ADHD and CBD

ADHD and CBD

ADHD is a neurological disorder that causes hyperactivity, especially among children. It becomes common rapidly, and the symptoms do not necessarily subside even in adulthood. In this article, we find out what ADHD is and whether CBD oil could be helpful in alleviating the symptoms.

 

What is ADHD?

 

ADHD is short for attention deficit disorder. Today, almost every tenth child suffers from it. In adults, ADHD occurs in just under five percent, being more common in men and boys compared to the female population. Childhood ADHD sometimes calms down by adulthood, but approx. 70% have some level of symptoms throughout life. (1)

The background of ADHD is a disturbance in the development of the neural networks that regulate the brain’s attention and alertness. It is a partly hereditary syndrome, the origin of which is affected by certain genes, but its onset is not dependent on them (1). It has also been noticed that there is some degree of disturbance in dopamine production.

Although diet is hardly the sole cause of the onset of ADHD, deficiencies of certain nutrients have been observed in diagnosed children. Zinc, iron, magnesium and vitamin B6 deficiencies and an imbalance in omega fatty acids are typical. (2,3)

The Huminiqum product is a well-researched, high-quality and well-absorbed supplement that, in addition to its versatile vitamin content, contains fulvic and humic acids. You can familiarize yourself with the product and more detailed nutrient content better from here .

 

Symptoms of ADHD

 

The symptoms of ADHD are related to attention, concentration and vivacity. Some find it difficult to focus on lessons, storybooks or games, others do not learn things such as reading, and others have challenges related to an impulsive way of reacting to things. The symptoms can be really strong and really make life difficult for the sufferer. Often there are few of these symptoms in each area and sometimes only some of them occur. The spectrum of symptoms is wide and each ADHD patient is an individual entity. (1)

The child’s challenges often appear in kindergarten or at the latest in school, where one should remain quietly during the lesson, listen to instructions and still act according to them. Non-existent ability to concentrate can be seen in school grades and in the behavior of a restless troublemaker in lessons.

In adults, ADHD manifests as inner restlessness, perhaps a challenge in memory, concentration and planning, not so much as hyperactivity and behavioral disorders as in children. Maarit Virta and Anita Salakari have written a survival guide for adults with ADHD, which according to readers is a useful guide for adults suffering from ADHD symptoms!

 

Side effects

 

In addition to the typical symptoms of ADHD, both adults and children have side symptoms, e.g. insomnia, anxiety and challenges in social relationships. Problematic substance use is typical for adults and young adults.

with CBD oil has researched positive effects on the most common side symptoms of ADHD. CBD’s effect on sleep challenges can read here. You can read about anxiety, depression and the effect of CBD oil on them from here. There is an article on addictions and CBD from here .

 

Making a diagnosis of ADHD with the help of tests and examinations.

ADHD diagnosis is made with the help of various tests and examinations for both adults and children.

 

ADHD test, examination and diagnosis

 

In children, ADHD studies usually start based on the observations of parents or persons involved in education, such as teachers. Adults can take an indicative ADHD test online, and apply to a doctor’s office for further examinations based on the results and symptoms. You can find an ADHD test on the Internet from here (4).

Getting a diagnosis is a lengthy process, which ensures that there are enough symptoms and that they correspond to a large enough extent to the diverse symptom picture of ADHD. Since ADHD does not show up in blood tests or any other physical measure, making a diagnosis is based on various behavioral tests, tasks and conversations with a health history in mind. (1)

 

ADHD treatment and medications

 

According to Valvira, children’s ADHD is always treated non-medically first, and adults are also tried to be helped outside of medicine. The drugs used to treat ADHD are really strong and often cause strong side effects, and therefore they are mainly used to control the most difficult symptoms. (5) ADHD cannot be cured by drugs, but natural treatments such as diet, CBD oil and occupational therapy together, or without drugs, can get the symptoms well under control.

ADHD is therefore also treated with diet. In the case of ADHD, functional nutritional therapy focuses on the well-being of the intestines and digestion and ensuring that the body gets all the fatty and amino acids and nutrients it needs. A healthy, vigorous body is able to heal even difficult diseases by itself, and therefore supporting general well-being for all diseases and syndromes is of primary importance!

