mostly alcoholics, but as overweight becomes more common, it is found in more and younger people, and the cause is no longer alcohol but an unhealthy diet. (1,2)

According to estimates, even one in four Finnish adults has a fatty liver. Fatty liver cases caused by alcohol are only a fraction of this, as approx. 75% percent of fatty liver diagnoses are given due to diet. Fatty liver is very common in diabetics, but it is often caused by factors that are not so easy to influence (1).

In fatty liver, too much fat accumulates inside the liver cells, in the fat cells and in the abdominal cavity. This excess fat is caused by extensive metabolic disorders, the causes of which are diverse and individual. (1,2)

 

Causes of fatty liver

 

Fatty liver is mainly caused by unhealthy lifestyles. Heavy alcohol use and being overweight are the most significant factors, but it’s not always about that, but sometimes genes also predispose the liver to obesity. Very rarely, but sometimes, some medicines can cause fatty liver.

In addition to lifestyle, age and insulin resistance also affect fatty liver. Insulin resistance is a state of the body that contributes to the onset of various diseases, you can read more about it e.g. from here .

 

Symptoms of fatty liver

 

Fatty liver in itself does not cause any clear tangible or visible symptoms, but it contributes to various diseases such as diabetes and onset of hypertension. (1)

Fatty liver diagnosis at the doctor's office.

Fatty liver increases the risk of developing hypertension.

 

Diagnosis

 

Fatty liver is not associated with pain or other sensations, so it can be challenging to detect it before it’s too late. Although the clear indications of the possibility of fatty liver are usually heavy alcohol use and obesity, overweight or alcohol problems do not always occur, and the liver values may also be within the reference values despite the disease.

The diagnosis is confirmed by a blood test and an echocardiography of the liver.

 

Prevention and treatment of fatty liver

 

Healthy lifestyles are the basis of both the prevention and treatment of fatty liver.

There is no medical treatment directly available for fatty liver, but with a lifestyle overhaul, a fatty liver can usually be cured completely.

The most effective way to treat fatty liver is to reduce alcohol consumption and get rid of excess weight. It has been established that even a few percent weight loss can reduce the fat percentage of the liver by up to ten. Reducing alcohol, regular exercise and an optimal diet together is the most effective and fastest way to get rid of fatty liver, but investing in any of them is already a step in the better direction! (1)

You should add fruits, vegetables and berries to your diet instead of slow carbohydrates and use a wider range of different fat sources.

There are many perspectives on the choice of fats, but a general guideline could be to pay attention to versatility and quality. Many foods already contain a lot of fat, such as meat, eggs, avocado, nuts, etc. and there is always no need for additional fat (bread topping, frying fat, etc.) in the meal.

Sugar and hidden sugar should also be avoided in large quantities, especially when treating fatty liver. You should pay attention to the package leaflets, because even yogurts can contain huge amounts of sugar. More than half of regular white sugar contains fructose, which promotes fatty liver.

Fatty liver has long been considered a benign disease that can be completely cured, but if it is not treated in time, it can progress to inflammation, fibrosis or even liver cirrhosis. A scarred liver can no longer be healed, and in Finland the mortality from liver cirrhosis is at the top level in Europe.

 

The endocannabinoid system in the background of fatty liver

 

The endocannabinoid system that maintains the body’s balance is found in all mammals and it monitors all the processes going on in the body. Appetite and weight control have both been regulated by the endocannabinoid system for a long time. Behind these seemingly simple functions are numerous processes and events, which, roughly speaking, all functioning endocannabinoid Thanks to the CB1 receptor activated by 2-AG .

Liver cells have been shown to produce both known cannabinoids , anandamide and 2-AG, to be produced and the liver is self-sufficient in terms of them. According to animal experiments, 2-AG levels in the liver increase due to alcohol, and anadamide levels increase with fatty food. Both anandamide and 2-AG have been shown to have anti-scarring effects. (3,4,5)

Of the cannabinoid receptors, only CB1 is expressed in a healthy liver. In cases caused by both alcohol and fatty food, increased CB1 receptor levels have been noted, but the CB2 receptor appears in the liver only when the liver has cirrhosis. (5)

 

CBD oil and hemp leaf. For treating fatty liver.

CBD oil may prevent the development of fatty liver by affecting the accumulation of lipids in the tissues.

 

CBD oil for fatty liver

 

The use of the CBD oil the effect on fatty liver has been studied quite a bit as such, but CBD’s anti-inflammatory effects, as well as its antioxidant properties, are properties that may lead to some relief. As fatty liver is a completely curable disease, its primary and most important treatment is definitely reducing alcohol consumption and reducing body weight through diet and exercise, depending on which is the problem in the first place.

CBDhas been found to have an effect on preventing diet-induced liver damage by reducing the accumulation of lipids in tissues. CBD also reduces the activation of inflammation and the presence of inflammatory cytokines (6).

CBD also has antioxidant properties that have been shown to alleviate oxidative stress. Alcohol and high-fat food increase the production of reactive oxygen species and CBDThe antioxidant properties of (6)

 

Finally

Fatty liver is a very common disease that can be cured if it is detected early enough. Depending on the genes, it is very easy to take care of the health of the liver, because the basis of its well-being is mostly healthy lifestyles.

The endocannabinoid system has its own roles in the liver and also in the background of liver health and has been found to be completely self-sufficient in terms of endocannabinoid production. The use of CBD oil to support the treatment of fatty liver is still quite a gray area, but probably in the future, research will be focused on the utilization of cannabinoids due to their versatile therapeutic effects.

 

Attachments

 

  1. Mustajoki P.. 2021. Health Library Duodecim. Fatty liver. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk00070. Referred on 11/14/2022.
  2. Mervaala E., Tarnanen K. and Yki-järvinen H.. 2020. Fatty liver disease (Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease). https://www.kaypahoito.fi/khp00132. Referred on 11/14/2022.
  3. Purohit V., Rapaka R. and Shurtleff D.. 2010. Role of Cannabinoids in the Development of Fatty Liver (Steatosis). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2844512/. Referred on 11/14/2022
  4. Alswat KD. 2010. The Role of Endocannabinoids System in Fatty Liver Disease and Therapeutic Potentials. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=Alswat%20KA%5BAuthor%5D. Referred on 11/14/2022.
  5. Tam J., Liu J., Mukhopadhyay S., Cinar R., Godlewski G. and Kunos G.. 2011. Endocannabinoids in Liver Disease. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=Jan %20J% 5BAuthor%5D. Referred on 11/14/2022.
  6. Jiang X., Gu Y., Huang Y., Zhou Y., Pang N., Luo J., Tang Z., Zhang Z., and Yang L.. 2021. Frontiers of pharmacology. CBD Alleviates Liver Injuries in Alcoholics With a High-Fat High-Cholesterol Diet Through Regulating the NLRP3 Inflammasome–Pyroptosis Pathway. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2021.724747/full. Referred on 11/14/2022.
CBD, coffee and caffeine

CBD, coffee and caffeine

Coffee has a strong established position in our culture. Relative to the population, Finland drinks the most coffee in the world. Coffee is often the first thing offered wherever you go in Finland. About 91% of Finns drink coffee at least once a day, and during the year coffee is consumed by every Finn, about 10 kilos.

Nowadays, the consumption of various CBD products has also become a part of everyday routines for many people, so it is timely to consider what is the difference between coffee, caffeine and CBDthe possible interaction of Read on to see how coffee and other caffeinated beverages pair up with CBD!

 

Caffeine

 

Caffeine is the world’s most commonly used psychoactive substance, which can be found naturally in e.g. from coffee, tea, cocoa, cola drinks and mate. Caffeine affects e.g. attention, mood, alertness and has a stimulating effect on the central nervous system.

The effects of caffeine begin quickly and its absorption takes place from the digestive tract into the bloodstream. Caffeine is structurally similar to the neurotransmitter adenosine, whose effect is known to be relaxing and tiring. Caffeine fogs the brain by blocking the relaxing effects of adenosine, which produces the stimulating effects of coffee (1).

The noticeable effects of caffeine often begin within 30 minutes of consuming it. The half-life of caffeine is 3-6 hours. Caffeine can reduce the quality of sleep, make it difficult to fall asleep and shorten the amount of sleep at night (2). Studies have noticed hereditary differences in how caffeine affects sleep.

 

Safe dosage of caffeine

 

The safe daily dose of caffeine for adults is less than 400 mg. The recommended maximum daily dose for pregnant and breastfeeding women is half of that, i.e. approx. 200 mg. For children and young people, less caffeine is recommended, and the guideline safe limit is no more than 3 mg for each kilogram of body weight per day. (3)

The natural caffeine content in the products varies depending on the quality, variety, maturity and processing method. Below is a comparison of the caffeine content of different products.

 

  • Coffee (2dl) contains approx. 90–160 mg of caffeine.
  • Tea (2dl) contains approx. 34-90 mg of caffeine.
  • Mate (a cup of mate) contains approx. 25–150 mg of caffeine.
  • Dark chocolate (100g) contains approx. 55 mg of caffeine.
  • A cola drink (330 ml) contains approx. 36 mg of caffeine.

 

Caffeine goes well with CBD. The picture shows the molecular formula of caffeine.

Coffee, cocoa, tea, cola drinks and mate are the most popular caffeinated drinks.

 

Coffee enhances the effect of CBD

 

According to research, coffee can enhance the effect of cannabinoids such as CBD. In a 2010 research review, it was noticed how caffeine sensitizes the GABA receptors in the brain’s striatum to cannabinoids. GABA, i.e. gamma-aminobutyric acid, is the main neurotransmitter in the brain, the purpose of which is to slow down the activity of neurons in the central nervous system. (4)

Years later, researchers discovered that the A2A adenosine and CB1 cannabinoid receptors are both directly connected to each other and thus work together. It is known that caffeine prevents the normal functioning of adenosine receptors and because of this, the body’s cannabinoid receptors signal that they want to receive cannabinoids, either produced by the body itself or exocannabinoids from the outside. (5)

In two-week mouse experiments, it has been found that caffeine enhances THC, the intoxicating ingredient found in cannabis)’s spatial memory-impairing effect (6). However, legal CBD oils and CBD products on the market are made from hemp varieties approved in the EU, with very little or no THC content.

The aromas of hemp and coffee beans have also been found to have similarities, as they both contain significant amounts of ingredients such as methyl valerate and methyl butanal .

 

CBD reduces the side effects of coffee

 

Drinking coffee is often associated with unwanted side effects caused by caffeine. They are e.g. restlessness, sweating of the hands and tremors. Others get side effects from even a small amount of coffee, but usually e.g. restlessness caused by caffeine only follows after more than one cup of coffee. (2)

If you enjoy drinking coffee more than anything, and you don’t want to reduce it even if you experience adverse effects, then you should consider consuming CBD together with coffee. CBD and other cannabinoids cancel out some of the negative effects of caffeine and make it a less stressful experience for the body. CBD can be added directly to coffee or taken separately during coffee time. Try it and be positively surprised by the combined effect of coffee and cannabinoids!

 

Making CBD coffee

 

If ready-made CBD coffee is not available, you can also prepare one yourself. CBD can be added to coffee in many different forms and it’s a matter of taste which is the best way for everyone. You can add to coffee, for example CBD oil or open a CBD capsule and empty its contents into your coffee. Otherwise, you can prepare the coffee normally just the way you want it.

Since CBD oil repels water and therefore does not mix with coffee, it is advisable to add fat to the drink, for example in the form of milk, cream, butter, MCT oil or vegetable milk. Anything with fat helps the CBD oil mix in better and also makes the drink look more delicious. If you like to drink your coffee black, that’s not a problem either. Others are happy to drink CBD coffee, even if the CBD oil is not properly mixed with it. Another essential factor in adding fat to coffee is that fat promotes Multiple absorption of CBD into the body.

See the CBD-A fatty coffee recipe recommended by Hamppukok .

 

Cocoa and CBD go well together. The picture shows cocoa flour, chocolate and cocoa beans.

Caffeine and terpenes in cocoa and dark chocolate enhance the effect of CBD and other cannabinoids. Dark chocolate can also reduce the body’s breakdown of the body’s endogenous cannabinoid anandamide.

 

Cocoa and CBD

 

Finally, it should be mentioned that coffee can of course also be replaced with cocoa containing caffeine. In general, a cocoa drink (especially milk cocoa) already contains enough fat that the CBD oil mixes easily with the drink.

Cocoa and dark chocolate contain plenty of healthy ingredients that complement the effect of CBD. It has been shown that dark chocolate can prevent the breakdown of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide in the body and can also reduce the breakdown of other cannabinoids such as CBD or THC. This means that the effect of these compounds is enhanced when used together with dark chocolate.

Another benefit of combining dark chocolate with CBD is the interaction with terpenes in chocolate, such as myrcene, linalool, and okimene (7). The combination of dark chocolate and CBD terpenes can promote a so-called synergistic effect (see Entourage effect). As research progresses, we will in the future better understand the importance of synergy and its benefits.

 

Anandamide and mood-affecting compounds in cocoa

 

In 1992, Daniele Piomelli and a team of researchers isolated a cannabinoid neurotransmitter called anandamide from chocolate (n-arachidonoylethanolamine or AEA) (8). The interesting thing about anandamide is that it is also a naturally endogenous cannabinoid found in the human brain and nervous system. Anandamide plays an important role in the overall sense of well-being. The word anandamide is derived from the Sanskrit word ananda, which means bliss, as anandamide is known to provide a general feeling of bliss and happiness.

A study published in the journal NeuroReport by the Georgia Institute of Technology and the University of California, Irvine lead researcher Arne Dietrich believes that the body releases cannabinoids that help cope with the prolonged stress and pain of moderate to intense exercise. Studies have linked anandamide to the body’s pain-relieving responses during exercise, especially running.

Although cocoa is quite low in anandamide, it also contains two other important ingredients that are present in much higher concentrations, and are more than likely the reason why we notice cocoa’s mood-enhancing effects. These are N-oleoylethanolamine (OEA) and N-linoleoylethanolamine (18:3 NAE). These two anandamide-like cousins both block the metabolic breakdown of anandamide and can potentially block the breakdown of other cannabinoids, including THC and CBD, allowing these compounds to last longer in the body. (8)

Read more about anandamide in our article: Anandamide: the happiness molecule for your brain .


