Hemp

Hemp

Hemp, or Cannabis sativa L. is one of the world’s oldest crops and also one of the first three crops in Finland, along with buckwheat and barley (1). Hemp is classified along with hops in the Cannabaceae, a family of hemp plants.

Hemp has been used as a medicinal plant and food for thousands of years. In addition to them, hemp has once become known as an important raw material, e.g. in the manufacture of textiles, ropes, paper, insulation and lamp oil. Today, hemp is used to make thousands of different products, from food to cosmetics and biocomposites etc. Until the 20th century, 75-95% of the world’s paper was made from hemp. Hemp produces excellent pulp and paper, which could still replace a much slower-growing forest today. (2)

 

Hemp in Finland

 

Hemp has been cultivated in Finland for thousands of years. The first signs of hemp cultivation in Finland date back to 4800 BC. The tradition has probably spread to Finland from China together with the skill of making buckwheat and earthenware. Hemp grows very well in the Finnish climate, as Finland’s dry spring, bright summer and suitable soil types promote hemp growth. (3)

In the past, most Finnish farms had their own field plot reserved for hemp. Hemp had such a significant value that during its heyday, e.g. In Häme and Savo, as much as a third of the field was hemp. Hemp was used as food and its fiber was used to make everyday commodities. Hemp seeds have also been used to make porridge in Finland. The seeds have been roasted and made into tahini-like paste and roasted rye or buckwheat flour has been added to the mixture.

The fact that according to the National Land Survey of Finland there are more than 100 places in Finland called hamppulampi (Hemp Pond) also says something about the prevalence of hemp. Hemp has been soaked in water bodies to facilitate fiber handling, and the names Likolampi and Liinalampi also refer to the historical use of hemp (and flax) in the area. (4)

Fiber hemp or cannabis sativa.

Industrial hemp, fiber hemp and oil hemp are all the same species of Cannabis sativa.

 

Industrial hemp, oil hemp or just hemp?

 

Especially in Finnish, terms referring to hemp can sometimes cause confusion. How are hemps different? The simple answer is that there are no differences and they all mean the same plant. There is only one term for hemp in Estonia and it is “kanep”, regardless of whether it is hemp or cannabis.

When we talk about hemp in general, it often means fiber hemp or so-called oil hemp, both of which are of the same species as Cannabis sativa. Fast-growing fiber hemp is grown for its fiber and lower-growing oil hemp for seed production. Oil hemp (Finola) blooms faster and its seeds have time to ripen even in the short summer in Finland.

Cannabis sativa is also used in industry as industrial hemp. The name is descriptive, as hemp can be used to make things like plastic, concrete, clothing, food, medicine, biocomposite, ropes, fabrics and more. Hemp is also an excellent soil improvement plant that cleanses the soil and sequesters carbon dioxide many times over the forest. The benefits of hemp are therefore incomparable and it is probably the most versatile plant of all that exists.

In fiber and oil hemp varieties, the intoxicating ingredient of hemp or THC(tetrahydrocannabinol) is very low or almost non-existent. Usually less than 0,2 %. With such a low THC content, the plant cannot be used for intoxication purposes. In contrast, these industrial Cannabis sativa plants often contain well over other cannabinoids such as CBD. CBD causes the opposite reaction to THC.

Cannabis is also hemp, although the intoxicating properties of hemp are strongly associated with the word cannabis. Cannabis indica, which is also used as a medicinal cannabis, can contain several tens of percent THC, which has strong intoxicating effects.

 

Hemp strains

 

Hemp is one of the most successful plants, as it thrives in a wide variety of climates and conditions. Different varieties of hemp are the most processed of all the world’s plants. Thousands of strains with unique characteristics can be found on internet sites listing hemp varieties. The different strains differ from each other e.g. growth pattern, size, effects, cannabinoid profile, odor, taste and color.

Strains are constantly being crossed at an accelerating rate. You can read more detailed information about the different varieties on the websites listing hemp strains.

 

Hemp species

 

Hemp is divided into three different subspecies: Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica and Cannabis ruderalis. When different hemp species are crossed, a so-called hybrid strains. Based on the appearance of hybrid varieties, it is difficult to deduce the characteristics and effects of the plant, as they can vary significantly. Indeed, the species of Cannabis indica, which grows low and has wide leaves, may have the exact opposite effect when crossed, as is generally the case in terms of growth and appearance.