 

The endocannabinoid system and ADHD

 

The body of all mammals is balanced by an almost identical system. The endocannabinoid system is an ingenious system that influences the background of all body functions. It controls and monitors individual events with the help of endogenous cannabinoids, i.e. endocannabinoids. These endocannabinoids, as well as exocannabinoids from outside the body, respond to different receptors in the body. This system has its own receptors, the most studied of which are CB1 and CB2, but they also respond to other receptors in the body.

The endocannabinoid system closely interacts with dopamine production, which is one factor behind ADHD (6). Dopamine affects e.g. to the reward system and the feeling of motivation, and the challenges in experiencing these feelings significantly decrease a person’s willingness to do tasks, learn new things, etc., which usually results in feelings of success and pleasure.

The endocannabinoid system also plays a significant role in stress reactions, nervous system function , learning and memory.

 

Endocannabinoids

 

Endocannabinoids are produced in the body as needed and are everywhere in the body. Endocannabinoids are special in that they can be too little in one part of the body and too much in another. In the case of ADHD, the anandamide concentration in the blood is high compared to a healthy person, but in the brain, where dopamine production takes place, there is too little anandamide (6).

Anandamide is another of the most well-known endocannabinoids and one of its functions is to release dopamine and enhance its production. The underlying cause of the dysfunction of the dopamine system is thought to be too low anandamide concentration in the brain. Certain phytocannabinoids obtained from plants such as CBD increase the production of anandamide and prevent their breakdown.

A clinical dysfunction of the endocannabinoid system, which is thought to be at the root of all diseases, can be a system disorder just like this, where the body’s internal cannabinoid concentrations are out of balance.

 

Receptors

 

CB receptors have been found in every corner of the body, but they have their own specific areas of action. The CB1 receptor is mainly found in the brain and nervous system, and thus it is also largely involved in the functions underlying ADHD.

 

Does CBD help those diagnosed with ADHD?

 

There are still many opinions on the matter without consensus. It seems that there are effects associated with cannabinoids that can make symptoms worse for some. On the other hand, CBD oil soothes and is especially effective in controlling side symptoms.

Hemp has a huge number of different active substances. More than 120 different types of cannabinoids are known, and there are more than 450 active compounds in total. The effect of hemp is based on synergy, i.e. when all the effective active ingredients of hemp are used, the benefit is more complete than using only an isolate, i.e. using one or a few isolated cannabinoids. More about joint effects, i.e. the so-called The Entourage effect can read here .

In the case of ADHD, it has been noticed that the positive effect of CBD oil on the symptoms is a result of the action of several cannabinoids. Hemp terpenes have also been found to have an effect on alleviating ADHD symptoms. CBD (cannabidiol), CBN (cannabinol) and CBG (cannabigerol) affect the production of dopamine and CBD in turn helps the production of serotonin. (6,7)

Part of CBD oil’s effectiveness in treating ADHD is related to balancing the nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for e.g. from the emergence of a stress reaction, while the parasympathetic nervous system restores the body to balance after a stress reaction. CBD balances these two nervous systems, reducing hyperactivity and sympathetic overstimulation by calming and alleviating impulsivity.

According to user experiences, CBD oil is used with good results to manage the side symptoms of ADHD, such as insomnia, substance addictions and depression.

Peanuts, which contain Biochanin A, which can help with ADHD symptoms.

Disturbances in dopamine production have been observed in ADHD patients. Getting Biochanin A flavone from food can optimize dopamine production and help with ADHD symptoms. The flavone in question is found especially in peanuts, chickpeas and soybeans.

 

Other health balancing treatment

 

Since ADHD is a neurological challenge, its symptoms can and should be alleviated with ordinary health-supporting means. Both adults and parents of ADHD children have noticed that minimizing screen time alleviates symptoms. Computer games and violent programs seem to increase problematic behavior, while exercise, staying in the forest and a good long night’s sleep improve concentration and calm a restless mind.

The diet takes care of the condition of the intestines and digestion and improves nutrient levels in the body so that the body can function as optimally as possible. Biochan’s isoflavone A is a natural FAAH inhibitor, which in turn is a molecule that breaks down the endocannabinoid anandamide. Adding this flavone to the diet may improve dopamine production by preventing the breakdown of anandamide. Biochanin A is especially found in peanuts, chickpeas, red clover and alfalfa sprouts (8).