Cocoa and theobromine

 

Complementing all of cocoa’s mood-enhancing benefits is theobromine, an alkaloid very similar to caffeine and cocoa’s primary stimulant. Theobromine is a well-known vasodilator that acts as a “transporter” of nutrients and chemicals to the tissues. It may also be responsible for amplifying the effects of anandamide in chocolate. (8)

In addition to anandamide and theobromine, cocoa contains serotonin, phenylethylamine, and dopamine, all of which, according to research, help us feel more optimistic and calm. All of these together give us an overall sense of well-being while providing gentle, natural and long-lasting energy. (8)

 

Sources

 

  1. M. Lazarus. 2015. Arousal Effect of Caffeine Depends on Adenosine A2A Receptors in the Shell of the Nucleus Accumbens. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3153505/#. Referred on 12/07/2022.
  2. Schwab U. 2020. Duodecim. Coffee and health . https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk01000. Referred on 07/08/2022.
  3. EFSA. 2015. Caffeine: EFSA estimates safe intakes. https://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/press/news/150527. Referred on 12/07/2022.
  4. Rossi. S. 2010. Online Library. Effects of caffeine on striatal neurotransmission: Focus on cannabinoid CB1 receptors. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/mnfr.200900237. Referred on 07/08/2022
  5. E. Moreno et al. 2017. Nature. Singular Location and Signaling Profile of Adenosine A2A-Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Heteromers in the Dorsal Striatum . https://www.nature.com/articles/npp201712. Referred on 12/07/2022.
  6. VC Sousa et al. 2010. Nature. Regulation of Hippocampal Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Actions by Adenosine A1 Receptors and Chronic Caffeine Administration: Implications for the Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol on Spatial Memor y. https://www.nature.com/articles/npp2010179. Referred on 07/08/2022.
  7. VS Bastos. 2019. J Food Sci Technol. Dynamics of volatile compounds in TSH 565 Cocoa Clone fermentation and their role on chocolate flavor in Southeast Brazil . https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6542924/. Referred on 12/07/2022.
  8. Piomelli D. 2014. More surprises lie ahead. The endocannabinoids keep us guessingg. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23954677/ . Referred on 11.07.2022.
Does CBD soothe restless legs?

Does CBD soothe restless legs?

Every tenth person in the world suffers from the symptoms of restless legs either regularly or occasionally. It is a disease affecting the quality of sleep and mood for which there is no curative treatment. In this article, we’ll find out what restless legs are and whether you could CBD oil calms them down!

 

Restless legs

 

Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is classified as a neurological, sensorimotor disease that has only become more common in recent decades. Often, when making a diagnosis, it turns out that people who suffer from restless legs have had symptoms since childhood, and there is usually a genetic link to the disease. (1) The name of the disease, restless legs, is incorrect in the sense that the symptoms are not necessarily limited to the legs, but there are often sensations in the arms as well.

 

Symptoms of restless legs

 

The symptoms manifest as a strong need to move the limbs, especially the legs. The sensations are obviously difficult to describe, but we are talking about pressure, tingling, burning, itching and an unpleasant feeling deep inside the leg. The symptoms start in the evenings before going to bed and for some even when they sit down to calm down at the end of the day. You might think that restless legs need rest and peace, but it seems that the right amount of exercise eases the symptoms or even stops them temporarily. Lightly moving your legs when the symptoms start may relieve them and make you feel easier enough to catch up on sleep. (1,2,3)

A woman is lying on the grass and swinging her restless legs.

The symptoms of restless legs often occur at night and in the evenings when the legs are at rest. Restlessness in the legs may force you to get up and swing your legs, even if the person is otherwise tired and ready to sleep.

Anxiety, which occurs as a side effect, is relieved by CBD oil

 

Restless legs may cause side effects of insomnia and daytime fatigue after a bad night’s sleep. The need to move and the strong compulsion in the legs wakes up throughout the night and sometimes requires even getting out of bed. (1,2) Anxiety and stress are also commonly mentioned side symptoms. For anxiety relief with CBD oil can read here and about the effect of CBD oil on stress here. CBD oil is versatile in its care, and its effects that support the body’s functions also help restless legs, at least indirectly. CBD oil may also help with sleep-related challenges and you can read more about it here .

 

Reasons behind restless legs

 

The origin of restless legs is not completely known, but in addition to hereditary factors, iron deficiency anemia and a disturbance in dopamine production contribute to the onset (1,3). Lack of exercise, coffee, tobacco, alcohol and some medications may also increase and maintain symptoms (1).

 

Iron deficiency underlying the symptoms

 

According to studies, iron deficiency in the substantia nigra of the brain is behind restless legs (3). The iron content of the blood does not yet tell whether there is enough iron in the tissues and the brain, and it has been found that iron deficiency occurring in the substantia nigra of the brain can cause symptoms of restless legs.

Disturbance in dopamine production

 

The neurotransmitter hormone dopamine is involved in many things and is also involved in body movements. Its lack causes e.g. dystonia, i.e. involuntary movement of the body.

Dopamine levels in the nervous system naturally decrease towards evening, and are at their lowest at night. Dopamine’s involvement in the production of body movement and its natural production rhythm is directly related to when restless legs begin to show symptoms.

Studies have found an increase in dopamine production related to restless legs and this is interpreted as a disturbance in dopamine production. An increase in production can be a sign of bad signaling in the brain, and despite the overproduction, the effect of dopamine weakens for certain brain cells at certain times of the day more than usual.

Dopamine is produced by the substantia nigra of the brain, and it is the lack of iron in the dopamine cells in people suffering from restless legs that supports the theory of the combined effect of a dopamine disorder and iron deficiency in the emergence of the syndrome. It is still unclear how there can be too little iron in the brain when iron levels in the blood are normal. (3)

 

Restless legs during pregnancy

 

During pregnancy, a woman’s body adapts to work in more cramped conditions than normal. In addition to the nerve pathways being pinched and the blood vessels constricted, the legs are suddenly subjected to more weight than they are used to carrying. Symptoms of restless legs during pregnancy are 3 times more common than in the general population, and they usually stop soon after pregnancy. The risk of getting restless legs during pregnancy is increased by being overweight and the age of the expectant mother. (4)

 

Restless legs syndrome treatment

 

In the absence of a working form of treatment, the treatment for restless legs currently consists of small pieces that each person with symptoms assembles according to their needs. Sufficient exercise helps most people as long as it is not too late in the evening. You should also avoid consuming caffeine, alcohol and tobacco too close to bedtime. Restless legs strongly affect the quality of sleep for most people, so you should take care of suitable conditions for sleeping, such as a good bed, suitable temperature and relaxation before settling down to sleep.

 

Magnesium and other minerals relieve symptoms

 

Restless legs are also treated by taking care of iron reserves and iron absorption. It would be important to get the iron levels of the tissues and brain to a good level, and therefore it is also essential to consider other minerals that affect the absorption and transport of iron to the right places. Especially copper and magnesium are important minerals for the absorption of iron, and their adequate intake should be taken care of in a varied diet and possibly also in the form of a supplement. Well-absorbed iron and other minerals to support the body are e.g. in humic and fulvic acid capsules which can be found here .

 

Restless legs on the pier relax thanks to CBD oil.

CBD can help with the symptoms of restless legs, because CBD affects nerve function by optimizing and balancing it as needed.

 

CBD oil to soothe symptoms?

 

The effectiveness of CBD oil in people with restless legs syndrome may be based on CBD ‘s ability to prevent excessive dopamine release by restoring nerve activity to a more normal state (5).

CBD oil has been shown to be an effective aid in the treatment of various neurological diseases such as epilepsy and MS . The relief of the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease with CBD oil has also been studied with good results, as well as fibromyalgia. All of these diseases, with the exception of fibromyalgia, have the same involuntary, life-affecting movements of the body and precisely these symptoms CBD oil has been found to bring relief or even release.

You can read more about alleviating the symptoms of epilepsy with CBD oil here. Also for the treatment of MS There is an article written on CBD , which you can read here. Restless legs associated with fibromyalgia are very common and due to the effect of CBD on fibromyalgia can read here .

The treatment of restless legs with CBD oil has been studied unfortunately little, but the few studies and the numerous experiences of users give good promises of a positive treatment response. A study of six participants was conducted in France, of which 5/6 stated that they had received help for restless legs (6) and in connection with a study in Canada, it was found that more than half of the participants who had restless legs as one of the symptoms received CBD oil helps with symptoms (7).

 

CBD foot cream

 

Although there is no direct cure for restless legs, you can try a 100% natural CBD foot cream specially designed for tired legs to treat its symptoms, which includes several active substances. CBD foot cream reduces swelling, warms and relaxes the feet. At the same time, it also stimulates peripheral blood circulation and makes the legs feel fresh and light. The product does not contain parabens, artificial colors, flavors or preservatives CBD foot cream can be ordered Hemp from the online store .

 

In summary

Restless legs is a disease that occurs either by itself or along with another disease. Treating it with CBD oil has not been studied yet, but since the endocannabinoid system is so important behind the body’s functions, it is possible that cannabis-based medicines will still be developed, also for restless legs.

 

Sources

 

  1. Saarelma O.. 2022. Duodecim health library. Restless legs syndrome. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk00294. Referred to on 30/06/2022.
  2. Partinen M.. 2006. Duodecim periodical book. Restless legs. https://www.duodecimlehti.fi/duo96142. Referred to on 30/06/2022.
  3. Johns Hopkins Medicine. Causes of restless legs syndrome. https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/neurology_neurosurgery/centers_clinics/restless-legs-syndrome/what-is-rls/causes.html. Referred to on 30/06/2022.
  4. Jansson M.. 2017. Patient’s medical journal. Restless legs are monitored during pregnancy. https://www.potileanlaakarilehti.fi/uutiset/levottomat-jalat-valvottavat-raskausaikana/. Referred to on 30/06/2022.
  5. Wenk G.. 2020. Psychology today. Cannabis for restless legs syndrome. https://www.psychologytoday.com/intl/blog/your-brain-food/202007/cannabis-restless-leg-syndrome. Referred to on 30/06/2022.
  6. Megelin T. and Ghorayeb I.. 2020. More evidence of cannabis efficacy in restless legs syndrome. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31820197/. Referred to on 30/06/2022.
  7. Samaha D., Kandiah T. and Zimmermann D.. 2020. Cannabis Use for Restless Legs Syndrome and Uremic Pruritus in patients treated with maintenance dialysis: A Survey. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7488602/. Referred to on 30/06/2022.
Does CBD relieve nausea?

Does CBD relieve nausea?

My stomach bubbles and I feel a lump in my throat. Maybe a little high and hot. A big glass of cold water and a lying position are on my mind. You probably don’t dare to close your eyes, lest your head start spinning. It is nausea, the body’s natural important protection and cleansing mechanism, which seems to be a familiar feeling to everyone! In this article, we’ll explore nausea, the endocannabinoid system behind it, and For CBD oil as a nausea reliever.

 

What causes nausea?

 

Nausea is an intense disgusting feeling that can be caused by almost anything. It may be triggered by a smell, excessive spinning, seeing something disgusting, medicine, stress , alcohol, spoiled food, headache, pregnancy or, for example, noise, but basically nausea starts in the nucleus accumbens of the brain, which is responsible for the body’s involuntary reactions such as sneezing, nausea and breathing. (1)

Nausea is the body’s way of reacting to various bacteria and viruses (1). So it is an important function that always has a message. Some people are more prone to vomiting than others, but eventually everyone vomits when the stomach bug hits!

 

Symptoms of nausea

 

The symptoms of nausea are clear, although they can be different depending on the situation and the person. Sometimes it is accompanied by stomach ache or headache and vomiting, but symptoms can also include weakness, dizziness, a lump in the throat, upset stomach, cold sweat, thirst, or some combination of these. (1)

 

Vomiting disease

 

Vomiting disease is a general name for various diseases that cause nausea and vomiting. Vomiting diseases include symptoms caused by viruses and bacteria, which include diarrhea, vomiting and nausea. Norovirus circulates during the winter, rotavirus, which is rarer today in small children, and sometimes vomiting is also caused by rarer bacteria such as Salmonella and coli. In most cases, vomiting goes away in a few days. If it is accompanied by bloody diarrhea, severe deterioration of condition, unconsciousness, very high fever, severe dehydration, etc. or the symptoms do not seem to go away, it is worth seeing a doctor to check that it is not a situation that requires immediate treatment, especially if it is a child. (2)

 

Symptoms of vomiting sickness

 

The symptoms of emesis are clear. It usually starts with stomach pain or sudden vomiting. Depending on the patient, some are more prone to diarrhea and others to vomiting, but the underlying purpose is to empty the intestines and body of unwanted bacteria or viruses as efficiently and quickly as possible. Sometimes the illness is also accompanied by fever, loss of appetite, fatigue and muscle pains. (2)

 

Contagion of vomiting sickness

 

Stomach disease is transmitted by droplet infection and through contact. It catches on really easily, especially among children. Good hand hygiene and careful wiping of door handles and table surfaces prevent the spread of infections, but it is practically impossible to avoid an epidemic, especially in schools and kindergartens. The incubation period for vomiting sickness is 12 hours to a few days. (2)

 

Sickness of pregnancy, also known as morning sickness, is common during pregnancy. In the picture, a sick and pregnant woman.

Also known as morning sickness, pregnancy sickness is common and almost everyone experiences it during pregnancy. A more serious form of pregnancy sickness is called hyperemesis, which is accompanied by more intense vomiting than usual.