 

Cannabis sativa

 

Cannabis sativa, which grows as an annual, long and thin-leaved, ripens slowly and has a much longer growing season than Cannabis indica. It likes heat and needs a lot of light. Sativa has been widely cultivated in the equator and grows to an average height of 3 meters, but at its best the species can grow up to 7 meters. It can take up to 3-4 months for the inflorescence to mature and the flowers are, on average, considerably smaller and less dense than in the indica species. Sativa is lighter in color than Indica and has an energizing effect. Cultivation of Cannabis sativa has been popular, especially in Mexico, Africa, Thailand and Colombia. (3)

Hemp has been grown in Finland since at least the Iron Age. Ancient hemp pollen has been found in the bottom sediment of Lake Huhdasjärvi in Kouvola, which is 2500-4800 BC.

Studies show that the yield of fiber hemp varies. On average, fiber in Finland produces about 4000-8000 kg of dry matter per hectare. At certain latitudes, a peak of 7000-15000 kg per hectare has been reached at best. However, less fiber is obtained, on average 1000-2000 kg / ha.

Cannabis indica hemp specie.

Cannabis indica has leaves that are clearly wider than sativa.

Cannabis indica

 

Cannabis indica is a low-growing hemp species that thrives in barren soils. It is characterized by thick leaves and rapid flowering. It is darker in color than sativa. Indica is grown e.g. for the manufacture of medicinal cannabis and hashish. It was originally cultivated in Afghanistan, Tibet and Morocco, from where it has spread all over the globe. (3)

Indica usually stays less than 2 meters tall and its flowers can mature in as little as 6-8 weeks. The inflorescences are larger and denser than Cannabis sativa and have a good resin on their surface to protect the plant from the harsh environment. The effects of indica can be described more as a bodily and calming experience than sativa. (3)

 

Cannabis ruderalis

 

Wild hemp Cannabis ruderalis grows wild in the roadsides of Ukraine and Russia. Ruderalis is characterized by its small size, stiff and short stem, and the light green color of the leaves. The size of the ruderalis is usually less than half a meter or even shorter. (3)

Ruderalis is crossed with indica and sativa species, as ruderalis is a so-called autoflower, ie it blooms automatically regardless of the length of the light cycle. By crossing, Cannabis ruderalis with indica or sativa you will get automatically flowering hemp varieties with indica and sativa effects and yield.

Usually the ruderalis starts flowering as early as 3-4 weeks after germination and its inflorescence matures in 10-12 weeks. Other hemp species also need a dark phase to begin flowering, but ruderalis blooms even when the plant is always in the light. (3)

A house built of hemp concrete (hempcrete).

Hemp concrete can be used to build an ecological house. Only three raw materials are needed to make hempcrete.

Hempcrete

 

Carbon-neutral hemp construction is becoming more common in the world. The use of ecological hemp concrete has also become more common in Finland in recent years, as it is a versatile and incomparable building material that is easy to manufacture. All you need is water, lime and hemp fiber.

Hemp concrete (hempcrete) is made from the head of the fibrous hemp, ie the woody interior of the plant. The lime and water are mixed in and the result is a very breathable, light, concrete-like structure. The mixture does not need any other binders. Hemp concrete is also a much more ecological alternative to ordinary concrete. Hempcrete naturally insulates and evens out humidity and temperature fluctuations in buildings. (5)

Hemp bricks or hemp concrete.

Bricks made of hemp concrete are light but very durable.

Benefits of hempcrete:

 

  • carbon neutral
  • energy efficient
  • breathable
  • mold resistant
  • non-toxic
  • lightweight
  • fireproof
  • water resistant
  • pest resistant
  • good insulation
  • lasts 100 years

 

Fiber hemp

 

Hemp has been cultivated for millennia and its use has almost disappeared, at least in Finland. The cultivation of hemp and also the use of hemp fiber have seen new growth in Finland in recent years. Globally, hemp is currently experiencing a new era of prosperity and new commodities of hemp are constantly entering the market.

Fiber from hemp is utilized in industry e.g. in reinforced plastics, biocomposites, in addition to which it replaces many synthetic substances. Hemp is also used for energy production, as a cover and as a bedding.

In Central Finland, a particularly large amount of hemp was once cultivated even when flax came and displaced hemp in different parts of Finland. Later synthetic fibers displaced by the rest of the textile industry, which uses hemp as a raw material.