At home, you should get rid of all harmful chemicals such as laundry detergents, detergents and cosmetics and replace them with natural, non-toxic alternatives. The substances in chemicals are harmful to both people and the environment, and their negative effects on health have been studied for a long time.

 

In summary

 

ADHD is a growing syndrome for which there is currently no cure. The symptoms continue well into adulthood, and when drug treatment is the last resort, or at least that’s what is recommended, along with drug treatment, usual health-supporting measures such as diet, outdoor activities and minimizing screen time have been recommended. More research is still needed on the use of CBD oil for ADHD symptoms, but according to the current information, CBD oil can be effective in treating at least some of the underlying causes of ADHD, such as enhancing dopamine production and balancing the nervous system.

 

Sources

 

  1. Huttunen M. and Socada L.. 2019. Duodecim health library. ADHD (activity and attention deficit disorder). https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk00353. Referred on 9/8/2022.
  2. Riikka Torniainen and Noora Holopainen. 2014. Jam. Thesis. Consideration of nutrition in the occupational therapy of children with ADHD symptoms. https://www.theseus.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/79515/Holopainen_Noora%20Torniainen_Riina.pdf;jsessionid=2F2CB6A7E31F41925E6E9A6199C34623?sequence=1. Referred on 9/8/2022
  3. https://suomenravintoterapia.fi/adhdn-paras-vaihtoehtoinen-hoito-ravitsemus/. Referred on 9/8/2022
  4. Klaus Karkia. ADHD test. http://karkia.me/adhd/. Referred on 9/8/2022
  5. Valvira. Health care. ADHD and drug prescribing. https://www.valvira.fi/terveydenhuolto/hyva-ammatinharjoittaminen/laakehoidon-erityistilanteita/adhd-ja-laakkeiden-maaraaminen. Referred on 9/8/2022
  6. Dawson D. and Persad C.. Targeting the Endocannabinoid System in the Treatment of ADHD. https://scivisionpub.com/pdfs/targeting-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-the-treatment-of-adhd-1604.pdf. Referred on 9/8/2022
  7. Hergenrather JY, Aviram J., Vyotski Y., Campisi-pinto S., Lewitus GM and Meiri D.. 2020. Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal. Cannabinoid and Terpenoid Doses are Associated with Adult ADHD Status of Medical Cannabis Patients. https://www.rmmj.org.il/userimages/1036/1/PublishFiles/1038Article.pdf. Referred on 9/8/2022
  8. Manach C. 2018. FoodComex. Biochanin A (PC001057). https://foodcomex.org/foodcomex_compounds/PC001057. Referred on 28/08/2022
Autism and CBD

Autism and CBD

Autism and the autism spectrum are associated with a number of different neurological disorders, which usually complicate the life of the sufferer. The spectrum of autism includes various factors affecting the ability to function, which can vary individually with large differences. Even perfectly healthy people are very different in many ways, and the same applies to autistic people. Everyone has their own individual traits and ways of experiencing the world.

Some of those diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder are able to live independently, while some need help to survive in everyday life throughout their lives. An autistic person’s need for help can vary, e.g. depending on life situation, age and support measures. (1)

The word spectrum refers to the variation and intensity of symptoms arising from disorders. Autism spectrum disorder is recognized much more often in men than in women. Out of the entire population in Finland, less than one percent (0.7%) of the population suffers from autism. It is not yet known exactly what causes the differences in prevalence, but it is thought to be related to biological differences between the sexes. (2)

 

Traits of autism

 

Autism affects a person’s way of experiencing and sensing the environment. Most of the time, the interaction and communication of an autistic person differs from “normal”, so to speak.

Common features for autistics are e.g. difficulties in controlling one’s own activities, difficulties in social situations (communication), a different way of interpreting and sensing situations, and sensitivity to nervous system overload and stress. However, the features vary from case to case. (1)

Autism features also include areas that can manifest as exceptional talent, such as the ability to pay attention to details and solve even difficult puzzles. In addition to them, autistic people can have excellent concentration and a clear understanding of right and wrong. (1)

 

The characteristics of the spectrum of mild autism in a child can be determined with the help of research.

Common features for autistic people are difficulties in controlling their own activities, communication difficulties, and sensitivity to nervous system overload and stress.

