Diabetes and CBD

Diabetes and CBD

Finland has the highest incidence of childhood diabetes in the world. In this article, we will get to know the topic of diabetes, the factors influencing its development, the endocannabinoid system behind diabetes and whether CBD oil could be helpful in managing symptoms.

 

What is diabetes?

 

Diabetes is classified as a group of metabolic diseases that involve pancreatic dysfunction and long-term elevated blood sugar. It is the seventh most common cause of death and is estimated to affect less than 10% of the entire world’s population. Type 2 diabetes in particular is rapidly becoming more common. Diabetes occurs in people of all ages, and its onset is not solely due to hereditary factors. (1,2)

Diabetes is a disease affecting the production and reception of insulin produced by the pancreas, and its different forms are numerous. The most common of them are type 1 and 2 diabetes and LADA diabetes.

 

Type 1 diabetes

 

Type 1 diabetes is a disorder of insulin production in the pancreas, where the pancreas eventually stops producing insulin completely. There is an autoimmune inflammation of the insulin-producing beta cells, which prevents the cells from functioning and eventually destroys them. Insulin replacement therapy is required for treatment. Usually, when type 1 diabetes is diagnosed, diabetes has already been present for months or years and less than one fifth of insulin-producing cells remain. (1,2)

 

Type 2 diabetes

 

Type 2 diabetes is largely a quality of life disease and its background is almost always overweight and unhealthy lifestyles. It is significantly more common than type 1 diabetes, as 75-80% of all people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes. (1,2)

In people with type 2 diabetes, the effect of insulin on its own receptors has been preserved, but numerous problems have been observed in intracellular signaling (3).

Years before the rise in blood sugar, the body has a condition called insulin resistance, which can be seen e.g. as waist obesity, fatty liver, high blood pressure and lowering of good cholesterol (1,2).

 

LADA diabetes

 

LADA-diabetes (Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults) is a sort of intermediate between the two above-mentioned types of diabetes. As the name suggests, it only breaks out in adulthood, approx. 40-60 years old, and is also an autoimmune inflammation occurring in the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas. In general, LADA is interpreted as slowly developing type 1 diabetes, and its symptoms can be easily controlled with a healthy lifestyle. (1,2)

 

Gestational diabetes

 

Gestational diabetes means elevated blood sugar for the first time during pregnancy. It is determined with a sugar stress test and monitoring continues at home by measuring blood sugar. Elevated blood sugars are e.g. in the background of preeclampsia.

Gestational diabetes is caused by an increased amount of fat and hormones to which insulin production does not respond sufficiently. (4)

 

The symptoms of diabetes are listed in the picture.

The most common symptoms of diabetes are increased thirst, fatigue, exhaustion, hunger and the need to urinate.

 

Symptoms of diabetes

 

The first symptoms of diabetes are quite clear, but not unequivocal because they can also be caused by other reasons. Weight loss, increased need to urinate, constant thirst and dehydration are typical initial symptoms, which are stronger in type 1 diabetes. Based on these, blood sugar is measured, and if it is over 11/mmol, further tests are started. (1,2)

Type 1 diabetes can be fatal if left untreated. Hypoglycemia is a condition related to low blood sugar that can also lead to death. Hypoglycemia is the result of too much insulin, which lowers blood sugar to a dangerous level. Low blood sugar is caused by eating too little, alcohol, exercise and too much injected insulin, also in relation to exercise, amount of food and alcohol. (5)

 

Insulin resistance

 

Insulin resistance refers to any abnormal response to insulin in its target tissues (4). It is also called metabolic syndrome and is the basis of obesity, fatty liver and cardiovascular health in addition to type 2 diabetes. (3)

The body uses insulin e.g. to transfer sugar (glucose) from the blood to the cells. In order for the sugar to move, the body uses more insulin and it temporarily raises blood insulin levels. In insulin resistance, the cells that produce insulin can no longer meet the increased need for insulin, which is caused by the reduced ability to absorb insulin caused by the accumulated fat around the organs. (6)

 

Diabetes and the equipment and medicines intended for its treatment.

Diabetes is often treated with medication, but the importance of a suitable diet also plays an important role in keeping its symptoms under better control.

 

Diabetes treatment and medicines

 

Diabetes is treated with both drugs and diet, which is actually the basis of all treatment. Type 1 diabetes requires insulin replacement therapy, i.e. a synthetic equivalent to the insulin produced by the pancreas, but diet is an important part of successful treatment. Special attention is paid to the diet of people with type 1 diabetes and the aim is to use carbohydrates to reduce it in such a way that blood sugar remains as even as possible throughout the day and weight control is easy. (1,2) The diet of type 1 diabetics must be planned together with their medical staff!