Fiber hemp flowers and leaves contain cannabinoids such as cannabidiol (CBD). CBD has the opposite effect to THC, i.e. it is antipsychotic, which is why burning fiber hemp does not cause intoxication (6).

Hemp rope on board.

Hemp fiber has been proven to be stronger in tensile and compressive strength than steel.

Hemp fiber is more durable than steel

 

Due to its strength, hemp fiber, which is also called the most sustainable vegetable fiber in the world, has once been one of the most important raw materials in Finland, e.g. in the manufacture of ropes, string, nets and textiles.

Hemp fiber is incredibly strong and even stronger than steel. When measuring strength, the main focus is on the tensile and compressive strength of the material. Tensile strength is the ability to withstand stress and compressive strength is the ability to withstand compression. Hemp fiber has been proven to be more durable than steel in both. (7)

Hemp fiber is lightweight and that is one reason why it is used to replace other heavy materials. Due to its lightness and durability, hemp fiber is used e.g. as a building material for car doors.

 

Hemp fiber separated from fiber hemp in various forms.

Hemp fiber in its many different forms.

 

Hemp fiber vs. cotton

 

Hemp is a much more durable choice than cotton!

 

  • Hemp needs to grow about 50% less water than cotton
  • Hemp enriches and improves the soil. Cotton does not.
  • Hemp produces 2-3 times more fiber than cotton.
  • Hemp fiber is many times stronger and more durable than cotton.
  • Hemp does not need pesticides for pests or plant diseases. Hemp is inherently resistant to them. Cotton cultivation requires harmful chemicals and pesticides.
  • Note! Almost 10% of all agrochemicals and 25% of insecticides come from the cotton industry.
  • In addition, hemp fabric breathes better than cotton. (8)

 

 

Hemp (for oil)

 

  • Hemp (Cannabis sativa) is a traditional food and fiber plant with a long tradition in Finland as well.
  • It produces a lot of seeds containing good quality omega-3 fatty acids from which hemp seed oil can be squeezed. The seeds can be eaten as is and are also sold pre-peeled, roasted, grounded and protein flour. Hemp seeds can be used to make a wide variety of foods such as spreads, hefu (hemp tofu) and hemp milk. Seeds and hemp oil can be used in a variety of ways in cooking and baking.
  • The seeds are obtained by cold-pressing hemp seed oil, which contains >80% of polyunsaturated fatty acids and a lot of essential omega fatty acids (3, 6 and 9) and gammalinolenic acid. It is not recommended to heat hemp seed oil above 160 C degrees.
  • This kind of hemp does not have intoxicating properties as it has a THC content of less than 0.2 %.
  • Hemp seed contains an average of 33 % fat, 25 % of protein and 3 % of carbohydrates. In addition to these, seeds contain a wide variety of antioxidants, minerals, phytosterols, and vitamins.
  • Hemp seeds contain a remarkable amount of high-quality protein that contains all the essential amino acids.
  • Valuable oil from hemp seeds is also used in cosmetics. Hemp oil is especially good if you are irritated, atopic dermatitisor dry skin.
  • The average yield of seeds per hectare of hemp is about 500-1000 kg. (9)

 

Hemp is a soil improvement plant that cleanses the soil

 

Hemp is an excellent choice for soil remediation due to its high biomass, deep pile roots and rapid growth. Studies show that hemp can be used to clean the soil of chemicals, heavy metals and even radioactive toxins! (10)

Hemp was planted around Chernobyl by the Ukrainian Academy of Agricultural Sciences to remove cesium-137 from radioactive soil. This early attempt led to numerous studies around the world to investigate how hemp can clean up badly contaminated soil. (10)

In 2001, a group of German researchers found that hemp grew well in soils containing the highly toxic heavy metal cadmium. As hemp grew, most cadmium was found to accumulate in the leaves. Contaminated plants could be destroyed by burning to safely remove contaminants. This was potentially a more cost-effective option for cleaning lightly contaminated areas than the usual expensive process of digging all the soil out and removing it. (10)

Cultivating fiber hemp can reduce the amount of weeds and can help defeat even downy brome. Modifying the hemp biomass back into the field increases the amount of humus and makes the soil fluffier. Hemp acts as an excellent crop and has a high precursor value.

