Anti-inflammatory CBD

Anti-inflammatory CBD

One of the most well-known and researched properties of CBD is the reduction of inflammation. The body’s inflammatory reaction is very common and occurs with every small wound, but sometimes it contributes to the emergence of diseases! In this article, we will learn about different types of inflammation, the endocannabinoid system behind inflammation, and how CBD can reduce inflammation in the body.

 

What is inflammation?

 

Inflammation is the body’s natural reaction against an external pathogen, which originates from messages from the tissue level about dangerous situations. Activated immune cells produce both anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory mediators and this is regulated endocannabinoid system (1). The purpose is that the inflammatory reaction would only be a quick transient situation where the pathogen is eliminated, because if it continues for a longer time it causes damage to the tissues. (2)

There are huge numbers of cells in the human body that control the functioning of the body through messages through the nervous system, and inflammation alone is caused by dozens of different messengers and enzymes. CBD has been found to affect several different inflammatory pathways, while often drugs, for example aspirin, only affect one pathway (1).

 

What causes inflammation?

 

There are different types of inflammation and they can be caused by many different reasons. Next, we will go through slightly different types of inflammation.

Wound inflammation

 

The mechanism behind all inflammations is the same. A microbe enters the body, which causes a natural reaction. However, an inflamed wound is not the same as the inflammatory reaction associated with normal wound healing, which is essential for healing. If dirt remains or gets into the wound, or if it does not heal properly for one reason or another, the body starts to form an inflammation as a reaction, which may spread widely if left untreated. (3)

 

Local inflammations

 

Viruses and bacteria sometimes cause local inflammation, which is usually acute and sometimes resolves on its own. For example, in bronchitis, a bacterium causes inflammation of the mucous membranes of the bronchi and larynx, onychomycosis is caused by bacteria that got under the nail, and tendonitis is caused by stress.

Chronic inflammation in the elbow that CBD can relieve.

According to research, CBD can effectively reduce chronic or low-grade inflammation.

 

Low-grade or chronic inflammation

Low-grade inflammation in the body is also called chronic or silent inflammation and is mainly caused by bad lifestyles and lack of exercise. It is not an actual disease in itself, but a state of the body in which inflammatory mediators are secreted more than necessary. (4)

The background of chronic diseases is often elevated inflammatory markers and inflammatory mediators, and inflammation is the background of many long-term illnesses. These diseases and The effect of CBD on them has been extensively studied with positive results.

CBD and also other cannabinoids available from hemp have been found to have therapeutic effects on many inflammatory diseases (5). Such are e.g. psoriasis, MS and rheumatoid arthritis . Inflammatory intestinal diseases such as Crohn’s disease may also be relieved with the help of CBD. Today, it is known that inflammation also plays a role in the background of depression .

 

Symptoms of inflammation

 

Symptoms of wound inflammation include pain at the wound site, spreading redness and often suppuration of the wound. The inflammation may also raise the fever. An untreated inflamed wound can cause blood poisoning and, in the worst case, even amputation of a limb. (3)

Low-grade inflammation in the body causes both diseases and milder symptoms. This condition is often called silent inflammation because it does not cause the same visible and palpable symptoms as, say, an inflammation of a wound. Silent inflammation develops slowly and can exist for years before symptoms actually appear. Often mysterious skin problems, overweight, allergic symptoms without allergies, elevated cholesterol and blood pressure values give indications that there may be low-grade inflammation in the body. (4,6)

Local inflammations are associated with symptoms of inflammation that are very different depending on where the inflammation is located. Appendicitis is felt in the stomach, urethritis when urinating and tooth infection in the jaws. Many infections heal on their own, but if the symptoms continue for a long time, become intense or cause unbearable pain, you should find out with your doctor whether acute treatment is needed.

 

Symptoms of arthritis in the hands.

Slow-developing silent inflammation develops slowly and can exist for years before its symptoms begin to appear. Several skin problems, overweight, allergic symptoms, elevated cholesterol and blood pressure values point to low-grade inflammation.