Type 2 diabetes is also treated with medication, but it can largely be prevented and treated by following a healthy lifestyle. At the latest at the point when the first symptoms of insulin resistance start to appear, it should be necessary to make changes to at least your eating habits. The food should provide a sufficient amount of nutrients in relation to the amount of food eaten and the use of bad fats, additives and industrial sugar should be as minimal as possible.

Type 2 diabetes and also gestational diabetes can be prevented and treated by eating food that does not raise blood sugar unnecessarily. Empty carbohydrates such as pasta and rice raise blood sugar and it would be good to replace part of their amount with vegetables. You should eliminate all unnecessary sugars, hidden fats, processed products and additives from your diet and eat plenty of vegetables, fruits and berries. Appropriate quality meat and, if desired, a reasonable amount of eggs. Clean food made from raw ingredients, adequate exercise and good quality clean water.

 

Diabetes and feet

 

Foot-related side effects of diabetes account for more hospital days than all other symptoms of diabetes combined. Foot challenges are usually basically caused by pain caused by the nervous system and reduced blood circulation. Even small wounds can become badly inflamed and in the worst case even lead to limb amputation.

Foot care and prevention of problems is important for diabetics. Good shoes, careful treatment of all kinds of wounds, good hygiene and good physical condition of the feet are small but important ways to prevent bigger problems.

Foot cream containing CBD stimulates blood circulation, soothes the skin, relaxes the feet and reduces swelling.

Endocannabinoid system underlying diabetes

 

The endocannabinoid system balances the functioning of the entire body and is e.g. in the background of vital functions affecting body weight regulation, insulin resistance, fat metabolism and appetite. The situation is therefore a little complicated, because it is also a system that takes care of life in the long term and thus knows how to take full advantage of abundant times. In other words, when food is readily available, the endocannabinoid system begins to direct the mind and body in the direction that fat is stored and energy accumulates in abundance…

Referring to the above, several studies support the theory that an overactive endocannabinoid system is the underlying cause of type 2 diabetes in particular.

As a result, the body stores more energy, fat and glucose metabolism weakens, and the effects that promote cell death also increase in the beta cells of the pancreas. (7,8)

The CB1 receptor is part of the endocannabinoid system a receptor that occurs mainly in the central nervous system, but also e.g. in the spleen, lymphocytes and reproductive system. They include e.g. in the reward system, metabolic systems and fatty acid synthesis and with these also the background of diabetes. (8)

 

Symptoms related to diabetes can be eased with the help of CBD oil. The picture shows CBD oil drops.

According to research and user experience, CBD can be of considerable help in the common symptoms of diabetes, such as weight control, improving appetite and treating wounds. CBD also has a positive effect on the well-being of blood vessels.

 

CBD and diabetes treatment

 

According to animal and human studies, CBD has been found to have many therapeutic effects in the treatment of diabetes. Vasodilatation, i.e. the expansion of blood vessels, is possible when CBD activates the CB2 receptor and the serotonin receptor (5-HT1A). CBD has been found to affect diabetic neuropathy, i.e. damage to nerve function. CBD also seems to heal wounds that occur in the thin cell membrane and nerve cells of the inner wall of the intestine. In addition, CBD counteracts the nitration of tyrosine, which is involved in the accumulation of glutamate and the death of neurons. (9)

CBD is a naturally occurring cannabinoid in hemp, which has been studied to have properties that have a positive effect on health. CBD is e.g. anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and tissue-protecting cannabinoid. In addition to the aforementioned properties, CBD has been found to e.g. improving mitochondrial function and could have a significant benefit in treating and preventing complications caused by diabetes. (8)

CBD cannot directly affect insulin production, but according to studies and user experiences, it can be useful for general symptoms such as weight control, appetite and wound treatment. CBD also has a positive effect on vascular health.

Cosmetics containing CBD can help with foot challenges such as nerve pain, skin condition and peripheral blood circulation improvement. A foot cream that contains CBD can be a product worth trying also as a preventive treatment.

 

Summary

 

Type 2 diabetes is becoming more and more common among younger people, and since it is largely a disease caused by lifestyle, prevention and treatment is quite possible and not at all difficult. Changing lifestyles requires persistence, but it’s not rocket science. CBD can be a good help, especially for the side symptoms of diabetes such as challenges related to the feet, but more research is still needed on how CBD affects diabetes overall and the factors behind it.