 

Autism spectrum disorders

 

Autism spectrum disorders (Autism Spectrum Disorders, i.e. ASD) and related brain development disorders become apparent at an early stage. The characteristics and challenges in functioning of autistic people can vary significantly.

List of autism spectrum disorders:

  • Autism
  • Asperger syndrome
  • Pervasive developmental disorder (atypical autism)
  • Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Specified (PDD-NOS)
  • Rett syndrome
  • Disintegrative developmental disorder (Heller’s disease)

 

There is not only one clear cause behind the disorders, but several biological factors influence it. Although the exact causes have not yet been identified, in any case, hereditary factors influence the prevalence of the disorder. According to current data, 65-90 percent of autism spectrum disorders are inherited. (2)

In the entire population, the autism spectrum is observed in about 1 percent of people. In developed countries, the number is higher (1.5%) and has almost doubled in 10 years. (3)

 

Asperger syndrome

 

Autism-related diagnoses have become more specific. Once thought of as a rare childhood disorder, Asperger’s syndrome is now classified as a lifelong illness. The syndrome in question was named after the Austrian pediatrician Hans Asperger and was introduced in Finland in the 1990s.

Asperger’s syndrome and autism are now classified as part of the autism spectrum disorder and those terms have been removed from the classification (ICD-11 and DSM-5). The autism spectrum is defined on a case-by-case basis from mild to severe. (3)

 

Symptoms of Autism

 

Autism-related symptoms usually appear already during early childhood, within the first three years of age. Sometimes the symptoms are only noticed in preschool or later. An autistic child usually has difficulty understanding verbal and non-verbal communication. Often, maintaining eye contact has also proven to be challenging. (2)

The symptoms related to autism are therefore especially manifested in social situations and interactions with others. The disorder may include certain repetitive behaviors and special interests that an autistic person easily becomes immersed in. Each person suffering from autism spectrum disorders has their own characteristics, and some may live very independently, while others may have a great need for help with everyday tasks. (2)

 

The most common symptoms related to autism spectrum disorder

 

  • Difficulty understanding the feelings and thinking of others
  • The challenges of starting and maintaining a conversation
  • The difficulty of working in a group
  • Difficulty accepting new situations and changes
  • Avoiding eye contact
  • Little use of sign language and facial expressions
  • Difficulty forming lasting friendships. (4)

 

It is also possible that the symptoms are not noticed until later in life, when the pressures of working life or postgraduate studies increase. Potential disorders should also be diagnosed by adults, so that work, study and the necessary measures related to rehabilitation can be planned in the necessary way and the risk of being marginalized can be prevented. (3)

 

Autism is diagnosed and tested using various tests for both children and adults.

Getting a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder is a multi-step process that is done together with the help of an expert doctor. Various tests, examinations and interviews are needed for diagnosis.

 

Autism test

 

Although the symptoms of autism spectrum disorder usually become apparent at an early stage, no specific age limit has been set for its definition. It is possible to make the diagnosis even for an adult, and for that there are tests that support the definition of autism. (5)

If you suspect an autism spectrum disorder in yourself or someone close to you, the general recommendation is to seek a doctor’s consultation and prepare for the appointment by thinking about and writing down all the observed features classified as autism spectrum that occur in everyday life. The doctor has the option of separately requesting an appointment with a neuropsychologist, where the matter can be examined in more detail with the help of various examinations. (5)

Getting an official diagnosis is a multi-step process and is usually done with the help of a doctor familiar with the subject through various examinations and interviews. In addition, the diagnosis often also requires interviewing close people, seeing a psychologist and therapist. In the studies, special attention is paid to functional ability, communication, interaction skills and interests throughout life. School certificates, birth records and other documents related to growth and development should be included to make the process easier, as comprehensive examinations to make a diagnosis often require a lot of time. (5)

 

Screening

 

There are various tests and screening tools to support the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Filling out the form can make the doctor’s work easier and speed up the diagnosis.

In the links below, you can find screening forms to support the definition of autism in children and adults.


Digital CHAT evaluation form (in Finnish)

 

Digital M-CHAT-R extended evaluation form , (in Finnish)

 

The AQ-10 screening form intended for adults may be helpful at the doctor’s office when assessing the need for additional tests to make a possible diagnosis in an adult who does not have major learning difficulties.