 

Nausea of pregnancy

 

Pregnancy sickness is a common, almost every woman’s pregnancy symptom, which is also called morning sickness. Typically it starts in the early weeks of pregnancy and ends around week 12, but for some it starts practically right after conception and ends when the baby is born. This less frequent, very strong and life-threatening nausea is called hyperemesis. The cause of it, or morning sickness in general, is not known and there is no medicine or treatment for it. (3)

When examining people suffering from hyperemesis, it was found that at least there was no fluctuation in the levels of the most common endocannabinoids, and there did not seem to be anything special in the functioning of the receptors. (4)

 

Motion sickness

 

About one fifth of people experience motion sickness on car and plane trips. The topic has also been studied to some extent from the point of view of the endocannabinoid system, and it has been found that especially the endocannabinoid anandamide levels vary between asymptomatic and sick people. Differences have also been observed in 2-AG (2-arachidonylglycerol) levels; in those with motion sickness, those levels were low and remained constant, while in asymptomatic travelers, 2-AG levels increased during the trip. (5)

Motion sickness affects the function of the related endocannabinoid system. Enhancing its communication could be a potential treatment for individuals who do not respond to currently available treatments. (5)

Motion sickness is considered to be the result of intense brain-gut interaction in a stressful situation and this interaction is regulated by the endocannabinoid system. (5)

 

Motion sickness can be alleviated with the help of cannabinoids such as CBD. In the picture, a child experiencing motion sickness in a car.

Motion sickness arises in a stressful situation from a strong interaction between the brain and the gut. Nausea can be reduced by affecting the functioning of the internal cannabinoid system.

 

Nausea occurring as a side effect of disease treatment

 

Many diseases include nausea as an unpleasant side effect, which often occurs without vomiting. Often, the nausea in question is the result of either drugs or treatments, such as strong painkillers or chemotherapy used to treat cancer.

Research focused on chemotherapy and cannabinoids in particular has been done extensively, and both synthetic and natural cannabinoids such as THC and CBD have been found to be effective chemotherapy-induced nausea relievers, both in the light of research and user experience.

You can read more about the effect of cannabinoids related to cancer and chemotherapy here , but it should be mentioned that a few synthetic cannabinoid preparations and exogenous cannabinoids have shown to be very significant nausea reducers for chemotherapy induced nausea! (6)

 

The endocannabinoid system and nausea

 

The endocannabinoid system balances the body and tries to keep vital functions functioning as well as possible. It affects everything in the background and is therefore also involved in the regulation of nausea.

In animal experiments where the endocannabinoid system has been blocked from functioning, it has been noticed that blocking it promotes nausea. In animals whose poisoning reaction is vomiting, the reaction has been successfully stopped by the power of cannabinoids.

 

Cannabinoids

 

Cannabinoids protect against nausea, e.g. by cooperating with CB1 and 5-HT receptors. (7)

An anandamide-degrading enzyme, fatty acid amide hydroxylase (FAAH), has been found in brain regions involved in vomiting and has been shown to have antiemetic effects. Anandamide’s anti-nausea effects appear to be mediated through activation of the CB1 receptor. (8)

Cannabinoid receptors

 

The CB1 receptor is mainly found in the brain, also in the nucleus accumbens, where nausea originates. It is involved in the regulation of nausea and vomiting reflex. (4,6)

Serotonin receptors

 

The cannabinoid system closely interacts with serotonin receptors. There are seven 5-HT receptors and they are named 5-HT1, 5-HT2, 5-HT3, etc.

The 5-HT3 receptor in particular seems to be the receptor influencing the occurrence of vomiting and nausea, and its cooperation with cannabinoids is behind the anti-nausea effect. (4,7,8)

Activation of the 5-HT1A receptor prevents the release of serotonin and thus ultimately also prevents nausea. (4,7,8)

 

CBD relieves nausea

 

CBD (cannabidiol) has been found to relieve nausea. Due to the strong nausea associated with chemotherapy and its difficult treatment, it was decided to study the antiemetic, i.e. nausea-relieving, effects of cannabinoids. (4,7,8)

CBD is both an anti-nausea and anti-emetic cannabinoid. Synthetic cannabinoids have been on the list of drugs allowed to relieve nausea in North America since 1980.

CBD has an anti-nausea effect by adding anandamide amount in the nucleus accumbens of the brain by inhibiting the activity of the FAAH molecule that disperses it. (4,7,8)

The findings suggest that both CBD and its acid precursor CBD-A are both effective anti-nausea relievers, with CBD-A being slightly more effective (4). In the medicinal use of hemp, an essential consideration is the synergistic effect (Entourage effect ), which is based on the view that the best benefit from the effects of hemp can be obtained when all the active substances obtained from the plant are used.

 

Herbs that reduce nausea include e.g. chamomile, ginger, mint. The picture also shows tea with lemon and honey.

In addition to CBD, nausea can be relieved by many herbs such as chamomile, peppermint, ginger, lemon balm, fennel and licorice root. The combination of honey and lemon has also been found to effectively reduce nausea.

 

Many herbs and plants relieve nausea

 

Many herbs such as chamomile, peppermint, ginger, lemon balm, fennel and licorice root relieve bad feelings. The combination of honey and lemon has also been found to reduce nausea and can easily be added to herbal drinks to enhance the combined effect. An upset or recovering stomach can be soothed and nourished with grated raw carrot, and apple or apple-carrot-ginger juice is also good.

Finding a suitable eating rhythm is a significant prevention of nausea. Small portions of something cool, light food such as yogurt is light and easy for the body to digest, and they sometimes relieve nausea, even over a long period of time. Similarly, calm breathing at the onset of nausea may prevent vomiting. Being in the fresh air can also make you feel better!

In summary

 

Nausea is one of the most common side effects of medications and various treatments such as chemotherapy. Nausea significantly affects the quality of life, and the life of someone who constantly suffers from it can be really challenging and depressing. Nausea during pregnancy can stop life completely for a while, and people who get motion sickness often organize their lives so that they don’t have to travel too long distances, at least backwards or in a car without air conditioning….

The endocannabinoid system and CBD as a nausea reliever have been studied a lot, and according to user experiences, it is an effective and gentle form of treatment to prevent various types of nausea!

 

Sources

  1. Mustajoki P.. 2021. Duodecim Health Library. Nausea and vomiting. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk00054. Referred on 08/01/2022
  2. Health house. Stomach disease can cause both vomiting and diarrhea. https://www.terveystalo.com/fi/tietopaketit/vatsatauti/. Referred on 08/01/2022
  3. Hyperemesis RY. What is hyperemesis?. https://hyperemeesi.fi/fi/tietoa-hyperemeesista/mita-hyperemeesi-on/. Referred on 08/01/2022
  4. Rock EM and Parker L.. 2016. Frontiers. Cannabinoids As Potential Treatment for Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2016.00221/full. Referred on 08/01/2022.
  5. Chouker A., Kaufmann I., Kreth S., Hauer D., Feuerecker M., Thieme D., Vogeser M., Thiel M. and Schelling G.. 2010. Plos one. Motion Sickness, Stress and the Endocannabinoid System. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0010752. Referred on 08/01/2022.
  6. Darmani N.. 2010. Mechanisms of Broad-Spectrum Antiemetic Efficacy of Cannabinoids against Chemotherapy-Induced Acute and Delayed Vomiting. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4034105/. Referred on 01/08/2022
  7. Taylor B, Mueller M and Sauls RS. 2021. Cannaboinoid Antiemetic Therapy. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK535430/. Referred on 01/08/2022
  8. Parket L., Rock E. and Limebeer C.. 2011. Regulation of nausea and vomiting by cannabinoids. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3165951/. Referred on 01/08/2022
Alzheimer’s disease and CBD

Alzheimer’s disease and CBD

Alzheimer’s disease is a memory disease that has a strong impact on life, for which a curative treatment has not yet been invented. In this article, we will learn about Alzheimer’s disease, the endocannabinoid system behind it, and also whether CBD oil could help in its treatment or symptom management.

Alzheimer’s disease is a memory disorder

 

Alzheimer’s, a degenerative memory disease of the brain, is a disease of the older population, which is rapidly becoming more common and occurring in younger and younger people. It usually affects people over 80 years old, but today we see Alzheimer’s patients 60+ years old. In Finland, approx. 70,000 people and it is slightly more common in women than in men. Life expectancy is hopeful, as it can be up to 20 years from the onset of the disease.

Aloi Alzheimer, a doctor and researcher who lived in the 19th century, became interested in the pathology of the brain and wanted to find out the identification and characterization of the diseases behind clinical syndromes. He observed the first observations of brain degeneration at the very end of the 19th century, and this was the first step both in identifying Alzheimer’s and in acknowledging its existence. (1)

 

Memory disorders

 

Alzheimer’s belongs to the family of memory diseases. The most common are Alzheimer’s, vascular memory disease, Lewy body disease and memory diseases caused by degeneration of the frontotemporal lobe. Dementia is a syndrome in which there is at least one additional symptom in addition to the memory disorder, such as language weakness or impaired dexterity. (2)

 

Alzheimer’s causes

 

The root cause of the disease is not known. Small changes occur in the brain that damage nerve pathways and brain cells. The brain is affected by the accumulation of protein deposits (amyloid) and tau protein, as a result of which memory and information processing deteriorate. (3, 4)

In the background, there are also various risk factors and elements that promote the onset of the disease. Oxidative stress, excessive breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, brain injury, heavy metals accumulating in the body and brain are not the only culprits, but contribute to the onset of the disease.

Basically, it is brain degeneration due to the death of nerve and brain cells.

 

Is Alzheimer’s hereditary?

 

Alzheimer’s is partly hereditary, as it is caused by genes, but its onset is not dependent on them. Genes have the greatest influence on the development of Alzheimer’s disease apolipoprotein E allele e4, but the disease seems to be more common in some families, even if not everyone has the gene in question. (3)

 

An old man suffering from Alzheimer's disease recalls photographs.

The symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease are related to memory and difficulties in recognizing things.

 

Alzheimer’s symptoms

 

The symptoms of Alzheimer’s are similar for all sufferers, but there are also differences depending on the quality of the disease. Sometimes the symptoms focus on vision-related symptoms, such as recognizing things, etc. and sometimes more for memory loss.

Usually, the first clear symptom is a marked decline in memory. At first it may seem like a distraction, but as time goes on, challenges start to appear even in complex activities, such as traveling or managing money. (3)

A natural part of getting older is that you no longer remember everything the same way you did when you were younger. In Alzheimer’s disease, short-term memory weakens and learning new things becomes difficult earlier than average.

The symptoms also include psychological symptoms. Many people with Alzheimer’s can be aggressive and quick-tempered, as well as direct and rude in their words. The symptoms are not necessarily always continuous, but for a moment the functioning, memory and psyche can be as before the illness. (3)

 

Alzheimer’s diagnosis, medication and treatment

 

Alzheimer’s disease is usually diagnosed at an early stage because it is quite easy to recognize. The symptoms are quite clear, but structural images of the brain are usually taken in addition to neurological tests to make sure. Early diagnosis is also made possible by samples taken from the spinal fluid. (3)

Alzheimer’s disease is treated with drugs that aim to increase concentration, reduce psychological symptoms and improve functional capacity. At least for the time being, there is no drug that cures or stops the disease, instead medical treatment focuses on alleviating the symptoms and slowing down the progression of the disease. (5)

The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is central to neurodegeneration. It transmits messages between neurons and plays a significant role in memory formation and information retrieval within the brain. People with Alzheimer’s have been found to have lower levels of this neurotransmitter compared to healthy brains, and for this reason, drugs that prevent the breakdown of acetylcholine and improve its function have been developed especially for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. (3,4,5)

 

Risk factors and prevention

 

Alzheimer’s disease has several risk factors. i.a Lack of mental and physical challenge, alcohol, loneliness, and low educational background, as well as high blood pressure and cholesterol, insulin resistance, brain injuries, and brain-related circulatory disorders can contribute to the onset of Alzheimer’s.

Prevention is very much related to following a healthy lifestyle.

Today, there is a lot of discussion about the impact of the environment on health, from the cleanliness of food to air pollution. Heavy metals have been studied as particles that accumulate in the body and have negative effects, e.g. to the nervous system and skeleton. Avoiding them completely is almost impossible, but with some small actions in everyday life there is a chance to influence this. (6,7,8)

Heavy metals end up in the environment, i.e. food, water, soil and air, e.g. due to emissions from factories and cars, but also due to plant protection agents and chemicals used in water purification (6,7,8). Finnish tap water, food and air are clean compared to many other corners of the world, but this is no Lintukoto either. Cleanly produced food, a water filter in the tap and avoiding excess chemicals in cosmetics, household goods (e.g. plastic dishes) and detergents are ways that may reduce the risk of getting sick, e.g. to Alzheimer’s disease.

You should take care of your brain health. Their condition can be maintained with the help of a versatile clean diet and by giving them a suitable challenge even at the threshold of old age.

Endocannabinoid system underlying Alzheimer’s disease

 

The endocannabinoid system role in the background of Alzheimer’s has been studied to some extent. The system in question has been of interest to researchers for a long time, as its malfunctions seem to be the underlying cause of almost all diseases. The endocannabinoid system has been found in all the world’s mammal species, and improving its function is definitely one of the biggest goals of future drug development.

 

Cannabinoid receptors

 

The endocannabinoid system consists of the body’s own cannabinoid receptors, endogenous cannabinoids, and their disintegrating molecules.

There are two known cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2 receptors, and it seems that in Alzheimer’s disease the CB2 receptor is especially abundant, close to hardened protein deposits in the brain (9). The CB1 receptor occurs more in the brain and the CB2 receptor in the tissues responsible for immunity. Although each receptor has its own tasks and places, both receptors can be found almost everywhere in the body.

The CB1 receptor in the brain is associated with e.g. memory, learning, behavior and appetite. (9,10)

 

Endocannabinoids

 

Endocannabinoids are cannabinoids produced by the body itself, and they have many different tasks behind the well-being of the body, some of which target e.g. to memory. Changes related to the breakdown and function of endocannabinoids have been observed in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease. FAAH is the endocannabinoid system’s own enzyme that breaks down endocannabinoids, which may start to form too much if the system is not working properly. As a result, e.g. endocannabinoid anandamide production weakens in nerve cells and the enzymes that cause inflammation are allowed to multiply. Anandamide levels are lower in Alzheimer’s patients compared to healthy people, but no differences have been observed in the levels of another known endocannabinoid, 2-AG. (9,10)

 

Elderly people suffering from memory loss play chess.