 

The most common infections

 

Inflammation is a very common reaction and is also associated with many acute underlying diseases and viral infections. The most common ones are e.g. ear infection, kidney basin, gall bladder, inflammation, eyelid, tear duct and cornea infections, appendicitis, small intestine and colon infections. Common infections such as root canal and gingivitis also occur in the mouth.

 

Treatment of inflammation

 

Inflammations are treated in different ways, depending on what kind and where it is. Often the infections will heal on their own, but sometimes natural treatments or medicines are needed.

It is important to clean the wounds properly and protect them from dirt until they heal. A wound also needs oxygen to heal, so it is not good to cover the wound at least constantly, but to give it air when changing the bandages. In the treatment of a wound, pitch ointment has been found to be very good, as well as various herbal patches such as the leaf of the gardenia plant can speed up the healing of the wound. (3,7).

Depending on the inflammation, local inflammation can be treated with either home remedies or antibiotics. It is always good to treat a serious infection with a doctor, but mild and incipient infections may be treated, for example, with the help of various herbs and plants such as rosemary, elderberry and sage. Various infections are also treated successfully with homeopathy.

 

Medicines that reduce inflammation

 

Medicines that reduce inflammation can be found in both antibiotics and over-the-counter medicines at the pharmacy. Many common painkillers are also anti-inflammatory and reduce fever, while they affect the sensation of pain. Such drugs include e.g. Burana, Ibuxin and Aspirin. Medicines available without a prescription should not be used to treat the inflammation for more than a few days, especially if the symptoms continue to be severe. If necessary, the inflammation should be medicated and treated with the help of a doctor.

 

Diet and lifestyle changes

 

When the body is in good shape and the body feels good, even wounds heal faster and cleaner. Although correcting lifestyles contributes to the healing of chronic inflammation while also preventing it, the change in life has a positive effect on the entire immunity and thus also on susceptibility to illness.

Inflammation can also be alleviated with the help of diet. Foods that reduce inflammation include e.g. various berries (blueberries, strawberries, raspberries), fatty fish (salmon, herring), ginger, turmeric, dark chocolate, broccoli, avocado, green tea, chilies, peppers, grapes, olive oil, and many herbs.

 

Endocannabinoid system underlying inflammation

 

The endocannabinoid system is a body balancer system found in all mammals that monitors all body functions. In the event of an accident, the endocannabinoid system is the one that sends the necessary cells to the wound and points out that the wound has now been healed enough. It doesn’t actually do anything by itself, but is in the background monitoring and regulating various body functions so that the healing is as optimal, effective and fast as possible.

The endocannabinoid system is involved both in the creation of inflammation, but also in its prevention. Its functions as an anti-inflammatory are related to preventing cytokine production, preventing cell proliferation and regulating cell death. The endocannabinoid system regulates the inflammatory response by preventing excessive activation, proliferation and migration of immune cells in the body, and by activating the death of immune cells. Endocannabinoids regulate the inflammatory response at both the innate and adaptive immune levels. (1)

Endogenous cannabinoids, or endocannabinoids, prevent the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increase the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines throughout the inflammatory response. (8,9)

 

Anti-inflammatory CBD

 

Chinese doctors have already said thousands of years ago that hemp eliminates rheumatism. One way or another, different cannabinoids have been found to have anti-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory effects. Also with other cannabinoids such as for example CBG (cannabigerol) has been found to have both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.

CBDhas been studied extensively specifically in relation to inflammatory diseases. It does not actually affect our body through the endocannabinoid system’s own receptors CB1 and CB2, but through other receptors such as serotonin receptors. Inflammation involves the cooperation of CBD and the GRP55 receptor, as well as the interaction between the TRPV receptor and CBD. (1,8,9)

The antioxidant effects are related to CBD’s free radical blocking and transforming effects. CBD breaks their chain reactions, captures them and converts them into less active forms. (8)

CBD also supports the activity of antioxidant enzymes by preventing the reduction of trace element concentrations. CBD has been found to be an even stronger antioxidant than vitamins A and C. (8)

 

CBD oil bottles to treat inflammation.