 

Sources

  1. Pirjo Ilanne-Parikka. 2021. Duodecim Health Library. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk00011. Referred on 30/08/2022
  2. Diabetes. Diabetes Association. https://www.diabetes.fi/diabetes. Referred on 30/08/2022
  3. Mäkinen S., Skrobuk P., Nguyen T. and Koistinen H.. 2013. Duodecim periodical book. Mechanisms of insulin resistance. https://www.duodecimlehti.fi/duo11275. Referred on 30/08/2022
  4. Diabetes Association. Diabetes.fi. Gestational diabetes. https://www.diabetes.fi/diabetes/raskausdiabetes. Referred on 30/08/2022
  5. Mustajoki P.. 2022. Doctor’s book Duodecim. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk00886. Referred on 30/08/2022
  6. Diabetes Association. Diabetes.fi. Metabolic syndrome. https://www.diabetes.fi/diabetes/tyypin_2_diabetes/metabolinen_oireyhtyma_mbo. Referred on 30/08/2022.
  7. Frisher M., White S., Varbiro G., Voisey C., Perumal D., Crome I., Khideja N. and Basford J.. 2010. The British journal of diabetes and vascular disease. The role of cannabis and cannabinoids in diabetes. https://bpspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/bph.13226. Referred on 30/08/2022.
  8. Gruden G., Barutta F., Kunos G., and Pacher P.. 2016. Role of the endocannabinoid system in diabetes and diabetic complications . https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4941127/. Referred on 30/08/2022.
  9. Atalay S., Jarocka-Karpowicz and Skrzydlewska E.. 2019. Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Cannabidiol. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7023045/#B25-antioxidants-09-00021 . Referred on 8/10/2022
Anti-inflammatory CBD

Anti-inflammatory CBD

One of the most well-known and researched properties of CBD is the reduction of inflammation. The body’s inflammatory reaction is very common and occurs with every small wound, but sometimes it contributes to the emergence of diseases! In this article, we will learn about different types of inflammation, the endocannabinoid system behind inflammation, and how CBD can reduce inflammation in the body.

 

What is inflammation?

 

Inflammation is the body’s natural reaction against an external pathogen, which originates from messages from the tissue level about dangerous situations. Activated immune cells produce both anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory mediators and this is regulated endocannabinoid system (1). The purpose is that the inflammatory reaction would only be a quick transient situation where the pathogen is eliminated, because if it continues for a longer time it causes damage to the tissues. (2)

There are huge numbers of cells in the human body that control the functioning of the body through messages through the nervous system, and inflammation alone is caused by dozens of different messengers and enzymes. CBD has been found to affect several different inflammatory pathways, while often drugs, for example aspirin, only affect one pathway (1).

 

What causes inflammation?

 

There are different types of inflammation and they can be caused by many different reasons. Next, we will go through slightly different types of inflammation.

Wound inflammation

 

The mechanism behind all inflammations is the same. A microbe enters the body, which causes a natural reaction. However, an inflamed wound is not the same as the inflammatory reaction associated with normal wound healing, which is essential for healing. If dirt remains or gets into the wound, or if it does not heal properly for one reason or another, the body starts to form an inflammation as a reaction, which may spread widely if left untreated. (3)

 

Local inflammations

 

Viruses and bacteria sometimes cause local inflammation, which is usually acute and sometimes resolves on its own. For example, in bronchitis, a bacterium causes inflammation of the mucous membranes of the bronchi and larynx, onychomycosis is caused by bacteria that got under the nail, and tendonitis is caused by stress.

Chronic inflammation in the elbow that CBD can relieve.

According to research, CBD can effectively reduce chronic or low-grade inflammation.

 

Low-grade or chronic inflammation

Low-grade inflammation in the body is also called chronic or silent inflammation and is mainly caused by bad lifestyles and lack of exercise. It is not an actual disease in itself, but a state of the body in which inflammatory mediators are secreted more than necessary. (4)

The background of chronic diseases is often elevated inflammatory markers and inflammatory mediators, and inflammation is the background of many long-term illnesses. These diseases and The effect of CBD on them has been extensively studied with positive results.