Oxidative stress is related to the onset of Alzheimer’s disease. CBD is an antioxidative cannabinoid that reduces symptoms caused by oxidative stress. CBD has also been found to have a memory-enhancing effect.

 

Does CBD oil help with Alzheimer’s?

 

Full spectrum CBD oil is an oil obtained from hemp, into which all the active substances of the plant have been pressed. There are almost 500 different active substances in hemp and 120 different cannabinoids. Hemp has been known in herbal medicine for thousands of years and has been used successfully for a long time for various ailments. A few compounds that are especially important for Alzheimer’s disease have been listed below.

CBD (cannabidiol)

 

Oxidative stress is one risk factor in the development of Alzheimer’s disease. CBD is an antioxidative cannabinoid that reduces symptoms caused by oxidative stress. CBD is also a cannabinoid that calms the nervous system, which has been found in animal experiments to improve recognition memory. Agitation and aggression may also calm down under the influence of CBD. (11,12)

According to some studies, CBD has been recommended for the treatment of Alzheimer’s at a daily dose of 300 mg, either increasing or decreasing it depending on how it starts to work. The benefit can be seen as an improvement in general well-being and a slowing down of the progression of the disease, which of course can be difficult to notice.

 

CBG (Cannabigerol)

 

The better known and more researched CBD has its own effects on the functions underlying Alzheimer’s, but other cannabinoids have also been found to have therapeutic effects. Also called the mother of all cannabinoids Cannabigerol ( CBG) has been found to protect nerves, relieve inflammation and improve motor deficits. (14)

Terpenes

 

Terpenes, which are mainly responsible for the aromatic properties of hemp, have been found to have therapeutic effects either alone or at least as part of CBD oil synergy. There are many different types of terpenes and some of them have an effect preventing the breakdown of acetylcholine. Some terpenes, like CBD, have the effect of reducing oxidative stress and have been found to increase blood flow to the brain. (11,13)

 

A person suffering from memory disease (Alzheimer) listening to music happily.

Listening to music familiar to the patient has been found to be an effective way to rehabilitate Alzheimer’s patients. Music evokes feelings and memories that activate the frontal lobe of the brain, which is the last place the disease wreaks havoc.

 

Music in the rehabilitation of Alzheimer’s disease

 

The effect of music on people with Alzheimer’s disease has been studied more widely in recent years. Based on the results, it seems that Alzheimer’s patients literally come alive when they hear familiar music from their past. Familiar music revives old memories and activates cognitive functions.

According to experts, there is a special place in the brain where memories of music are stored for a very long time. Based on the experience of many people, listening to familiar music is one of the most effective ways to rehabilitate Alzheimer’s patients.

Music evokes memories and emotions and activates the frontal lobe area of the brain, which is the last place where disease wreaks havoc on tissues. Singing can also be of similar benefit in Alzheimer’s rehabilitation. (15) According to studies, people suffering from memory disorders benefit best when they sing songs they already know together (16).

Summary

 

Alzheimer’s disease is a untoward, usually lifelong disease that affects the performance of everyday chores. Short-term memory weakens and learning new things becomes difficult, before long familiar people become strange and a person may get lost on the way to the convenience store. The endocannabinoid system has its own part in the functioning of the brain, and future drug treatment for Alzheimer’s disease might be related to, for example, blocking the endocannabinoids that break them down. CBD oil may have therapeutic effects, e.g. in functions related to improving memory, reducing aggression and protecting the nervous system and thus it could be a potential gentle aid to support the treatment of Alzheimer’s.

 

Sources

 

  1. Haltia M.. 2014. Period book Duodecim. Alois Alzheimer and his many diseases. https://www.duodecimlehti.fi/duo11990. Referred on 1/11/2022.
  2. Memory Union. Memory disorders. https://www.muistiliitto.fi/fi/muistisairaudet/muistihairiot-ja-sairaudet/muistisairaudet. Referred on 1/11/2022
  3. Juva K.. 2021. Health Library Duodecim. Alzheimers disease. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk00699. Referred on 1/11/2022.
  4. Toivanen P.. 2014. University of Turku. Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology. Bachelor’s thesis. Protein accumulation in Alzheimer’s disease. https://trepo.tuni.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/117175/ToivanenPinja.pdf?sequence=2. Referred on 1/11/2022
  5. Rosenvall A., Hallikainen M. and Strandberg T.. 2018. Periodical Duodecim. Drug treatment of Alzheimer’s disease in different stages of the disease. https://www.duodecimlehti.fi/duo14668. Referred on 1/11/2022.
  6. Evira’s studies 2/2015. Evira. Risk assessment of Finnish children’s exposure to heavy metals in foodstuffs and household water. https://www.ruokavirasto.fi/globalassets/tietoa-meista/julkaisut/julkaisusarjat/tutkimukset/riskiraportit/riskinarviointi-suomalaisten-lasten-altistumisesta-elintarvikkeiden-ja-talousveden-raskasmetalleille.pdf. Referred on 1/11/2022.
  7. Studies 1/2020. Food Agency. Risk assessment of Finnish adults’ exposure to heavy metals and aluminum in foodstuffs and household water.
  8. Tuomisto J.. 2020. Health Library Duodecim. Are there still problems with heavy metals?. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/asy00220. Referred on 1/11/2022
  9. Koppel J. and Davies P.. 2010. Targeting the Endocannabinoid System in Alzheimer’s Disease. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2889705/. Referred on 1/11/2022
  10. Basavarajappa BS, Shivakumar M., Joshi V. and Shivakumar S.. 2018. Endocannabinoid System in Neurodegenerative Disorders. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5669051/. Referred on 1/11/2022.
  11. Aso E. and Ferrer Isidre. 2014. Cannabinoids for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: moving towards the clinic. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2014.00037/full . Referred on 1/11/2022
  12. Abate G., Uberti D. and Tambaro s.. 2021. Potential and Limits of Cannabinoids in Alzheimer’s Disease Therapy. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8234911/. Referred on 1/11/2022
  13. Uddin Md., Mamun A., Sumsuzzman D., Ashraf G., Perveen A., Bungau S., Mousa S., El-Seedi G., Bin-Jumah MN and Abdel-Daim MM. 2021. Frontiers of pharmacology. Promise of Cannabinoids for the Management of Pain and Associated Neuropathological Alterations in Alzheimer’s Disease. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2020.01097/full. Referred on 1/11/2022.
  14. Nachnani R, Wesley M, Raup-Konsavage and Vrana KE. 2021. The journal of Pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. The Pharmacological case for cannabigerol. https://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/376/2/204. Referred on 1/11/2022.
  15. Särkämö T. & Sihvonen A. 2018. Golden oldies and silver brains: Deficits, preservation, learning, and rehabilitation effects of music in aging-related neurological disorders. Cortex. Volume 109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2018.08.034. Referred on 21/11/2022.
  16. Nykopp J. 2015. Patient’s medical journal. Music helps to recover from brain diseases. https://www.potilaanlaakarilehti.fi/uutiset/musiikista-apua-aivosairauksista-kuntoutumiseen/. Referred on 21/11/2022
ADHD and CBD

ADHD and CBD

ADHD is a neurological disorder that causes hyperactivity, especially among children. It becomes common rapidly, and the symptoms do not necessarily subside even in adulthood. In this article, we find out what ADHD is and whether CBD oil could be helpful in alleviating the symptoms.

 

What is ADHD?

 

ADHD is short for attention deficit disorder. Today, almost every tenth child suffers from it. In adults, ADHD occurs in just under five percent, being more common in men and boys compared to the female population. Childhood ADHD sometimes calms down by adulthood, but approx. 70% have some level of symptoms throughout life. (1)

The background of ADHD is a disturbance in the development of the neural networks that regulate the brain’s attention and alertness. It is a partly hereditary syndrome, the origin of which is affected by certain genes, but its onset is not dependent on them (1). It has also been noticed that there is some degree of disturbance in dopamine production.

Although diet is hardly the sole cause of the onset of ADHD, deficiencies of certain nutrients have been observed in diagnosed children. Zinc, iron, magnesium and vitamin B6 deficiencies and an imbalance in omega fatty acids are typical. (2,3)

The Huminiqum product is a well-researched, high-quality and well-absorbed supplement that, in addition to its versatile vitamin content, contains fulvic and humic acids. You can familiarize yourself with the product and more detailed nutrient content better from here .

 

Symptoms of ADHD

 

The symptoms of ADHD are related to attention, concentration and vivacity. Some find it difficult to focus on lessons, storybooks or games, others do not learn things such as reading, and others have challenges related to an impulsive way of reacting to things. The symptoms can be really strong and really make life difficult for the sufferer. Often there are few of these symptoms in each area and sometimes only some of them occur. The spectrum of symptoms is wide and each ADHD patient is an individual entity. (1)

The child’s challenges often appear in kindergarten or at the latest in school, where one should remain quietly during the lesson, listen to instructions and still act according to them. Non-existent ability to concentrate can be seen in school grades and in the behavior of a restless troublemaker in lessons.

In adults, ADHD manifests as inner restlessness, perhaps a challenge in memory, concentration and planning, not so much as hyperactivity and behavioral disorders as in children. Maarit Virta and Anita Salakari have written a survival guide for adults with ADHD, which according to readers is a useful guide for adults suffering from ADHD symptoms!

 

Side effects

 

In addition to the typical symptoms of ADHD, both adults and children have side symptoms, e.g. insomnia, anxiety and challenges in social relationships. Problematic substance use is typical for adults and young adults.

with CBD oil has researched positive effects on the most common side symptoms of ADHD. CBD’s effect on sleep challenges can read here. You can read about anxiety, depression and the effect of CBD oil on them from here. There is an article on addictions and CBD from here .

 

Making a diagnosis of ADHD with the help of tests and examinations.

ADHD diagnosis is made with the help of various tests and examinations for both adults and children.

 

ADHD test, examination and diagnosis

 

In children, ADHD studies usually start based on the observations of parents or persons involved in education, such as teachers. Adults can take an indicative ADHD test online, and apply to a doctor’s office for further examinations based on the results and symptoms. You can find an ADHD test on the Internet from here (4).

Getting a diagnosis is a lengthy process, which ensures that there are enough symptoms and that they correspond to a large enough extent to the diverse symptom picture of ADHD. Since ADHD does not show up in blood tests or any other physical measure, making a diagnosis is based on various behavioral tests, tasks and conversations with a health history in mind. (1)

 

ADHD treatment and medications

 

According to Valvira, children’s ADHD is always treated non-medically first, and adults are also tried to be helped outside of medicine. The drugs used to treat ADHD are really strong and often cause strong side effects, and therefore they are mainly used to control the most difficult symptoms. (5) ADHD cannot be cured by drugs, but natural treatments such as diet, CBD oil and occupational therapy together, or without drugs, can get the symptoms well under control.

ADHD is therefore also treated with diet. In the case of ADHD, functional nutritional therapy focuses on the well-being of the intestines and digestion and ensuring that the body gets all the fatty and amino acids and nutrients it needs. A healthy, vigorous body is able to heal even difficult diseases by itself, and therefore supporting general well-being for all diseases and syndromes is of primary importance!

 

The endocannabinoid system and ADHD

 

The body of all mammals is balanced by an almost identical system. The endocannabinoid system is an ingenious system that influences the background of all body functions. It controls and monitors individual events with the help of endogenous cannabinoids, i.e. endocannabinoids. These endocannabinoids, as well as exocannabinoids from outside the body, respond to different receptors in the body. This system has its own receptors, the most studied of which are CB1 and CB2, but they also respond to other receptors in the body.

The endocannabinoid system closely interacts with dopamine production, which is one factor behind ADHD (6). Dopamine affects e.g. to the reward system and the feeling of motivation, and the challenges in experiencing these feelings significantly decrease a person’s willingness to do tasks, learn new things, etc., which usually results in feelings of success and pleasure.

The endocannabinoid system also plays a significant role in stress reactions, nervous system function , learning and memory.

 

Endocannabinoids

 

Endocannabinoids are produced in the body as needed and are everywhere in the body. Endocannabinoids are special in that they can be too little in one part of the body and too much in another. In the case of ADHD, the anandamide concentration in the blood is high compared to a healthy person, but in the brain, where dopamine production takes place, there is too little anandamide (6).

Anandamide is another of the most well-known endocannabinoids and one of its functions is to release dopamine and enhance its production. The underlying cause of the dysfunction of the dopamine system is thought to be too low anandamide concentration in the brain. Certain phytocannabinoids obtained from plants such as CBD increase the production of anandamide and prevent their breakdown.

A clinical dysfunction of the endocannabinoid system, which is thought to be at the root of all diseases, can be a system disorder just like this, where the body’s internal cannabinoid concentrations are out of balance.

 

Receptors

 

CB receptors have been found in every corner of the body, but they have their own specific areas of action. The CB1 receptor is mainly found in the brain and nervous system, and thus it is also largely involved in the functions underlying ADHD.

 

Does CBD help those diagnosed with ADHD?

 

There are still many opinions on the matter without consensus. It seems that there are effects associated with cannabinoids that can make symptoms worse for some. On the other hand, CBD oil soothes and is especially effective in controlling side symptoms.

Hemp has a huge number of different active substances. More than 120 different types of cannabinoids are known, and there are more than 450 active compounds in total. The effect of hemp is based on synergy, i.e. when all the effective active ingredients of hemp are used, the benefit is more complete than using only an isolate, i.e. using one or a few isolated cannabinoids. More about joint effects, i.e. the so-called The Entourage effect can read here .

In the case of ADHD, it has been noticed that the positive effect of CBD oil on the symptoms is a result of the action of several cannabinoids. Hemp terpenes have also been found to have an effect on alleviating ADHD symptoms. CBD (cannabidiol), CBN (cannabinol) and CBG (cannabigerol) affect the production of dopamine and CBD in turn helps the production of serotonin. (6,7)

Part of CBD oil’s effectiveness in treating ADHD is related to balancing the nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for e.g. from the emergence of a stress reaction, while the parasympathetic nervous system restores the body to balance after a stress reaction. CBD balances these two nervous systems, reducing hyperactivity and sympathetic overstimulation by calming and alleviating impulsivity.