CBD has been found e.g. reducing the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, preventing the proliferation of inflammation-related cells and promoting their death.

 

Does CBD oil help with inflammation?

 

In the case of inflammations, dosage probably plays a big role in terms of success, and inflammations are often treated with quite large doses.

The action of CBD oil in the body supports the activity of the endocannabinoid system and has been found to increase the endocannabinoid anandamide levels, which in turn affects cannabinoid signaling. This is also why CBD oil promotes anti-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects. (1,8)

Studies have shown that CBD oil reduces the levels of cytokines that promote inflammation, prevents the proliferation of cells associated with inflammation, promotes their death, and reduces the movement and activity of immune cells. (9)

 

in summary

 

Inflammation is a necessary and completely natural reaction, but sometimes inflammation can even cause long-term illnesses. It is possible to treat inflammations with gentle home remedies, but they are also treated with, for example, antibiotics and homeopathy.

CBD oil and CBD have been extensively studied for their anti-inflammatory properties and have been shown to have therapeutic effects. CBD oil is generally a well-tolerated and gentle form of treatment, which may be of significant help for severe inflammatory diseases such as MS and arthritis.

 

Sources

 

  1. Chouinard F., Flamand N., Lefebvre JS and Turcotte C.. 2015. Journal of Leukocyte Biology . Regulation of inflammation by cannabinoids, the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol, arachidonoyl-ethanolamide and their metabolites. https://jlb.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1189/jlb.3RU0115-021R. Referred on 8/10/2022.
  2. Hänninen A.. 2011. Period book Duodecim. Immunological regulation of the acute inflammatory response. https://www.duodecimlehti.fi/duo99721. Referred on 8/10/2022.
  3. Acute wound inflammation. Health village. https://www.terveyskyla.fi/haavatalo/tietoa-haavoista/akuutit-haavat/akuutin-haavan-paranemista-hidastavat-syyt/akuutin-haavan-tulehdus. Referenced 1/10/2022
  4. Uusitupa M. and Schwab U.. 2014. Period book Duodecim. Diet and mild inflammation. https://www.duodecimlehti.fi/duo11787. Referred on 8/10/2022.
  5. Henshaw FR, Dewsbury LS, K.Lim C, and Steiner GZ. The Effects of Cannabinoids on Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines: A Systematic Review of In Vivo Studies. 2021. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8266561/. Referred on 8/10/2022.
  6. Low-grade inflammation can underlie many diseases. Zip. https://www.puhti.fi/tietopaketit/matala-asteinen-tulehdus/. Referred on 8/10/2022.
  7. Lohi J., Jokinen JJ, Sipponen A., Mäki-Paakkanen J., Peltola R., Rautio M., Laakso T., Saranpää P., Papp A. and Sipponen P.. 2008. Period book Duodecim. Effects of spruce resin ointment on wound healing. https://www.duodecimlehti.fi/duo97315. Referred on 8/10/2022.
  8. Atalay S., Jarocka-Karpowicz and Skrzydlewska E.. 2019. Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Cannabidiol. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7023045/#B25-antioxidants-09-00021. Referred on 8/10/2022
  9. Lorena C ., Robaina C., Keir-Rudmana S., Hornimanb N. and Clarkson C.. 2021. The anti-inflammatory effects of cannabidiol and cannabigerol alone, and in combination. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1094553921000596. Referenced 1/10/2022
CBD, Immunity and Autoimmune Diseases

CBD, Immunity and Autoimmune Diseases

Autoimmune diseases are increasing rapidly. There are more than 100 different autoimmune diseases and it is estimated that around five percent of the population has an autoimmune disease. Autoimmune diseases are often challenging to treat, and there is not always an effective medicine for them. In this article, we look at immunity, autoimmune diseases and whether CBD has an effect on them.

 

Natural immunity

 

Immunity is a natural synergistic ensemble of the body’s defense systems, which includes all defense and protection systems that protect us from various physical external harms, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites and harmful microbes. The most important function of the immune systems is to divide the elements moving in the body into own and foreign, threats and safe.