CBD and also other cannabinoids available from hemp have been found to have therapeutic effects on many inflammatory diseases (5). Such are e.g. psoriasis, MS and rheumatoid arthritis . Inflammatory intestinal diseases such as Crohn’s disease may also be relieved with the help of CBD. Today, it is known that inflammation also plays a role in the background of depression .

 

Symptoms of inflammation

 

Symptoms of wound inflammation include pain at the wound site, spreading redness and often suppuration of the wound. The inflammation may also raise the fever. An untreated inflamed wound can cause blood poisoning and, in the worst case, even amputation of a limb. (3)

Low-grade inflammation in the body causes both diseases and milder symptoms. This condition is often called silent inflammation because it does not cause the same visible and palpable symptoms as, say, an inflammation of a wound. Silent inflammation develops slowly and can exist for years before symptoms actually appear. Often mysterious skin problems, overweight, allergic symptoms without allergies, elevated cholesterol and blood pressure values give indications that there may be low-grade inflammation in the body. (4,6)

Local inflammations are associated with symptoms of inflammation that are very different depending on where the inflammation is located. Appendicitis is felt in the stomach, urethritis when urinating and tooth infection in the jaws. Many infections heal on their own, but if the symptoms continue for a long time, become intense or cause unbearable pain, you should find out with your doctor whether acute treatment is needed.

 

Symptoms of arthritis in the hands.

Slow-developing silent inflammation develops slowly and can exist for years before its symptoms begin to appear. Several skin problems, overweight, allergic symptoms, elevated cholesterol and blood pressure values point to low-grade inflammation.

 

The most common infections

 

Inflammation is a very common reaction and is also associated with many acute underlying diseases and viral infections. The most common ones are e.g. ear infection, kidney basin, gall bladder, inflammation, eyelid, tear duct and cornea infections, appendicitis, small intestine and colon infections. Common infections such as root canal and gingivitis also occur in the mouth.

 

Treatment of inflammation

 

Inflammations are treated in different ways, depending on what kind and where it is. Often the infections will heal on their own, but sometimes natural treatments or medicines are needed.

It is important to clean the wounds properly and protect them from dirt until they heal. A wound also needs oxygen to heal, so it is not good to cover the wound at least constantly, but to give it air when changing the bandages. In the treatment of a wound, pitch ointment has been found to be very good, as well as various herbal patches such as the leaf of the gardenia plant can speed up the healing of the wound. (3,7).

Depending on the inflammation, local inflammation can be treated with either home remedies or antibiotics. It is always good to treat a serious infection with a doctor, but mild and incipient infections may be treated, for example, with the help of various herbs and plants such as rosemary, elderberry and sage. Various infections are also treated successfully with homeopathy.

 

Medicines that reduce inflammation

 

Medicines that reduce inflammation can be found in both antibiotics and over-the-counter medicines at the pharmacy. Many common painkillers are also anti-inflammatory and reduce fever, while they affect the sensation of pain. Such drugs include e.g. Burana, Ibuxin and Aspirin. Medicines available without a prescription should not be used to treat the inflammation for more than a few days, especially if the symptoms continue to be severe. If necessary, the inflammation should be medicated and treated with the help of a doctor.

 

Diet and lifestyle changes

 

When the body is in good shape and the body feels good, even wounds heal faster and cleaner. Although correcting lifestyles contributes to the healing of chronic inflammation while also preventing it, the change in life has a positive effect on the entire immunity and thus also on susceptibility to illness.

Inflammation can also be alleviated with the help of diet. Foods that reduce inflammation include e.g. various berries (blueberries, strawberries, raspberries), fatty fish (salmon, herring), ginger, turmeric, dark chocolate, broccoli, avocado, green tea, chilies, peppers, grapes, olive oil, and many herbs.

 

Endocannabinoid system underlying inflammation

 

The endocannabinoid system is a body balancer system found in all mammals that monitors all body functions. In the event of an accident, the endocannabinoid system is the one that sends the necessary cells to the wound and points out that the wound has now been healed enough. It doesn’t actually do anything by itself, but is in the background monitoring and regulating various body functions so that the healing is as optimal, effective and fast as possible.

The endocannabinoid system is involved both in the creation of inflammation, but also in its prevention. Its functions as an anti-inflammatory are related to preventing cytokine production, preventing cell proliferation and regulating cell death. The endocannabinoid system regulates the inflammatory response by preventing excessive activation, proliferation and migration of immune cells in the body, and by activating the death of immune cells. Endocannabinoids regulate the inflammatory response at both the innate and adaptive immune levels. (1)

Endogenous cannabinoids, or endocannabinoids, prevent the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increase the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines throughout the inflammatory response. (8,9)

 

Anti-inflammatory CBD

 

Chinese doctors have already said thousands of years ago that hemp eliminates rheumatism. One way or another, different cannabinoids have been found to have anti-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory effects. Also with other cannabinoids such as for example CBG (cannabigerol) has been found to have both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.