According to user experiences, CBD oil is used with good results to manage the side symptoms of ADHD, such as insomnia, substance addictions and depression.

Peanuts, which contain Biochanin A, which can help with ADHD symptoms.

Disturbances in dopamine production have been observed in ADHD patients. Getting Biochanin A flavone from food can optimize dopamine production and help with ADHD symptoms. The flavone in question is found especially in peanuts, chickpeas and soybeans.

 

Other health balancing treatment

 

Since ADHD is a neurological challenge, its symptoms can and should be alleviated with ordinary health-supporting means. Both adults and parents of ADHD children have noticed that minimizing screen time alleviates symptoms. Computer games and violent programs seem to increase problematic behavior, while exercise, staying in the forest and a good long night’s sleep improve concentration and calm a restless mind.

The diet takes care of the condition of the intestines and digestion and improves nutrient levels in the body so that the body can function as optimally as possible. Biochan’s isoflavone A is a natural FAAH inhibitor, which in turn is a molecule that breaks down the endocannabinoid anandamide. Adding this flavone to the diet may improve dopamine production by preventing the breakdown of anandamide. Biochanin A is especially found in peanuts, chickpeas, red clover and alfalfa sprouts (8).

At home, you should get rid of all harmful chemicals such as laundry detergents, detergents and cosmetics and replace them with natural, non-toxic alternatives. The substances in chemicals are harmful to both people and the environment, and their negative effects on health have been studied for a long time.

 

In summary

 

ADHD is a growing syndrome for which there is currently no cure. The symptoms continue well into adulthood, and when drug treatment is the last resort, or at least that’s what is recommended, along with drug treatment, usual health-supporting measures such as diet, outdoor activities and minimizing screen time have been recommended. More research is still needed on the use of CBD oil for ADHD symptoms, but according to the current information, CBD oil can be effective in treating at least some of the underlying causes of ADHD, such as enhancing dopamine production and balancing the nervous system.

 

Sources

 

  1. Huttunen M. and Socada L.. 2019. Duodecim health library. ADHD (activity and attention deficit disorder). https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk00353. Referred on 9/8/2022.
  2. Riikka Torniainen and Noora Holopainen. 2014. Jam. Thesis. Consideration of nutrition in the occupational therapy of children with ADHD symptoms. https://www.theseus.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/79515/Holopainen_Noora%20Torniainen_Riina.pdf;jsessionid=2F2CB6A7E31F41925E6E9A6199C34623?sequence=1. Referred on 9/8/2022
  3. https://suomenravintoterapia.fi/adhdn-paras-vaihtoehtoinen-hoito-ravitsemus/. Referred on 9/8/2022
  4. Klaus Karkia. ADHD test. http://karkia.me/adhd/. Referred on 9/8/2022
  5. Valvira. Health care. ADHD and drug prescribing. https://www.valvira.fi/terveydenhuolto/hyva-ammatinharjoittaminen/laakehoidon-erityistilanteita/adhd-ja-laakkeiden-maaraaminen. Referred on 9/8/2022
  6. Dawson D. and Persad C.. Targeting the Endocannabinoid System in the Treatment of ADHD. https://scivisionpub.com/pdfs/targeting-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-the-treatment-of-adhd-1604.pdf. Referred on 9/8/2022
  7. Hergenrather JY, Aviram J., Vyotski Y., Campisi-pinto S., Lewitus GM and Meiri D.. 2020. Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal. Cannabinoid and Terpenoid Doses are Associated with Adult ADHD Status of Medical Cannabis Patients. https://www.rmmj.org.il/userimages/1036/1/PublishFiles/1038Article.pdf. Referred on 9/8/2022
  8. Manach C. 2018. FoodComex. Biochanin A (PC001057). https://foodcomex.org/foodcomex_compounds/PC001057. Referred on 28/08/2022
Toothache and CBD

Toothache and CBD

Toothaches have existed for thousands of years! It is definitely one of the most uncomfortable pain conditions and almost always a sign of the need for treatment. A toothache should always be taken seriously, but you can try to relieve it at home with natural means. In this article, we will learn about dental health and the possible effects of cannabinoids and CBD oil in the treatment of toothache!

What causes a toothache?

 

Usually, the cause of toothache is a hole caused by damage to the tooth enamel, which has progressed to the root of the tooth. Through the created hole, the root system and nerves can get into the pulp, which causes pain. There can be other reasons for cracking, for example a cracked tooth, a blow to the teeth or an infection at the root of the tooth. Tooth extraction also causes pain, as well as crooked or rubbing teeth can be painful and cause challenges, e.g. I bite. Nighttime teeth grinding may be accompanied by both toothache and stiffness and pain in the jaws, neck and temples. (1)

After various procedures, such as filling or tooth extraction, toothache is quite common. If it does not go away in a few days, it is necessary to contact the doctor treating the tooth again.

 

Toothache symptoms

 

The first feeling of a hole starting is a small tingling sensation caused by cold or heat, which passes in a moment. Slowly, if left untreated, the hole deepens and the swelling increases, eventually causing swelling in the jawbone. At this stage, it is usually a good idea to go to the dentist to treat the hole at the latest, because as it progresses further, the hole will drill all the way to the root, and food and drink reaching the nerve at the root will cause pain, which no painkiller can help with anymore. (1)

Inflammation of the sinus may radiate to the teeth as a throbbing pain. At its worst, the pain can cause insomnia and anxiety . A severe, unbearable toothache indicates an acute need for treatment, which is no longer worth treating only with home remedies. Then you should make an appointment with the dentist without delay and tell them about the need for immediate treatment.

Toothache can cause insomnia.

An unbearable toothache can cause insomnia and anxiety.

Backgrounds of dental health

 

Today, we are lucky to have the opportunity to correct even difficult oral problems with the help of dentistry. Effective anesthetics even offer a completely pain-free treatment experience, and regular check-ups help prevent the biggest challenges.

Things haven’t always been this good. Dental inspections only started in Finland at the end of the 19th century, and earlier information about human dental health comes mainly from archaeologists familiar with osteology and their studies. It seems that, at least during the last few centuries, human teeth have been in very bad shape already at the age of 20-30, and that is why the treatment of toothache has been one of the most important medical skills. (2)

 

Maintenance of dental health

 

Keeping your teeth in good condition is not simple, but in the end it’s all about the little things. The condition of the teeth is influenced by both genes and environmental factors, but also by your own way of caring for your teeth.

The quality of the food eaten is of great importance, and it already starts with the diet during pregnancy. Teeth need different minerals and trace elements to stay strong and shiny. When teeth are bones, they especially need calcium, magnesium, vitamins A, C and D (3).

Hunter-gatherers didn’t seem to have much of a problem with their teeth. It wasn’t until the introduction of grains to the dining table 10,000 years ago that teeth also started to change, and by no means in a positive direction. (2)

Dental care is an important part of the daily routine. In addition to brushing your teeth in the morning and evening and flossing once a day, regular oil brushing is a research-based treatment that promotes oral health.

Acid attacks, or actually the amount of them, is a significant factor behind dental health. Acid attack is caused by the reaction caused by the sugars and carbohydrates contained in the food eaten, where the bacteria in the mouth form acids that dissolve the minerals of the tooth enamel. Teeth can withstand 5-6 acid attacks a day and almost every food and drink causes them. From the point of view of the teeth, it is important to create a regular eating rhythm and stick to it, avoid constant snacking and eat treats immediately after food! (4)

 

Oil pulling with coconut oil is a popular way to clean the mouth.

Coconut oil for oil pulling. By adding CBD to the pulling oil, it can help e.g. for gingivitis, canker sores and mouth ulcers.

 

Oil pulling

 

Oil pulling is an ancient Indian Ayurvedic tradition of treating the mouth and teeth. The oil that ends up between the teeth and in the gum pockets cleans and cares for the teeth and gums, but also collects bacteria. The oil is carefully squirted in the mouth right after waking up approx. 20 minutes, after which it is spit out. (5)

For oil pulling, you should reserve an antibacterial oil, such as coconut oil. Sesame seed oil or a mixture of several oils is also often recommended. (5)

In Canada, several dentists recommend the use of CBD oil to promote dental health. Adding CBD oil to the pulling oil could be a very significant help for gingivitis, periodontitis, canker sores and ulcers, as well as promoting a good bacterial balance in the mouth. (5)

 

Drug treatment for toothache

 

A toothache can be relieved with common painkillers available at the pharmacy, but it is almost always good to find out the cause of the toothache. Sometimes the pain may be caused by food stuck between the tooth and the gum or slightly inflamed gums, but if the pain does not subside with natural means, with a standard mild painkiller or within a few days, the cause is probably something that needs to be fixed by a dentist. The medical treatment after the procedures is decided by the treating dentist!

 

Toothache home treatment

 

Toothache can also be relieved with natural means at home, but depending on the cause of the pain, it should be done carefully. Cloves are numbing, and gargling with clove water may relieve the pain, as can chewing fresh ginger. Gargling with salt water cleans the mouth and may calm swollen gums. Pressing a piece of ice inside the cloth against the cheek where the tooth hurts can also help!

According to studies, there are many ways to prevent a starting hole from growing. Gargling the mouth and teeth after eating cleans the mouth and between the teeth. Correcting the diet in a grain-free direction may help, as well as avoiding sugar and especially sugary drinks. Careful tooth brushing and interdental cleaning are the minimum requirement for healthy teeth and significantly reduce cavities, gum damage and periodontitis (inflammatory disease of the mouth caused by bacteria). (3)

By investing in home dental care, you can avoid visits to the dentist.

Regular tooth brushing and interdental cleaning significantly reduce cavities, gum damage and oral inflammatory diseases.

 

The endocannabinoid system in dental health

 

The endocannabinoid system is the body’s general regulator, which monitors the body’s functions and tries to keep everything in as good a balance as possible. The endocannabinoid system consists of endogenous endocannabinoids and their dispersing molecules, as well as cannabinoid receptors. The endocannabinoid system is also involved in the background of the functions that take place in the teeth, oral mucosa and gums.

Both cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) and endocannabinoids AEA and 2-AG are present in the mouth. A third cannabinoid receptor, GP55, has also been detected in teeth and oral mucosa. (6)

The best-known endocannabinoids are AEA or anandamide and 2AG, or arachinodylglycerol. In studies targeting the common dental disease periodontitis, it has been found that AEA has an anti-inflammatory effect on dental health, while 2AG seems to promote inflammatory processes (7).

 

CBD oil to support toothache and dental health

 

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) has been used especially in Asian medicine for thousands of years. It has been used for toothache and probably also for caries and to maintain general oral health. Based on current research, dental health is also affected by other active substances in hemp, such as terpenes. (6) This is called a synergistic effect and it can read more here .

CBD oil is not a miracle substance that removes toothache like a painkiller, but it may be helpful in general dental care and at the time of pain.

CBD is a cannabinoid found in hemp that has many properties that have a positive effect on health. CBD is e.g. anti-inflammatory (anti-inflammatory), antibacterial and tissue growth-promoting cannabinoid. It has also been found to have pain-relieving properties.

 

Cannabinoids

 

In addition to CBD (cannabidiol), many other phytocannabinoids have also been recognized as promoting dental health. One study compared the effects of cannabinoids and well-known toothpastes on plaque, and cannabinoids were the clear winner! The study involved CBD (cannabidiol), CBC (cannabichromene), CBN (cannabinol), CBG (cannabigerol) and CBGA (cannabigerolic acid). (8)

A study has also been conducted on mouthwashes which showed that cannabinoids are as effective or more effective than alcohol and chlorhexidine commonly used in mouthwashes (9).

CBD is also availabletoothpaste containing CBD toothpaste contains a full-spectrum hemp extract, which, in addition to CBD, also contains other hemp active substances and cannabinoids. About toothpaste and its more specific content, you can read more here.

 

summary

 

Taking care of your dental health is important, as bad teeth can even lead to a heart attack in the worst case scenario. The positive effect of CBD on dental health has been recognized, but more studies are still needed so that cannabinoids can be used even better and more widely in the future. Especially on the foreign market today, there are a wide variety of dental care products containing CBD, which may be of significant help in the prevention of various dental problems. However, the most important thing is to take care of a versatile diet and take care of your teeth daily!

 

Sources

 

  1. Könönen E.. 2021. Health Library Duodecim. Toothache. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk00810. Referred on 19/09/2022
  2. Kimari L.. 2016. Medical magazine. Witches did invaluable work in a time before dentists. https://www.hammaslaakarilehti.fi/fi/uutinen/noitamuorit-tekivat-korvaamamonta-tyota-aikana-ennen-hammaslaakareita. referenced on 19/09/2022
  3. Honkala S.. 2019. Health Library Duodecim. Structure and development of teeth. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/trv00003. Referred on 19/09/2022
  4. Finnish Dental Association. Healthy eating habits. https://www.hammaslaakariliitto.fi/fi/suunterveys/yleistietoa-suunterveydesta/ravinto-ja-suunterveys/terveelliset-ruokatottumukset#.Yy9MMi06pQI. Referred on 19/09/2022
  5. VKL Shanbhag.. 2017. Oil pulling for maintaining oral hygiene – A review. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5198813/#__ffn_sectitle. Referred on 19/09/2022
  6. Lowe H., Toyang T., Steele B., Bryant J., Ngwa W. and Nedamat K.. 2021. The Current and Potential Application of Medicinal Cannabis Products in Dentistry. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8466648/. Referred on 19/09/2022.
  7. Andrukhov O., Bantleon HP, Moritz A., Rausch-Fan X. and Özdemir B.. 2014. Endocannabinoids and Inflammatory Response in Periodontal Ligament Cells. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4165771/. Referred on 19/09/2022
  8. Stahl V. and Vasudevan K.. 2020. Comparison of Efficacy of Cannabinoids versus Commercial Oral Care Products in Reducing Bacterial Content from Dental Plaque: A Preliminary Observation. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6991146/. Referred on 19/09/2022
  9. Vasudevan K. and Stahl V.. 2020. Cannabinoids infused mouthwash products are as effective as chlorhexidine on inhibition of total-culturable bacterial content in dental plaque samples. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7819473/. Referred on 19/09/2022
Autism and CBD

Autism and CBD

Autism and the autism spectrum are associated with a number of different neurological disorders, which usually complicate the life of the sufferer. The spectrum of autism includes various factors affecting the ability to function, which can vary individually with large differences. Even perfectly healthy people are very different in many ways, and the same applies to autistic people. Everyone has their own individual traits and ways of experiencing the world.