Immunity builds up strong already during childhood forest trips. It is important to be exposed to microbes as widely as possible from early childhood, because the phenomenon called the hygiene hypothesis can already be seen. The hygiene hypothesis means that people who grew up in too clean an environment are more prone to allergies and e.g. for asthma because they have not had enough contact with different microbes and pathogens so that the body could have created a strong immunity when encountering them (1).

Immune system dysfunction

 

The body has two ways to fight pathogens; lymphocytes, i.e. lymphocytes, circulate in the blood destroying pathogens, or cells specialized in fighting diseases produce antibodies circulating in the blood, which can neutralize pathogens by their action. Sometimes the functioning of the immune system can be disrupted. It can be mild, in which case the systems only work overactively, and as a result, e.g. asthma, allergies or skin symptoms such as atopic dermatitis. A more serious disorder in the immune system causes autoimmune diseases. (1,2)

 

What is an autoimmune disease?

 

The background of an autoimmune disease is always a malfunction of the immune system that causes inflammation in the body. For some reason, the body’s defense mechanisms do not work as they should, and they no longer separate pathogens from the body’s own cells and tissues. Defense and protection systems turn against the body itself as an inflammatory reaction. (2)

Autoimmune disease is caused by low immunity, an external pathogen, and in some cases also a hereditary factor. (1) According to the current understanding, there is no preventive treatment, but immunity can be strengthened by many means.

Joint pain is a common symptom of autoimmune disease.

Rheumatoid arthritis is a very common autoimmune disease in which the structures of the small joints have a continuous tissue-damaging inflammatory state. Other common autoimmune diseases include celiac disease, various allergies, asthma, psoriasis and thyroid disorders.

There is a long list of autoimmune diseases

 

More than 100 different forms of autoimmune diseases are known. All of them have in common the difficulty of being medicated and a large number of questions. Although there is a theory about how autoimmune diseases break out, their origin is still largely a mystery. The most common autoimmune diseases are thyroid dysfunction and rheumatoid arthritis. Asthma, allergies, celiac disease, chronic fatigue syndrome and psoriasis are also diseases classified as autoimmune. Rarer autoimmune diseases include e.g. adrenal gland dysfunction and myasthenia gravis causing muscle weakness. MS disease is also classified as an autoimmune disease and due to CBD oil’s effect on it, can read here.

 

Autoimmune rashes

 

Eczema and skin diseases that can be classified as autoimmune diseases include e.g. red lichen, vitiligo affecting the skin’s pigmentation and erythema multiforme with many symptoms. Many autoimmune diseases have several different symptoms. Rashes and skin symptoms are not associated with all diseases, but in some they are a significant factor. Psoriasis is a well-known skin-related disease based on immune defense. The symptoms of autoimmune diseases that appear as a rash may be relieved by CBD oil, and from that possible effect, you can read more here.

 

Endocannabinoid system behind immune defense

 

The endocannabinoid system is also part of the function of the immune response. It has an effect on the background of all body systems and, balancing, regulates the body’s immune defenses. The endocannabinoid system has been found to be present in some way in all cells of the body and their functions, including cells of the immune system. It also plays an important role in communication between these cells. (3,4,5)

Endocannabinoids activate the immune response

 

With endocannabinoids AEA (anandamide) and 2-AG (2-arachidonoylglycerol) have many important functions in the functioning of the immune system and can be considered effective immunomodulators. They e.g. both activate and inhibit immune system function and inhibit cytokines that cause inflammation. (5) Cells of the immune system have been found to have cannabinoid transport and degradation mechanisms and express both cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2).

Red blood cells and chronic inflammation due to autoimmune disease.

Autoimmune disease involves inflammation in the body, which CBD can help with. CBD has an anti-inflammatory effect.