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History of hemp

 

  • The world’s first fabrics were made from hemp as early as 8000-7000 BC. (2).
  • For at least 3,000 years, hemp was the most popular crop on earth and the most important product in agriculture. Hemp had thousands of different uses. In the past, most commodities were made from hemp, such as fabrics, medicines, papers, perfumes, and lamp oil. (2)
  • Hemp was once an invaluable raw material in the United States, where it was used to make banknotes, flags and bibles. Indeed, the “founding father” of the United States and former President Thomas Jefferson have said “Hemp is of first necessity to the wealth and protection of the country.”
  • Hemp was able to pay taxes in the United States from 1631 until the 19th century (11).
  • Originally, Levi’s branded jeans were made from hemp fabric because the pants needed to be durable enough. Until the 19th century, hemp fiber was still the most widely used natural fiber in textiles, sails, ropes, cords, etc. (2).
  • Hemp pollen has been found in the bottom sediment of Lake Huhdasjärvi in Kouvola (Finland), which is dated to 2500 – 4800 B.C. based on radiocarbon measurements.
  • Still in the 800 A.C. In Europe, too, the need for hemp was so great that Charles Frank the King of the Franks enacted a law calling for its cultivation (3).
  • In the late 1930s, the United States enacted a drug ban on all varieties of hemp. The ban therefore also applied to hemp grown for fiber and oil, although they were not suitable for substance abuse due to their low THC content. The ban was lobbied by the forest and petroleum industries in particular, as it was in their interest to centralize production for themselves. Due to the prohibition act, several uses of hemp were temporarily almost completely forgotten. During World Wars, man-made fibers displaced hemp as a raw material for factories.
  • During the 1950s, with the proliferation of cheap cotton products being imported, hemp cultivation practically ceased in Finland. By the 1960s, there were only a few home farms left. (5)
  • It is only in recent decades that hemp has made a spectacular comeback and taken its rightful place in the western construction, textile, food, pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries. The use of medicated cannabis is also permitted in several countries, at least by prescription. The legalization and decriminalization of the active ingredients of hemp is increasing at an accelerating pace across the globe. As the current pace continues, the future of hemp looks very green.

 

Sources

 

  1. Transfarm Oy. 2021. Hyötyhamppuyhdistys ry:n hamppufaktaa – älä sekoita viihdekannabista raittiisiin serkkuihinsa. https://www.epressi.com/tiedotteet/maatalous/hyotyhamppuyhdistys-ryn-hamppufaktaa-ala-sekoita-viihdekannabista-raittiisiin-serkkuihinsa.html. Referred to 24.05.2022
  2. Ihalainen, J.K. Hamppu Suomessa – Katsaus kuituhampun viljelyyn ja valmistukseen Suomessa. http://www.palladiumkirjat.fi/hamppu.htm. Referred to 25.05.2022
  3. Vanha-Majamaa, A. 2018. Kannabiskirja. Helsinki. Kosmos.
  4. Maanmittauslaitos. 2020. https://www.maanmittauslaitos.fi/. Referred to 23.05.2022
  5. Malvisalo & Luotola. 2020. Aitomaaseutu.fi. Hampun tuotannon ja käyttömahdollisuuksien esiselvitys. https://www.aitomaaseutu.fi/media/Hampun-tuotannon-ja-k%C3%A4ytt%C3%B6mahdollisuuksien-esiselvitys-30-05-2020.pdf. Referred to 24.05.2022
  6. Eeva Hannula. 2016. Yle. Kuituhamppubisnes kurottaa korkealle – suomalaista luonnonkuitua viedään autoteollisuuden käyttöön Hollantiin. https://yle.fi/uutiset/3-8890322. Referred to 25.05.2022
  7. Vivek. V. Hemp Foundation. 2019. Is Hemp Really Stronger Than Steel? How? https://hempfoundation.net/is-hemp-really-stronger-than-steel-how/. Referred to 25.05.2022
  8. Neville. M. 2019.. Hemp vs Cotton: 5 Reasons Why Hemp is a Better Choice. https://wamaunderwear.com/blogs/news/hemp-vs-cotton. Referred to 25.05.2022
  9. Finola. Nutrition. https://finola.fi/nutrition/. Referred to 24.05.2022
  10. Pelger. L. 2020. Mother Earth Living. Cleaning Our Toxic World with Hemp. www.motherearthliving.com/health-and-wellness/cleaning-our-toxic-world-hemp-zm0z20szbut. Referred to 25.05.2022
  11. Herer J. 2015. Keisarilla ei ole vaatteita! Books on Demand.
Entourage effect and full spectrum CBD oil explained?