Some of those diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder are able to live independently, while some need help to survive in everyday life throughout their lives. An autistic person’s need for help can vary, e.g. depending on life situation, age and support measures. (1)

The word spectrum refers to the variation and intensity of symptoms arising from disorders. Autism spectrum disorder is recognized much more often in men than in women. Out of the entire population in Finland, less than one percent (0.7%) of the population suffers from autism. It is not yet known exactly what causes the differences in prevalence, but it is thought to be related to biological differences between the sexes. (2)

 

Traits of autism

 

Autism affects a person’s way of experiencing and sensing the environment. Most of the time, the interaction and communication of an autistic person differs from “normal”, so to speak.

Common features for autistics are e.g. difficulties in controlling one’s own activities, difficulties in social situations (communication), a different way of interpreting and sensing situations, and sensitivity to nervous system overload and stress. However, the features vary from case to case. (1)

Autism features also include areas that can manifest as exceptional talent, such as the ability to pay attention to details and solve even difficult puzzles. In addition to them, autistic people can have excellent concentration and a clear understanding of right and wrong. (1)

 

The characteristics of the spectrum of mild autism in a child can be determined with the help of research.

Common features for autistic people are difficulties in controlling their own activities, communication difficulties, and sensitivity to nervous system overload and stress.

 

Autism spectrum disorders

 

Autism spectrum disorders (Autism Spectrum Disorders, i.e. ASD) and related brain development disorders become apparent at an early stage. The characteristics and challenges in functioning of autistic people can vary significantly.

List of autism spectrum disorders:

  • Autism
  • Asperger syndrome
  • Pervasive developmental disorder (atypical autism)
  • Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Specified (PDD-NOS)
  • Rett syndrome
  • Disintegrative developmental disorder (Heller’s disease)

 

There is not only one clear cause behind the disorders, but several biological factors influence it. Although the exact causes have not yet been identified, in any case, hereditary factors influence the prevalence of the disorder. According to current data, 65-90 percent of autism spectrum disorders are inherited. (2)

In the entire population, the autism spectrum is observed in about 1 percent of people. In developed countries, the number is higher (1.5%) and has almost doubled in 10 years. (3)

 

Asperger syndrome

 

Autism-related diagnoses have become more specific. Once thought of as a rare childhood disorder, Asperger’s syndrome is now classified as a lifelong illness. The syndrome in question was named after the Austrian pediatrician Hans Asperger and was introduced in Finland in the 1990s.

Asperger’s syndrome and autism are now classified as part of the autism spectrum disorder and those terms have been removed from the classification (ICD-11 and DSM-5). The autism spectrum is defined on a case-by-case basis from mild to severe. (3)

 

Symptoms of Autism

 

Autism-related symptoms usually appear already during early childhood, within the first three years of age. Sometimes the symptoms are only noticed in preschool or later. An autistic child usually has difficulty understanding verbal and non-verbal communication. Often, maintaining eye contact has also proven to be challenging. (2)

The symptoms related to autism are therefore especially manifested in social situations and interactions with others. The disorder may include certain repetitive behaviors and special interests that an autistic person easily becomes immersed in. Each person suffering from autism spectrum disorders has their own characteristics, and some may live very independently, while others may have a great need for help with everyday tasks. (2)

 

The most common symptoms related to autism spectrum disorder

 

  • Difficulty understanding the feelings and thinking of others
  • The challenges of starting and maintaining a conversation
  • The difficulty of working in a group
  • Difficulty accepting new situations and changes
  • Avoiding eye contact
  • Little use of sign language and facial expressions
  • Difficulty forming lasting friendships. (4)

 

It is also possible that the symptoms are not noticed until later in life, when the pressures of working life or postgraduate studies increase. Potential disorders should also be diagnosed by adults, so that work, study and the necessary measures related to rehabilitation can be planned in the necessary way and the risk of being marginalized can be prevented. (3)

 

Autism is diagnosed and tested using various tests for both children and adults.

Getting a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder is a multi-step process that is done together with the help of an expert doctor. Various tests, examinations and interviews are needed for diagnosis.

 

Autism test

 

Although the symptoms of autism spectrum disorder usually become apparent at an early stage, no specific age limit has been set for its definition. It is possible to make the diagnosis even for an adult, and for that there are tests that support the definition of autism. (5)

If you suspect an autism spectrum disorder in yourself or someone close to you, the general recommendation is to seek a doctor’s consultation and prepare for the appointment by thinking about and writing down all the observed features classified as autism spectrum that occur in everyday life. The doctor has the option of separately requesting an appointment with a neuropsychologist, where the matter can be examined in more detail with the help of various examinations. (5)

Getting an official diagnosis is a multi-step process and is usually done with the help of a doctor familiar with the subject through various examinations and interviews. In addition, the diagnosis often also requires interviewing close people, seeing a psychologist and therapist. In the studies, special attention is paid to functional ability, communication, interaction skills and interests throughout life. School certificates, birth records and other documents related to growth and development should be included to make the process easier, as comprehensive examinations to make a diagnosis often require a lot of time. (5)

 

Screening

 

There are various tests and screening tools to support the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Filling out the form can make the doctor’s work easier and speed up the diagnosis.

In the links below, you can find screening forms to support the definition of autism in children and adults.


Digital CHAT evaluation form (in Finnish)

 

Digital M-CHAT-R extended evaluation form , (in Finnish)

 

The AQ-10 screening form intended for adults may be helpful at the doctor’s office when assessing the need for additional tests to make a possible diagnosis in an adult who does not have major learning difficulties.

AQ-10 evaluation form for identifying the autism spectrum in adults

 

The ASSQ screening form, designed for parents of children, can clarify and be helpful in the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders.

ASSQ assessment form for parents

 

The GQ-ASC screening form below is designed to identify autism-related behaviors and abilities in cis and trans women.

GQ-ASC assessment form (cis and trans women)

 

An autistic child is playing on the floor. A person with an autism spectrum disorder can get help from CBD oil.

An autistic child easily drifts into playing only his own games. In the behavior of an autistic child, deficiencies are also often observed in relation to language development and making eye contact.

 

An autistic child

 

Some autistic children manage well independently, while others may need daily support. At worst, an autistic child can also significantly challenge the lives of the child’s loved ones. (1)

In addition to genetics, there are also physiological factors involved in the manifestation of autism. Upbringing has not been found to have a connection with the prevalence of autism. (1)

Autism may appear in a child very early, before the age of 1 year. In general, deficiencies are noticed in the behavior of autistic children, e.g. in eye contact, language development and the way they play with other children. The child may also have a different way of answering questions and expressing emotions. An autistic child may get irritated easily and drift off to play only his own games. The importance of familiar and repeated routines is emphasized in an autistic child. (6)

 

Autism treatment

 

Autism spectrum disorders are congenital, and no curative treatment has yet been invented.

In the revised disease classification, autism is not currently separated into separate diagnoses and e.g. Asperger’s syndrome, a mild form of autism, is now considered part of the autism spectrum disorder.

Although there is no known cure for autism spectrum disorders, its symptoms can be alleviated and individual development can be supported with, for example, occupational therapy and speech therapy. In addition, it is important for an autistic child and his parents to accept the prevailing situation and learn to live with the personality traits that are associated with it. (7)

If the symptoms significantly challenge everyday life, it is worth discussing the matter together with an expert neuropsychologist, with whom the treatment of the situation and the need for different forms of support can be planned in an appropriate way. Usually, support and rehabilitation takes place in cooperation with kindergarten, healthcare or school. (7)

The control of one’s own actions and the development of the brain continue until at least the age of 25. The symptoms related to the autism spectrum may decrease after reaching adulthood, if the child receives the necessary support along the way and participates in a rehabilitation program. In some cases, with the help of successful rehabilitation and support, the symptoms can decrease so much that the previous diagnosis no longer matches the picture of the symptoms. (7)

 

Autism spectrum treatment with CBD

 

Symptoms of the autism spectrum are currently also treated with CBD products such as CBD oil and CBD capsules. This alternative and natural form of treatment has spread worldwide in popularity, when several doctors and parents of autistic children have publicly shared their positive experiences and results related to autism treatment.

Some studies have shown that cannabinoid products reduced the number and/or intensity of symptoms associated with the autism spectrum, including hyperactivity, self-harm, sleep disturbances , feelings of anger, anxiety , irritability, restlessness , psychomotor agitation, aggression, and depression .. In addition, they observed improvement in cognition, sensory sensitivity, attention, social interaction and language. The most common side effects were sleep disturbances, restlessness, nervousness and changes in appetite. (8)

Especially for minors, the safety of using CBD should always be evaluated on a case-by-case basis together with an expert doctor.

CBD is hardly a panacea that cures the disorder completely, but for many it seems to be a significant help in everyday functioning and in alleviating the symptoms. Read more in the next paragraph about how the endocannabinoid system and autism are connected.

 

The role of the endocannabinoid system in autism

 

The vital functions of almost every animal are controlled and balanced by an internal cannabinoid system. It is absent only in insects and protozoa. Complicated endocannabinoid system consists of a network of receptors covering the entire body, which are affected by neurotransmitters. It is known to influence and regulate e.g. brain, kidney, liver and immune system function. (9)

Based on new evidence, people with autism spectrum disorder have anandamide the amount found to be lower than in a healthy control group. Anandamide is an endocannabinoid, also known as the happiness molecule, or internal cannabinoid, and based on this research result, the internal cannabinoid system and the imbalance of cannabinoids can have an effect on the manifestation of the disorder. (10)

Autism-related disorder has also been linked to the amount of oxytocin in the body. Oxytocin, also known as the love hormone, is a neuropeptide consisting of amino acids that is expressed in mammals and acts as a messenger and hormone. Oxytocin is produced in the brain’s hypothalamus, from where it passes through the pituitary gland into the bloodstream. Today it is known that oxytocin plays a significant role in e.g. in the formation and maintenance of the attachment relationship between the child and its parents. In addition to that, oxytocin is also associated with social, emotional, cognitive functions. Since the production of oxytin is also regulated by the internal cannabinoid system, you can from CBD and some others of cannabinoids be useful in connection with its normal production. (11)

Researchers think that the interaction between anandamide and oxytocin and the correction of their deficiency states related to autism could provide relief in treating the symptoms (11).

The internal cannabinoid system also seems to play an important role in relation to social interaction skills and emotions, which CBD and certain cannabinoids can activate. By affecting the receptors of this body system, it may also have an effect on alleviating the symptoms of autism.

 

THC and autism

 

Although research is still ongoing, there are indications that THC-cannabinoid may reduce internal anandamide concentrations in the body. The concentrations of anandamide are already low in people with autism, so it should be avoided the continuous use of THC. Anxiety is also a common symptom associated with autism, and THC and THCV may make it worse for some. However, the experiments were done on rats and with strong THC-containing cannabis products, so how it affects humans is not yet fully understood.

Generally, in CBD oils, the traces of THC are minimal enough to be detrimental to anandamide levels. Understanding the issue is also complicated by the fact that, according to studies, full-spectrum CBD products are prone to side effects (see entourage effect) are therefore more effective for many diseases and imbalances in the body than isolated cannabinoids (isolates). Full spectrum means that the final product also contains THC, although often only in very small amounts.

If you are considering CBD products for the treatment of an autism spectrum disorder and want products containing as little THC as possible, you should consider CBD products activated by heating, because their THC concentrations are usually significantly lower. See more about how heating works decarboxylation affects the final product.

Sources

 

  1. Autism Association. 2022. Basic information about autism. https://autismiliitto.fi/autismi/perustietoa-autismista/. Referred on 12/09/2022
  2. Health house. Autism and autism spectrum disorders. https://www.terveystalo.com/fi/tietopaketit/autimi-ja-autismikirjon-hairiot/#Mit %c3% a4 %20on% 20autismin%20kirjo . Referred on 12/09/2022
  3. Hanna Raaska & Raija Vanhala. 2020. Medical journal. Why and how do the diagnostic criteria for autism change? https://www.laakarilehti.fi/tieteessa/katsausartikkeli/miksi-ja-miten-autismin-diagnostiset-kritierit-muuutuvatt/?public=7fcf41d96a001eee7da91094299e5b86 . Referred on 08/12/2022
  4. Mielenterveystalo.fi. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD). https://www.mielenterveystalo.fi/lapset/ammattilaisille/hairiot/autismikirjon_hairiot/Pages/autisimikirjon_hairiot_ASD.aspx. Referred on 13/09/2022
  5. Autism Association. 2022. Diagnosing the autism spectrum. https://autismiliitto.fi/autismi/diagnosointi/. Referred on 13/09/2022
  6. Autism Association. 2022. Autism in different stages of life. https://autismiliitto.fi/autismi/autismikirjo-eri-elamanvaiheissa/. Referred on 09/04/2022.
  7. Pekka Räisänen & Ulla Boshkov. Autism in a child. https://www.mehilainen.fi/lasten-mehilainen/autismi-ja-autismikirjo. Referred on 13/09/2022
  8. Estácio Amaro da Silva Jr. and others 2022. Trends Psychiatry Psychother. Cannabis and cannabinoid use in Autism Spectrum disorder: a systematic review. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34043900/. Referred on 15/09/2022
  9. Ethan Russo. 2015. Phytecs. Introduction to the Endocannabinoid System . https://www.phytecs.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Russo-Introduction-to-the-Endocannabinoid-System-corr-January-2015.pdf . Referred on 14.09.2022
  10. Debra S. Karhson et al. 2018. Molecular Autism. Plasma anandamide concentrations are lower in children with autism spectrum disorder.https://molecularautism.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13229-018-0203-y. Referred on 15/09/2022
  11. Don Wei et al. 2015. Pnas. Endocannabinoid signaling mediates oxytocin-driven social reward. https://www.pnas.org/doi/full/10.1073/pnas.1509795112 . Referred on 15/09/2022
CBD for migraines and headaches

CBD for migraines and headaches

Headaches and migraines, both are painfully familiar to people today, and CBD oil may even be a significant help in alleviating the various symptoms. In this article, we look at whether CBD oil could reduce the symptoms or even stop headache and migraine attacks completely!