 

The CB2 receptor prevents inflammation

 

The primary location of the CB2 receptor in the body is the organs and tissues responsible for immunity. CB2 receptors are found in the cells of the immune systems approx. 100 times more than the CB1 receptor and that makes the endocannabinoid system a significant research target in the treatment of autoimmune diseases (5). The CB2 receptor is activated in the immune system and it has been noticed e.g. as an anti-inflammatory in various diseases such as inflammatory pain and liver infections. When activated, CB2 receptors also regulate the migration of immune cells in the body and their number increases during inflammatory pain (6)

 

The well-being of the immune system

 

Strong immunity is a basic pillar of health. The good immunity acquired as a child is the basis throughout life, but it can also be strengthened in adulthood. Immunity can be weakened, for example, due to stress, antibiotic courses or chronic illness. Also smoking, heavy alcohol use, lack of vitamins, etc. decrease the body’s ability to resist external pathogens. It is known that in addition to a healthy lifestyle, the immune response is also positively affected by the well-being of the mind.

Twice Nobel laureate Dr. Linus Pauling has said:

“You can trace every sickness, every disease, and every ailment to a mineral deficiency.”

A lack of micronutrients can weaken the normal function and effect of enzymes and vitamins in the body. A lack of vitamins can be avoided with well-absorbed supplements such as capsules containing humic and fulvic acid, which promote the normal functioning of the immune system (vitamin C, iron, copper and selenium). Humic substances enhance the absorption of minerals and thus help increase energy production and support immunity. You can order humus capsules from Hamppumaa’s online store.

 

CBD oil for autoimmune diseases

 

People with autoimmune diseases often use immunosuppressive treatments, i.e. treatments that lower immunity, because the immune system is overactive and needs to be calmed down.

CBD has been found in studies to be both immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory. These properties are significant when considering the treatment of autoimmune diseases, as CBD can both slow down and stop an overactive immune system.

All autoimmune diseases differ from each other, which means that the guilty cells are also individual in each form of the disease. The contribution of endocannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system to immunity and autoimmune diseases is so significant that one could develop their own cannabinoid preparations for the diseases according to the purpose. While waiting for them, CBD oil might be of great help.

 

CBD oil dropper bottle and hemp plant in the background.

CBD has significant properties for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. CBD can slow down an overactive immune system.

 

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CBG (cannabigerol)

CBG or cannabigerol is a phytocannabinoid that has an anti-inflammatory or inflammation-reducing effect. It affects the function of immune cells and their neurotransmitters. CBG also acts as an anandamide reuptake inhibitor. (6).

 

Effect of terpenes

Terpenes are one of the less talked compounds in hemp. Terpenes are part of the therapeutic effect of hemp and they are involved in full-spectrum CBD oil. Carophyllenes have been found e.g. antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. 46D-limonene can be anti-inflammatory and Gamma-terpinene has an effect on cytokine activity. (6)

 

In summary

Autoimmune diseases are common, but despite all the research, still largely unknown. It is very possible that in the future, effective specific drugs from cannabinoids will be developed for autoimmune diseases.

 

Sources

 

  1. Anttila V-J.. 2021. Duodecim. Elimistön Vastustuskyky. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk01150. Referred to 5.6.2022.
  2. Mustajoki P.. 2018. Duodecim. Autoimmuunisairaudet. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk00010. Referred to 5.6.2022
  3. Nichols J. ja Kaplan B.. Immune responses regulated by cannabidiol. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=Kaplan%20BL%5BAuthor%5D. Referred to 5.6.2022.
  4. Almogi-Hazan O., Reuven O.. Cannabis, the endocannabinoidsystem and immunity – the journey from the Bedside to the bench and back. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7352399/. Referred to 5.6.2022.
  5. Pandey R., Mousawy K., Nagarkatti M., Nagarkatti P.. 2009. Endocannabinoids and immune regulation. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3044336/. Referred to 5.6.2022.
  6. Giorgi V., Marotto D., Batticciotto A., Atzeni F., Bongiovanni S., Sarzi-Puttini P.. 2021. Cannabis and autoimmunity : Possible mechanisms of action. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8313508/. Referred to 5.6.2022