AQ-10 evaluation form for identifying the autism spectrum in adults

 

The ASSQ screening form, designed for parents of children, can clarify and be helpful in the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders.

ASSQ assessment form for parents

 

The GQ-ASC screening form below is designed to identify autism-related behaviors and abilities in cis and trans women.

GQ-ASC assessment form (cis and trans women)

 

An autistic child is playing on the floor. A person with an autism spectrum disorder can get help from CBD oil.

An autistic child easily drifts into playing only his own games. In the behavior of an autistic child, deficiencies are also often observed in relation to language development and making eye contact.

 

An autistic child

 

Some autistic children manage well independently, while others may need daily support. At worst, an autistic child can also significantly challenge the lives of the child’s loved ones. (1)

In addition to genetics, there are also physiological factors involved in the manifestation of autism. Upbringing has not been found to have a connection with the prevalence of autism. (1)

Autism may appear in a child very early, before the age of 1 year. In general, deficiencies are noticed in the behavior of autistic children, e.g. in eye contact, language development and the way they play with other children. The child may also have a different way of answering questions and expressing emotions. An autistic child may get irritated easily and drift off to play only his own games. The importance of familiar and repeated routines is emphasized in an autistic child. (6)

 

Autism treatment

 

Autism spectrum disorders are congenital, and no curative treatment has yet been invented.

In the revised disease classification, autism is not currently separated into separate diagnoses and e.g. Asperger’s syndrome, a mild form of autism, is now considered part of the autism spectrum disorder.

Although there is no known cure for autism spectrum disorders, its symptoms can be alleviated and individual development can be supported with, for example, occupational therapy and speech therapy. In addition, it is important for an autistic child and his parents to accept the prevailing situation and learn to live with the personality traits that are associated with it. (7)

If the symptoms significantly challenge everyday life, it is worth discussing the matter together with an expert neuropsychologist, with whom the treatment of the situation and the need for different forms of support can be planned in an appropriate way. Usually, support and rehabilitation takes place in cooperation with kindergarten, healthcare or school. (7)

The control of one’s own actions and the development of the brain continue until at least the age of 25. The symptoms related to the autism spectrum may decrease after reaching adulthood, if the child receives the necessary support along the way and participates in a rehabilitation program. In some cases, with the help of successful rehabilitation and support, the symptoms can decrease so much that the previous diagnosis no longer matches the picture of the symptoms. (7)

 

Autism spectrum treatment with CBD

 

Symptoms of the autism spectrum are currently also treated with CBD products such as CBD oil and CBD capsules. This alternative and natural form of treatment has spread worldwide in popularity, when several doctors and parents of autistic children have publicly shared their positive experiences and results related to autism treatment.

Some studies have shown that cannabinoid products reduced the number and/or intensity of symptoms associated with the autism spectrum, including hyperactivity, self-harm, sleep disturbances , feelings of anger, anxiety , irritability, restlessness , psychomotor agitation, aggression, and depression .. In addition, they observed improvement in cognition, sensory sensitivity, attention, social interaction and language. The most common side effects were sleep disturbances, restlessness, nervousness and changes in appetite. (8)

Especially for minors, the safety of using CBD should always be evaluated on a case-by-case basis together with an expert doctor.

CBD is hardly a panacea that cures the disorder completely, but for many it seems to be a significant help in everyday functioning and in alleviating the symptoms. Read more in the next paragraph about how the endocannabinoid system and autism are connected.

 

The role of the endocannabinoid system in autism

 

The vital functions of almost every animal are controlled and balanced by an internal cannabinoid system. It is absent only in insects and protozoa. Complicated endocannabinoid system consists of a network of receptors covering the entire body, which are affected by neurotransmitters. It is known to influence and regulate e.g. brain, kidney, liver and immune system function. (9)

Based on new evidence, people with autism spectrum disorder have anandamide the amount found to be lower than in a healthy control group. Anandamide is an endocannabinoid, also known as the happiness molecule, or internal cannabinoid, and based on this research result, the internal cannabinoid system and the imbalance of cannabinoids can have an effect on the manifestation of the disorder. (10)

Autism-related disorder has also been linked to the amount of oxytocin in the body. Oxytocin, also known as the love hormone, is a neuropeptide consisting of amino acids that is expressed in mammals and acts as a messenger and hormone. Oxytocin is produced in the brain’s hypothalamus, from where it passes through the pituitary gland into the bloodstream. Today it is known that oxytocin plays a significant role in e.g. in the formation and maintenance of the attachment relationship between the child and its parents. In addition to that, oxytocin is also associated with social, emotional, cognitive functions. Since the production of oxytin is also regulated by the internal cannabinoid system, you can from CBD and some others of cannabinoids be useful in connection with its normal production. (11)

Researchers think that the interaction between anandamide and oxytocin and the correction of their deficiency states related to autism could provide relief in treating the symptoms (11).