 

Headache is a regular occurrence for every second patient

 

Different types of pain in the head area, which are not caused by an accident, injury or illness, have touched almost every person’s life. It is estimated that about every second person in the world experiences frequent headaches, and the reasons for this are manifold. It can be caused by, for example, stress, drinking too little water, lack of minerals in the body, too much staring at the screen, lack of oxygen to the brain, noise, menstrual cycle, caffeine addiction… Almost anything!

 

The things that bring relief are individual

 

Since a headache can be caused by so many factors, it is quite clear that there is no single treatment for this problem. The use of the CBD oil to relieve various types of headaches has been studied somewhat and may help in some cases. User experiences show that it has beneficial effects, especially for migraines, but for occasional headaches, CBD oil only helps in some situations, perhaps depending on the cause.

Whatever the underlying cause, headaches, like migraines, are associated with overactivation of the trigeminovascular pathway and suppression of neural activity (1,2).

A man experiences a headache and holds his hand to his forehead.

On average, every second person suffers from a headache.

There are many ways to relieve headache symptoms

 

If headache symptoms occur often, it is good to stop and think about the causes, so that you can learn to control and ease the pain attacks. It is important to take care of daily outdoor activities and to try to calm everyday life and work in such a way that they do not cause too much stress. Adequate intake of minerals and trace elements relative to the amount of food consumed, as well as a good night’s sleep, reduce the possibility of headaches. A grateful and confident quality of mind is also suitable for reducing stress and thus also for preventing pain attacks.

 

CBD oil is a versatile helper

 

In some cases, CBD oil may reduce headaches if they occur without apparent reason. In this light, it is important to think about why the head hurts in order to be able to find out whether CBD oil could help. The active ingredients of hemp cannabinoids, flavonoids and terpenes affect the endocannabinoid system, which also affects the occurrence, quality and frequency of headaches (3).

 

Migraine with aura is surprisingly common

 

Migraine, with or without aura, is a surprisingly common condition that involves a debilitating headache along with other symptoms. What makes migraine interesting is that women are three times more likely to suffer from it than men. On average, one in ten suffer from migraines. Its symptoms include a severe, throbbing headache lasting up to three days on one side, photophobia, nausea and visual disturbances (4).

Despite the long and extensive research history, very little is known about the origin of migraine. Today, it is assumed that migraine is a gradually progressing neurological syndrome affecting the brainstem (5).

According to user experiences, migraines really get easier and the attacks decrease with regular CBD oil as a result of consumption. Since in addition to the external causes of the affected body, there is also a chronic lack of endocannabinoids, it is obvious that exocannabinoids could balance the functioning of the endocannabinoid system (2).

CBD oil and hemp leaf. For headaches and migraines.

According to research, CBD can help with headaches and can reduce the number of migraine attacks, as well as ease other migraine symptoms.

 

CBD oil reduces the number of seizures

So far, no cure has been found for migraines, but an attack can be prevented by avoiding the things that usually trigger them. Hustle and bustle, bright sun with a spring breeze, incorrect work posture, bad night’s sleep, etc. are for many almost certain triggers for migraines. In addition to avoiding, also full-spectrum CBD oil can reduce the number of attacks and ease other symptoms of migraine (1,3), as CBD has been found to e.g. stress-relieving, nausea-reducing and anxiety-relieving effects.

 

Contribution of the endocannabinoid system to headache and migraine

 

The endocannabinoid system is essentially related to all bodily functions, including headaches and migraines. Studies have found that during migraines, the gene encoding the CB1 receptor is reduced and the production of endocannabinoids is disturbed (1,2).

 

In the background, the rapid breakdown of anandamide

The endocannabinoid anandamide overproduction of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which is responsible for breaking down, has been observed especially in women with migraines. Overproduction of FAAH reduces the amount of endocannabinoids produced in the body, because FAAH breaks down the cannabinoids produced by the body too quickly (1). Cerebrospinal fluid and platelet studies have shown that migraine sufferers have a clear deficiency of anandamide, and increased activity of endocannabinoid transporters (EMT) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) (1,3). Migraines may also be caused by the excessive release of serotonin from blood platelets. Cannabinoids have been found to balance platelet function and prevent the release of serotonin from platelets during migraines. (1)

The effects of endocannabinoids on the neurological and vascular systems show that they affect the regulation of several functions responsible for migraine.

 

Clinical endocannabinoid deficiency

 

Endocannabinoid system has been studied extensively and for a long time. Based on the findings, it has been suggested that the underlying cause would almost always be a chronic disease endocannabinoid deficiency or dysfunction of the endocannabinoid system. This condition in the body is called clinical endocannabinoid deficiency and the theory was put forward by long-time cannabis researcher Ethan B. Russo.

The basis of the theory is both research on the subject and also the fact that exocannabinoids have been found to have a positive effect on e.g. for migraines, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), fibromyalgia and other chronic diseases. (2)

 

Finally

 

Although headaches and migraines are researched topics, neither of them has yet been found a completely preventive or curative medical treatment. A headache is often relieved by a painkiller and a migraine may be suppressed with migraine medication, but it does not remove the root cause of the problem and therefore only brings temporary relief. CBD oil is a product worth trying that may surprise you with its effectiveness. With the likely cause being a clinical endocannabinoid deficiency, CBD oil can be a key factor in reducing headaches, e.g. by increasing the amount of cannabinoids in the body.

 

Sources

 

  1. The Use of Cannabis for Headache Disorders. 2017. Lochete B.C., Beletsky A., Samuel N., Grant I.. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5436334/. Referred to 8.5.2022.
  2. Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency Reconsidered: Current Research Supports the Theory in Migraine, Fibromyalgia, Irritable Bowel, and Other Treatment-Resistant Syndromes. 2016. Russo E.B.. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5576607/. Referred to 8.5.2022.
  3. Medical Cannabis, Headaches, and Migraines: A Review of the Current Literature. 2021. Poudel S., Quinonez J., Choudhari J., Au Z., Paesani S., Thiess A., Ruxmohann S., Hosameddin M., Ferrer G., Michel J.. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Quinonez%20J%5BAuthor%5D&cauthor=true&cauthor_uid=34589318. Referred to 8.5.2022.
  4. Terveyskirjasto; Migreeni. 2019. Sari Atula. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk00047. Referred to 8.5.2022.
  5. Facultas; Krooninen päänsärky. 2008. Haanpää M., Kauppila T., Eklund M., Granström V., Hagelberg N., Hannonen P., Kyllönen E., Kyro M., Loukusa-Nieminen T., Luutonen S., Telakivi T., Ylinen A., Pakkala I. https://terveysportti.mobi/dtk/tyt/avaa?p_artikkeli=fac00020#s5. Referred to 8.5.2022.
CBD, Immunity and Autoimmune Diseases

CBD, Immunity and Autoimmune Diseases

Autoimmune diseases are increasing rapidly. There are more than 100 different autoimmune diseases and it is estimated that around five percent of the population has an autoimmune disease. Autoimmune diseases are often challenging to treat, and there is not always an effective medicine for them. In this article, we look at immunity, autoimmune diseases and whether CBD has an effect on them.

 

Natural immunity

 

Immunity is a natural synergistic ensemble of the body’s defense systems, which includes all defense and protection systems that protect us from various physical external harms, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites and harmful microbes. The most important function of the immune systems is to divide the elements moving in the body into own and foreign, threats and safe.

Immunity builds up strong already during childhood forest trips. It is important to be exposed to microbes as widely as possible from early childhood, because the phenomenon called the hygiene hypothesis can already be seen. The hygiene hypothesis means that people who grew up in too clean an environment are more prone to allergies and e.g. for asthma because they have not had enough contact with different microbes and pathogens so that the body could have created a strong immunity when encountering them (1).

Immune system dysfunction

 

The body has two ways to fight pathogens; lymphocytes, i.e. lymphocytes, circulate in the blood destroying pathogens, or cells specialized in fighting diseases produce antibodies circulating in the blood, which can neutralize pathogens by their action. Sometimes the functioning of the immune system can be disrupted. It can be mild, in which case the systems only work overactively, and as a result, e.g. asthma, allergies or skin symptoms such as atopic dermatitis. A more serious disorder in the immune system causes autoimmune diseases. (1,2)

 

What is an autoimmune disease?

 

The background of an autoimmune disease is always a malfunction of the immune system that causes inflammation in the body. For some reason, the body’s defense mechanisms do not work as they should, and they no longer separate pathogens from the body’s own cells and tissues. Defense and protection systems turn against the body itself as an inflammatory reaction. (2)

Autoimmune disease is caused by low immunity, an external pathogen, and in some cases also a hereditary factor. (1) According to the current understanding, there is no preventive treatment, but immunity can be strengthened by many means.

Joint pain is a common symptom of autoimmune disease.

Rheumatoid arthritis is a very common autoimmune disease in which the structures of the small joints have a continuous tissue-damaging inflammatory state. Other common autoimmune diseases include celiac disease, various allergies, asthma, psoriasis and thyroid disorders.

There is a long list of autoimmune diseases

 

More than 100 different forms of autoimmune diseases are known. All of them have in common the difficulty of being medicated and a large number of questions. Although there is a theory about how autoimmune diseases break out, their origin is still largely a mystery. The most common autoimmune diseases are thyroid dysfunction and rheumatoid arthritis. Asthma, allergies, celiac disease, chronic fatigue syndrome and psoriasis are also diseases classified as autoimmune. Rarer autoimmune diseases include e.g. adrenal gland dysfunction and myasthenia gravis causing muscle weakness. MS disease is also classified as an autoimmune disease and due to CBD oil’s effect on it, can read here.

 

Autoimmune rashes

 

Eczema and skin diseases that can be classified as autoimmune diseases include e.g. red lichen, vitiligo affecting the skin’s pigmentation and erythema multiforme with many symptoms. Many autoimmune diseases have several different symptoms. Rashes and skin symptoms are not associated with all diseases, but in some they are a significant factor. Psoriasis is a well-known skin-related disease based on immune defense. The symptoms of autoimmune diseases that appear as a rash may be relieved by CBD oil, and from that possible effect, you can read more here.

 

Endocannabinoid system behind immune defense

 

The endocannabinoid system is also part of the function of the immune response. It has an effect on the background of all body systems and, balancing, regulates the body’s immune defenses. The endocannabinoid system has been found to be present in some way in all cells of the body and their functions, including cells of the immune system. It also plays an important role in communication between these cells. (3,4,5)

Endocannabinoids activate the immune response

 

With endocannabinoids AEA (anandamide) and 2-AG (2-arachidonoylglycerol) have many important functions in the functioning of the immune system and can be considered effective immunomodulators. They e.g. both activate and inhibit immune system function and inhibit cytokines that cause inflammation. (5) Cells of the immune system have been found to have cannabinoid transport and degradation mechanisms and express both cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2).

Red blood cells and chronic inflammation due to autoimmune disease.

Autoimmune disease involves inflammation in the body, which CBD can help with. CBD has an anti-inflammatory effect.

 

The CB2 receptor prevents inflammation

 

The primary location of the CB2 receptor in the body is the organs and tissues responsible for immunity. CB2 receptors are found in the cells of the immune systems approx. 100 times more than the CB1 receptor and that makes the endocannabinoid system a significant research target in the treatment of autoimmune diseases (5). The CB2 receptor is activated in the immune system and it has been noticed e.g. as an anti-inflammatory in various diseases such as inflammatory pain and liver infections. When activated, CB2 receptors also regulate the migration of immune cells in the body and their number increases during inflammatory pain (6)

 

The well-being of the immune system

 

Strong immunity is a basic pillar of health. The good immunity acquired as a child is the basis throughout life, but it can also be strengthened in adulthood. Immunity can be weakened, for example, due to stress, antibiotic courses or chronic illness. Also smoking, heavy alcohol use, lack of vitamins, etc. decrease the body’s ability to resist external pathogens. It is known that in addition to a healthy lifestyle, the immune response is also positively affected by the well-being of the mind.

Twice Nobel laureate Dr. Linus Pauling has said:

“You can trace every sickness, every disease, and every ailment to a mineral deficiency.”

A lack of micronutrients can weaken the normal function and effect of enzymes and vitamins in the body. A lack of vitamins can be avoided with well-absorbed supplements such as capsules containing humic and fulvic acid, which promote the normal functioning of the immune system (vitamin C, iron, copper and selenium). Humic substances enhance the absorption of minerals and thus help increase energy production and support immunity. You can order humus capsules from Hamppumaa’s online store.

 

CBD oil for autoimmune diseases

 

People with autoimmune diseases often use immunosuppressive treatments, i.e. treatments that lower immunity, because the immune system is overactive and needs to be calmed down.

CBD has been found in studies to be both immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory. These properties are significant when considering the treatment of autoimmune diseases, as CBD can both slow down and stop an overactive immune system.

All autoimmune diseases differ from each other, which means that the guilty cells are also individual in each form of the disease. The contribution of endocannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system to immunity and autoimmune diseases is so significant that one could develop their own cannabinoid preparations for the diseases according to the purpose. While waiting for them, CBD oil might be of great help.

 

CBD oil dropper bottle and hemp plant in the background.

CBD has significant properties for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. CBD can slow down an overactive immune system.

 

​​

CBG (cannabigerol)

CBG or cannabigerol is a phytocannabinoid that has an anti-inflammatory or inflammation-reducing effect. It affects the function of immune cells and their neurotransmitters. CBG also acts as an anandamide reuptake inhibitor. (6).