Entourage effect and full spectrum CBD oil explained?

Wondering what the terms Full Spectrum or Entourage effect mean and how they relate to hemp, CBD oil and CBD products? In this text, we will go through what entourage effect and full spectrum are and how they are formed.

 

The entourage effect makes CBD oil more efficient

 

Research has shown that the therapeutic results of cannabis have in some cases been superior to whole herbs. For the synergistic interactions contained in the whole plant, the researchers use the term “Entourage effect”. The combined effect of cannabinoids in cannabis has been found to be broader than that of individual plant molecules, and this means that ingredients other than CBD and THC have a significant effect on the body (1).

Studies have found the same thing that many CBD oils have noticed, or will notice when used for longer. Studies show that interaction-based treatment appears to be more effective in many cases than the use of individual cannabinoids in the treatment of diseases. However, further research is needed for clinical evidence (1).

 

What does the full spectrum describing the properties of CBD oil mean?

 

When a “Full Spectrum” is mentioned in a CBD product, it means that the product is prepared in such a way that it contains all the active compounds of the plant. The full spectrum indicates that the product enables entourage effect.

 

Where does the full spectrum of CBD oil really come from?

 

The full spectrum is created when the CBD oil or product contains all the compounds naturally present in hemp. These compounds include all 120 cannabinoids as well as all 445 other compounds identified in hemp (2). Of course, not all compounds are present in all hemp plants, or more precisely in phenotypes, at least based on current analytical methods. But getting the full spectrum really into CBD requires more than what could be inferred from the CBD oils on the market.

When CBD oil is heated, active ingredients such as terpenes and flavonoids are often lost. As a result of the heating process, some of the cannabinoids also decarboxylate. In raw hemp, cannabinoids first appear as cannabinoid acids, from which cannabinoids are synthesized (3). Cannabinoids and other hemp compounds also have their boiling and conversion points. The CBD oils most commonly on the market are not really full-spectrum products and cannot be determined by cannabinoid analysis alone.

 

Why can’t full spectrum be determined from cannabinoid analysis?

 

It is not possible to determine that cannabinoids can be combined with CBD oil from CBD extracts of different strengths and strengths. In this case, the cannabinoid analysis shows more other cannabinoids, such as CBD-A. Sure, combining gives broad spectrum CBD oil, but they don’t have the full spectrum effect. As long as there are no clear standards in the industry, vendors will talk about their CBD oils in full spectrum.

And it is certainly not false to say that CBD oil is in full spectrum. After all, it is, above all, a new growing field, as well as things that are currently being studied and of which there is a growing understanding. However, it can be agreed with those skilled in the art that the full spectrum is indeed obtained by raw extraction.

 

Raw extraction is the secret of the real full spectrum

 

Raw extraction, i.e. extraction at subtle temperatures, allows the true full spectrum. The secret of the full spectrum is that CBD oil is not extracted at too high temperatures because then the subtle compounds in the plant begin to transform and decompose. Raw extraction requires skill and the right temperatures.

The right full spectrum is also achieved by freeze-drying, ie again at low temperatures. The oil called a full-spectrum CBD oil, which is clear in composition, i.e. it has undergone filtration in the extraction process, no longer contains vegetable waxes and, for example, leafy green, and is thus not a crude CBD oil. However, it is perfectly acceptable for a full spectrum CBD oil when THC has not been removed.

Raw CBD oil contains leafy green as well as vegetable waxes, and therefore has a stronger taste and a more colorful composition. Just like the Natural CBD oils available from us.

The full spectrum of colors in a circle depicting the spectrum of active ingredients in CBD.

The full spectrum of colors describes the full spectrum of active ingredients in CBD oil.

How to identify a CBD oil that really has a full spectrum

 

Actually, the full spectrum in CBD oil is shown by three things. Does CBD oil contain THC? Is CBD oil clear? Does CBD oil also contain CBDA?

There is no concern that the full spectrum contains THC. The CBD oils on the market are made from hemp plants that have been refined to contain naturally low, almost non-existent amounts of THC (less than 0.2-0.3%). Are they practically non-existent? Possibly, but because most users of CBD oil, and especially we in Hamppumaa, find full-spectrum CBD oil significantly more effective than for example broad-spectrum CBD oil.

 

Is there THC in the full spectrum CBD oil?

 

Yes, the real full spectrum CBD oil has THC. A CBD oil that does not have a full spectrum is called a broad spectrum oil. A wide range of CBD oils are made to be THC-free, as some consumers are concerned if the product may contain THC.