CBDhas been studied extensively specifically in relation to inflammatory diseases. It does not actually affect our body through the endocannabinoid system’s own receptors CB1 and CB2, but through other receptors such as serotonin receptors. Inflammation involves the cooperation of CBD and the GRP55 receptor, as well as the interaction between the TRPV receptor and CBD. (1,8,9)

The antioxidant effects are related to CBD’s free radical blocking and transforming effects. CBD breaks their chain reactions, captures them and converts them into less active forms. (8)

CBD also supports the activity of antioxidant enzymes by preventing the reduction of trace element concentrations. CBD has been found to be an even stronger antioxidant than vitamins A and C. (8)

 

CBD oil bottles to treat inflammation.

CBD has been found e.g. reducing the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, preventing the proliferation of inflammation-related cells and promoting their death.

 

Does CBD oil help with inflammation?

 

In the case of inflammations, dosage probably plays a big role in terms of success, and inflammations are often treated with quite large doses.

The action of CBD oil in the body supports the activity of the endocannabinoid system and has been found to increase the endocannabinoid anandamide levels, which in turn affects cannabinoid signaling. This is also why CBD oil promotes anti-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects. (1,8)

Studies have shown that CBD oil reduces the levels of cytokines that promote inflammation, prevents the proliferation of cells associated with inflammation, promotes their death, and reduces the movement and activity of immune cells. (9)

 

in summary

 

Inflammation is a necessary and completely natural reaction, but sometimes inflammation can even cause long-term illnesses. It is possible to treat inflammations with gentle home remedies, but they are also treated with, for example, antibiotics and homeopathy.

CBD oil and CBD have been extensively studied for their anti-inflammatory properties and have been shown to have therapeutic effects. CBD oil is generally a well-tolerated and gentle form of treatment, which may be of significant help for severe inflammatory diseases such as MS and arthritis.

 

Sources

 

  1. Chouinard F., Flamand N., Lefebvre JS and Turcotte C.. 2015. Journal of Leukocyte Biology . Regulation of inflammation by cannabinoids, the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol, arachidonoyl-ethanolamide and their metabolites. https://jlb.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1189/jlb.3RU0115-021R. Referred on 8/10/2022.
  2. Hänninen A.. 2011. Period book Duodecim. Immunological regulation of the acute inflammatory response. https://www.duodecimlehti.fi/duo99721. Referred on 8/10/2022.
  3. Acute wound inflammation. Health village. https://www.terveyskyla.fi/haavatalo/tietoa-haavoista/akuutit-haavat/akuutin-haavan-paranemista-hidastavat-syyt/akuutin-haavan-tulehdus. Referenced 1/10/2022
  4. Uusitupa M. and Schwab U.. 2014. Period book Duodecim. Diet and mild inflammation. https://www.duodecimlehti.fi/duo11787. Referred on 8/10/2022.
  5. Henshaw FR, Dewsbury LS, K.Lim C, and Steiner GZ. The Effects of Cannabinoids on Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines: A Systematic Review of In Vivo Studies. 2021. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8266561/. Referred on 8/10/2022.
  6. Low-grade inflammation can underlie many diseases. Zip. https://www.puhti.fi/tietopaketit/matala-asteinen-tulehdus/. Referred on 8/10/2022.
  7. Lohi J., Jokinen JJ, Sipponen A., Mäki-Paakkanen J., Peltola R., Rautio M., Laakso T., Saranpää P., Papp A. and Sipponen P.. 2008. Period book Duodecim. Effects of spruce resin ointment on wound healing. https://www.duodecimlehti.fi/duo97315. Referred on 8/10/2022.
  8. Atalay S., Jarocka-Karpowicz and Skrzydlewska E.. 2019. Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Cannabidiol. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7023045/#B25-antioxidants-09-00021. Referred on 8/10/2022
  9. Lorena C ., Robaina C., Keir-Rudmana S., Hornimanb N. and Clarkson C.. 2021. The anti-inflammatory effects of cannabidiol and cannabigerol alone, and in combination. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1094553921000596. Referenced 1/10/2022
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