The internal cannabinoid system also seems to play an important role in relation to social interaction skills and emotions, which CBD and certain cannabinoids can activate. By affecting the receptors of this body system, it may also have an effect on alleviating the symptoms of autism.

 

THC and autism

 

Although research is still ongoing, there are indications that THC-cannabinoid may reduce internal anandamide concentrations in the body. The concentrations of anandamide are already low in people with autism, so it should be avoided the continuous use of THC. Anxiety is also a common symptom associated with autism, and THC and THCV may make it worse for some. However, the experiments were done on rats and with strong THC-containing cannabis products, so how it affects humans is not yet fully understood.

Generally, in CBD oils, the traces of THC are minimal enough to be detrimental to anandamide levels. Understanding the issue is also complicated by the fact that, according to studies, full-spectrum CBD products are prone to side effects (see entourage effect) are therefore more effective for many diseases and imbalances in the body than isolated cannabinoids (isolates). Full spectrum means that the final product also contains THC, although often only in very small amounts.

If you are considering CBD products for the treatment of an autism spectrum disorder and want products containing as little THC as possible, you should consider CBD products activated by heating, because their THC concentrations are usually significantly lower. See more about how heating works decarboxylation affects the final product.

Sources

 

  1. Autism Association. 2022. Basic information about autism. https://autismiliitto.fi/autismi/perustietoa-autismista/. Referred on 12/09/2022
  2. Health house. Autism and autism spectrum disorders. https://www.terveystalo.com/fi/tietopaketit/autimi-ja-autismikirjon-hairiot/#Mit %c3% a4 %20on% 20autismin%20kirjo . Referred on 12/09/2022
  3. Hanna Raaska & Raija Vanhala. 2020. Medical journal. Why and how do the diagnostic criteria for autism change? https://www.laakarilehti.fi/tieteessa/katsausartikkeli/miksi-ja-miten-autismin-diagnostiset-kritierit-muuutuvatt/?public=7fcf41d96a001eee7da91094299e5b86 . Referred on 08/12/2022
  4. Mielenterveystalo.fi. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD). https://www.mielenterveystalo.fi/lapset/ammattilaisille/hairiot/autismikirjon_hairiot/Pages/autisimikirjon_hairiot_ASD.aspx. Referred on 13/09/2022
  5. Autism Association. 2022. Diagnosing the autism spectrum. https://autismiliitto.fi/autismi/diagnosointi/. Referred on 13/09/2022
  6. Autism Association. 2022. Autism in different stages of life. https://autismiliitto.fi/autismi/autismikirjo-eri-elamanvaiheissa/. Referred on 09/04/2022.
  7. Pekka Räisänen & Ulla Boshkov. Autism in a child. https://www.mehilainen.fi/lasten-mehilainen/autismi-ja-autismikirjo. Referred on 13/09/2022
  8. Estácio Amaro da Silva Jr. and others 2022. Trends Psychiatry Psychother. Cannabis and cannabinoid use in Autism Spectrum disorder: a systematic review. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34043900/. Referred on 15/09/2022
  9. Ethan Russo. 2015. Phytecs. Introduction to the Endocannabinoid System . https://www.phytecs.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Russo-Introduction-to-the-Endocannabinoid-System-corr-January-2015.pdf . Referred on 14.09.2022
  10. Debra S. Karhson et al. 2018. Molecular Autism. Plasma anandamide concentrations are lower in children with autism spectrum disorder.https://molecularautism.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13229-018-0203-y. Referred on 15/09/2022
  11. Don Wei et al. 2015. Pnas. Endocannabinoid signaling mediates oxytocin-driven social reward. https://www.pnas.org/doi/full/10.1073/pnas.1509795112 . Referred on 15/09/2022
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