However, small amounts of THC do not need to be a concern at all unless there is a need to be 100% sure that THC is not visible in doping tests or drug tests. Although the amount of THC ingested from CBD oil in these tests is unlikely to cause the appearance of THC in the blood or urine.

Even in ordinary hemp oil, i.e. hemp seed oil and hemp protein, there are small amounts of THC contamination. So there is no reason to worry that CBD oil contains small amounts of THC.

In its report, EIHA, the European hemp industry association, has stated that a THC content of 0.3% is completely safe in hemp products. The European Commission has also approved raising the THC limit to 0.3%.

 

Is clear CBD oil really full spectrum CBD oil?

 

Yes and no. Indeed, a clear CBD oil can be a full-spectrum CBD oil without THC being removed, which is, however, an unofficially accepted definition for the full spectrum.

Can the full spectrum be more complete in less clear CBD oil? Yes, definitely because only then can it be seen from the oil itself that the CBD oil has not been heated during extraction and then has not filtered out of plant waxes and leafy greens, as well as other important compounds such as flavonoids.

 

Does the full spectrum CBD oil also contain CBDA?

 

Yes, the right full spectrum CBD oil contains CBDA. Often in different proportions, but significantly more than the heat-treated, clear or near-clear CBD oil, which is predominantly CBD. Of our full-spectrum CBD oils, CBD oils, called ACTIVATED, are subtly heated oils that are thus clear and no longer contain much CBDA.

 

Where can you order real full spectrum CBD oil?

 

You can find them from us, of course! In our online store, you will find unique CBD oils extracted on the market with a supercritical CO2 extraction method. You will recognize our raw CBD oil under the name NATURAL.

We have three different and 4 different strengths of Natural CBD oils. We value the natural essence of hemp the most and that is why we want to get it from our CBD oil as well. You will also find Natural CBD oil in combination with other functional herbs such as, turmericand ashwagandha.

Of the CBD oil extraction methods, supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) extraction is one of the best methods for raw extraction. It allows the end product to retain the full range of interactions and the product itself is 100% food grade and safe.

CBD oil drops and hemp leaf.

The entourage effect is the combination of other natural hemp ingredients.

What distinguishes full spectrum and broad spectrum products?

 

The term “Full Spectrum” is used in products when it contains all cannabinoids and other active ingredients of the plant. These terms are sometimes misleadingly used in products on the market, even if they are something else. Some CBD oils are produced by heating, but substances lost in the process, such as terpenes, may be added to them later.

Where an original active ingredient of a plant is missing or has changed shape, the product should be referred to by another name, such as “broad spectrum”. It is not possible to talk about interactions for individual cannabinoid molecules. For example, a CBD isolate is an almost pure CBD crystal with no other active ingredients.

 

There are differences in hemp varieties and concentrations

 

Hemp varieties play a major role in the types of CBD oils they produce. The cannabinoid and terpene and flavonoid contents of different varieties vary greatly, so in many cases the decisive factor is the variety or varieties from which the products are made. When CBD oil is produced using several different varieties of hemp, the end product is likely to contain more of the plant’s active ingredients than using just one variety.

 

How to choose a safe full spectrum CBD product?

 

Always check that third-party analyzes of purity and levels of cannabinoids are available for the products. This way you can be more confident about what the product contains and you don’t have to rely solely on marketing speeches.

You can find third-party analysis and high-quality interaction CBD oils and CBD products in our online store.

 

Sources

 

  1. Marja Vihervaara & Aleksi Hupli. 2021. Lääkekannabis – Tiedettä ja tosielämän tarinoita. Basam Books. s. 53.
  2. Gonqalves ECD & others. 2020 Terpenoids, Cannabimimetic Ligands, beyond the Cannabis Plant. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/340403344_Terpenoids_Cannabimimetic_Ligands_beyond_the_Cannabis_Plant/fulltext/5e8ca6fa299bf1307985bead/Terpenoids-Cannabimimetic-Ligands-beyond-the-Cannabis-Plant.pdf?origin=publication_detail#page28 Referred to 27.2.2022
  3. Mei Wang ym. 2016. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. Decarboxylation Study of Acidic Cannabinoids: A Novel Approach Using Ultra-High-Performance Supercritical Fluid Chromatography/Photodiode Array-Mass Spectrometry. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28861498/
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