 

Effect of terpenes

Terpenes are one of the less talked compounds in hemp. Terpenes are part of the therapeutic effect of hemp and they are involved in full-spectrum CBD oil. Carophyllenes have been found e.g. antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. 46D-limonene can be anti-inflammatory and Gamma-terpinene has an effect on cytokine activity. (6)

 

In summary

Autoimmune diseases are common, but despite all the research, still largely unknown. It is very possible that in the future, effective specific drugs from cannabinoids will be developed for autoimmune diseases.

 

Sources

 

  1. Anttila V-J.. 2021. Duodecim. Elimistön Vastustuskyky. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk01150. Referred to 5.6.2022.
  2. Mustajoki P.. 2018. Duodecim. Autoimmuunisairaudet. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk00010. Referred to 5.6.2022
  3. Nichols J. ja Kaplan B.. Immune responses regulated by cannabidiol. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=Kaplan%20BL%5BAuthor%5D. Referred to 5.6.2022.
  4. Almogi-Hazan O., Reuven O.. Cannabis, the endocannabinoidsystem and immunity – the journey from the Bedside to the bench and back. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7352399/. Referred to 5.6.2022.
  5. Pandey R., Mousawy K., Nagarkatti M., Nagarkatti P.. 2009. Endocannabinoids and immune regulation. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3044336/. Referred to 5.6.2022.
  6. Giorgi V., Marotto D., Batticciotto A., Atzeni F., Bongiovanni S., Sarzi-Puttini P.. 2021. Cannabis and autoimmunity : Possible mechanisms of action. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8313508/. Referred to 5.6.2022
How much CBD can be given to a dog?

How much CBD can be given to a dog?

In the same way as humans, dogs and other mammals have numerous in their bodies cannabinoids maintaining receptive receptors and maintaining body balance endocannabinoid system , which is responsible for vital tasks. On this page you will find information on how much CBD can be given to a dog. Although this instruction is made for dogs, it can also be applied to other pets (mammals).

 

How much CBD can be given to a dog?

 

There is still no official standard for dosing CBD for a dog or pet. The appropriate dosage also depends on a number of different factors, such as your dog’s weight, condition, and the CBD product you choose and its strength. For safety reasons, we always recommend starting with a small dose of 1 mg CBD for every five (5) kilograms of body weight, or 1 mg / 5 kg.

 

What factors determine the correct dose of CBD oil for dogs?

 

The three most important factors that affect how much CBD you can give your dog are the size of your dog, what condition or symptom of the dog you are trying to treat, and what kind of CBD product you are giving to your dog.

 

Does the size and condition of the dog affect the dosage?

Although your dog’s weight will not always correlate with how much CBD is needed, it is a good starting point for determining the appropriate dose. We therefore always recommend starting with the lowest dose of 1 mg CBD for every 5 pounds of body weight. Sometimes, however, conditions require higher doses of CBD. If your dog’s condition is more severe, you may consider a higher dose such as 2-5 mg CBD / 5 kg body weight once or several times a day as needed.

See the table below for the recommended CBD dose by weight.

Weight (kg)Amount of CBD (mg)
5 kg1 mg
5 – 11 kg1 – 3 mg
11 – 22 kg3 – 5 mg
22 – 34 kg5 – 8 mg
34 – 45 kg8 – 16 mg
45 – 68 kg16 – 33 mg
68+ kg33 mg
This instruction is not an official recommendation, so we recommend contacting your veterinarian before starting use

 

What is the right CBD product for a dog/pet?

 

In addition to CBD oils and tinctures mainly intended for humans, there are CBD products of different strengths intended for dogs and other household pets on the market. Dog CBD products most often contain fish oil or another flavoring ingredient designed to make the product easier to taste and dispense. CBD products for human use can also be given to a dog if the products do not contain ingredients that are not suitable for the dog. So always check the ingredient list of the product carefully before giving it to your pet!

In addition to the strength of a CBD product, some products, such as CBD dog treats, may be absorbed more slowly than CBD oil or tincture, in which case you may need to give your dog a slightly higher dose to achieve the same effect.

If you plan to use CBD oil to care for your dog, you will often find clear instructions in the product on how many drops contain the desired amount of CBD.

For example, if a 5% CBD oil bottle contains 200 drops and contains a total of 500 mg of CBD, then one drop contains about 2.5 mg of CBD. If you wish, you can mix one drop with the food and, if necessary, divide it into several more portions, so that you can start using it with the lowest possible dosage.

Once you notice the results you want in your dog, such as calmer behavior, you can continue with the same dosage. However, if you do not notice a large change after several days, you can increase the dose slowly and gradually until you see the desired effects.

 

Can I give my dog too much CBD?

 

There have been many studies on CBD showing that CBD is well tolerated, even at very high doses and reasonable doses there is virtually no risk of overdose. However, we recommend that you consult a qualified veterinarian before use.

When you buy CBD products for your dog, always check with the seller, its quality and that it really contains CBD. Although CBD products are not intoxicating, they may still contain very small amounts of THC. Remember that legally CBD oil products must contain no more than 0.2% THC, which is well below the amount needed to produce psychoactive, ie intoxicating, effects.

 

Finally

 

Determining and testing the correct dose of CBD for your dog may take some time and require monitoring. Always take your dog’s/pet’s weight and condition into account, and get your CBD product from a reliable seller.

 

 

 

CBD oil and insomnia

CBD oil and insomnia

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CBD oil and insomnia (insomnia) go hand in hand, for most CBD benefit users take CBD oil just in the evenings to calm down, relax, and get a better deep sleep. In this article, we examine the factors that affect sleep and what kind of effect endocannabinoid system and CBD has insomnia.

 

One third of life is a dream

 

We sleep an average of a third of our lives. So it is quite clear that what happens during that time has a big impact on how we can stay active. Sleep is a vital function during which the brain rests, the mind calms down and the body is cleansed. (1).

Sleep quality is affected by many different factors such as wakefulness, stress, health, bedding, and bedding. The endocannabinoid system, which maintains the balance of the whole body, also plays a role in the background.

A restful restful sleep should be obtained 6-9 hours a night and during it the body has a huge number of small and large tasks with which it prepares us for the new day. During the night you learn and rest, cleanse and balance. According to the population survey, about a third of Finnish adults suffer from various sleep problems and the same amount worldwide. Sleep problems are either short-lived or chronic and range from long-term insomnia through night sweats to nightmares (1). There are already good therapies for the treatment and symptoms of insomnia and other various sleep problems, both in Western medicine and in complementary therapies, but the interesting and well-proven CBD with therapeutic effects is still a potentially unknown potential sleep aid.

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a therapeutic compound that is not intoxicating. Its relaxing properties are well known and it is already widely used to treat anxiety, pain and depression. Studies have shown that it is also helpful in promoting alertness and reducing drowsiness during the day. So CBD oil can help with sleep problems.

 

Endocannabinoids are part of the circadian rhythm

 

Endocannabinoid system is, as it were, a backbone that is not actually responsible for anything, but affects everywhere. There is hardly a single physiological activity in which it would not be involved. Thus, it also plays a very important role in sleep quality and sleep cycle regulation. Not necessarily directly but through the various functions of the body. The endocannabinoid system affects sleep e.g. by regulating the sleep-wake rhythm. (2)

It appears to be responsible for the stability of the sleep-wake cycle, rather than a single function (3). Daily variations of anandamide could play a significant role in the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle. Studies in rats have shown endocannabinoids in biological samples taken e.g. spinal cord, hippocampus, and hypothalamus. In spinal fluid samples, anandamide concentrations increased during the light period and correspondingly decreased during the dark period. It has been suggested that anandamide would accumulate as a nitrogen cell in the dark and then be released when light enters the spinal cord at those sites that regulate sleep (4). The endocannabinoid system also indirectly affects sleep through knowledge of other bodily functions such as stress levels, metabolism, and pain (5).

Endocannabinoids are a lipid-based network of mediators that act by activating cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. There are receptors almost everywhere in the body. The two most potent cannabinoids, Anandamide and 2-AG, are able to be produced by almost all cells themselves, so there are a huge number of places in the body and brain where the endocannabinoid system can affect sleep (5). The location of cannabinoid receptors in the brain in areas of sleep regulation potentially activates cholinergic neurons. Anandamide – an activated cholinergic neuron expressing the CB1 receptor is known to promote the release of the mediator acetylcholine. Acetylcholine affects e.g. learning and remembering and is released most during deep sleep. This activation could trigger thalamic neuronal activity, which in turn enhances cortical desynchronization. Studies have shown that the function of the brainstem as well as the basal brain in relation to the thalamus is an important element in the regulation of sleep (4).

Fatty acids acting on cannabinoid receptors are known to show diurnal variations in nervous tissues and appear to follow a circadian rhythm (3). It has also been observed that they could act as zeitges, i.e. affect our internal clock (5). When these findings are combined with the knowledge that the endocannabinoid system maintains the body’s general equilibrium and regulates various bodily functions in the direction of equilibrium, it is clear that transient or chronic cannabinoid deficiency or endocannabinoid imbalance is inevitably reflected in sleep quality.

 

CBD oil to support sleep

 

Our body produces the necessary cannabinoids on its own, but we can help balance the cannabinoid system by utilizing plants such as hemp, which are naturally rich in cannabinoids. Hemp is known to have more than 100 different cannabinoids and the best known and most studied of these are THC and CBD . Different hemp varieties produce different amounts of different cannabinoids that respond to the cannabinoid receptors in our body. (6)

Psychoactive THC mainly responds to the CB1 receptor. The topic has been extensively studied in cannabis and sleep research since the 1970s, although it was not yet a direct study of the cannabinoid receptor (5). It has been observed that long-term cannabis (THC) users experience sleep problems, especially during weaning, and that THC use easily becomes a twist specifically related to sleep (6).

Non-intoxicating CBD responds to the CB2 receptor. It has been said that CBD has many positive effects on us. It lowers the inflammatory state of the body and, if necessary, also acts like pharmacological drugs, e.g. as an anti-acceleration and antiemetic drug. In the absence of solid evidence for the role of CBD in sleep regulation, the following hypothesis has been put forward; CBD enhances c-Fos gene expression in the hypothalamus as well as in the Raphe nucleus, both of which play a significant role in sleep production (7). Dosage appears to play a very important role in the success of treatment of sleep problems. A low dose accelerated subjects and made sleep more difficult, whereas at a higher dose, sleep problems were significantly alleviated (8). CBD is non-intoxicating, so it has a calming and stress-reducing effect on us.

 

Studies on how CBD helps with insomnia

 

There has been relatively little research on cannabinoids and sleep alone. Research on the CBD’s help with insomnia has only begun to attract researchers in recent years. Cannabis and sleep have been studied again since the 1970s, but cannabinoids and sleep only after 1990. Cannabis-related research has provided an excellent basis for more sophisticated research into the endocannabinoid system today (5). The results of research on cannabinoids and sleep have been obtained mainly in connection with other studies, but the relationship between cannabinoids and sleep itself has also been studied to some extent.

Research has been done in both humans and English bulldogs (6), but the results obtained with rats and other rodents help us better understand the effect of cannabinoids on sleep. The sleep of rodents is very similar to that of humans and samples and information can be collected from them at all stages of the sleep cycle (6). A study of sleep apnea in rats found that cannabinoids play an important role in achieving autonomic balance during sleep. Rats were given two cannabinoids (THC and Oleamide) and serotonin, all simultaneously and separately. These cannabinoids were also found to have an effect on the development and treatment of sleep apnea (5).

It is possible that studies with both different CBD products and THC preparations will give a placebo effect on the results due to the awareness of the medicinal effects of cannabis. Nevertheless, several studies have shown that CBD products in particular, when found in the right dose size, are highly effective, well tolerated, and safe. Studies have not shown any bad side effects and as a general rule, those treated have found CBD products pleasant and favorite to use!

 

Summary and concluding remarks

 

There has been so little research on the endocannabinoid system, cannabinoids and sleep that it is not yet possible to say for sure how it will affect the treatment and symptoms of insomnia, but what is certain is that it is of great importance. The results are contradicted by the fact that there are more than 100 different cannabinoids and that the individual effect of all of these is not yet known. Most studies focus mainly on THC and CBD cannabinoids and the effect of these on us is very different. However, it is undeniable that the endocannabinoid system plays a very important role in sleep and sleep quality through many different functions. A more holistic understanding of it would make a significant contribution to the treatment of many diseases and open up more to the subtle functioning of the human body. Experiences in human use and research findings on the positive effects of CBD on sleep are a gratifying perspective on the ever-increasing variety of insomnia symptoms.

 

Source list:

 

  1. Current care recommendation. Published 6/26/2020 https://www.kaypahoito.fi/hoi50067 Referred to 31.3.2021
  2. Russo, E. 2015. Introduction to the Endocannabinoid System. PHYTECS. https://www.phytecs.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Russo-Introduction-to-the-Endocannabinoid-System-corr-January-2015.pdf Referenced on March 31, 2021
  3. Kesner AJ & Lovinger DM 2020. Cannabinoids, endocannabinoids and sleep https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnmol.2020.00125/full Referenced on March 31, 2021
  4. Murillo-Rodriguez E. 2008. The role of the CB1 receptor in the regulation of sleep https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18514375/ Referenced 5.4.2021
  5. Babson KA & Sottile J. & Morabito D. 2017. Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and Sleep: a Review of the Literature https://www.med.upenn.edu/cbti/assets/user-content/documents/s11920-017-0775-9.pdf Referenced 5.4.2021
  6. Carley DW & Paviovic S. & others. 2002. Functional role for cannabinoids in respiratory stability during sleep https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12071539/ Referenced 31.3.2021
  7. Murillo-Rodriguez & others. 2014. Potential effects of cannabidiol as a wake-promoting agent https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4023456/ Referenced 31.3.2021
  8. Shannon S. & others. 2019. Cannabidiol in anxiety and sleep: a large case series https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30624194/ Referenced 31.3.2021
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