The effect of CBD on well-being

The effect of CBD on well-being

CBD’s effect on well-being is versatile. On this page you will find studies on the effects of cannabinoids such as CBD, e.g. for the treatment of depression, anxiety, stress, insomnia and pain conditions.

During the past decades, a significant amount of research has been done on the effects of different cannabinoids. In particular, CBD has been extensively studied using various tests and methods. Several studies have taken into account the relationships of cannabinoids to each other, as well as their effect together and separately. However, research is still in its early stages and it is generally known that the factors affecting the endocannabinoid system are not yet fully understood. However, it has been shown to be true that external cannabinoids can be useful for a wide range of imbalances in the body, both in humans and in other mammals.

Depression

It seems that the endocannabinoid system is involved in the treatment of depression , although its role is not yet fully understood. Based on the published data, the endocannabinoid system provides new ideas and options in the treatment of depression, but further studies are still needed to determine which patient group could benefit from such treatment (1).

A 2018 study published in the journal Molecular Neurobiology concluded that CBD is a promising fast-acting antidepressant. While traditional antidepressants typically take some time to work, a study in rodents showed that CBD had rapid and sustained antidepressant-like effects (2).

There are many individual cases in the world where cannabis has helped research patients in the treatment of depression. In addition, new studies have been conducted that report the importance of the role of the endocannabinoid system in depression, indicating that there is a link between endocannabinoid dysfunction and depression. The TGA (Therapeutic Goods Administration ) is known to approve cannabis for patients with depression, which suggests that cannabis plays a role in the treatment of depression (3).

We still lack high-quality clinical studies that emphasize depression or the improvement of depression as the most important outcome. However, there are mouse experiments that show that cannabis can help with depression. Other studies, such as the Sativex studies, have shown a significant improvement in the well-being of people using cannabis medicines (4).

The anti-depressant effects of cannabis, as well as the interaction between antidepressants and the endocannabinoid system, were reported in a study in 2010. The study in question was conducted to evaluate the antidepressant-like effects of delta9-THC and other cannabinoids. The results of the study show that delta9-THC and other cannabinoids have an antidepressant-like effect and can therefore influence the mood-enhancing properties of cannabis (4).

Anxiety

Studies that were conducted on animals and performed various tests such as the forced swim test (FST), Elevated plus maze (EPM) and Vogel conflict test (VCT), suggest that CBD has anti-anxiety and anti-depressant effects in research animals (5).

Overall, the existing preclinical evidence strongly supports the potential of CBD in the treatment of anxiety disorders. CBD has multifaceted effects that are relevant in several different areas related to anxiety (6).

Since endocannabinoids appear to play an important role in major depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and bipolar disorder, the Cannabis sativa plant is suggested for their treatment. The endocannabinoid system covers a wide range of the entire body, including the brain, and is responsible for a wide range of different body functions. The system in question is linked to mood and related disorders. Exogenous cannabinoids can alter its activity. CB1 and CB2 receptors mainly act as binding sites for endocannabinoids and phytocannabinoids produced by cannabis flowers. However, cannabis is not a single compound, but is known for its complex molecular profile, which produces numerous phytocannabinoids and many different terpenes. Thus, synergism has a positive effect due to the addition of terpenes to cannabinoids (7).

Read more in the article CBD oil can relieve anxiety .

Stress

A study published in 2018 found that CBD has stress-reducing effects that can reduce stress-related depression. The results of the study suggest that in chronically stressed mice, CBD prevents stress-induced reduced hippocampal neurogenesis and stress-induced angiogenesis, i.e. new blood vessel formation (8). Read more in the article CBD and stress .

Nerve pain

According to the study, cannabidiol (CBD), the significant non-psychoactive component of cannabis, has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. This study investigated its therapeutic potential in the treatment of neuropathic and inflammatory pain in rats. The results of the study show that CBD has potential for therapeutic use in painful chronic pain conditions (9).

Pain

A 2018 review , Cannabinoids and Pain: New Insights From Old Molecules , evaluates how well CBD works for chronic pain relief . The review looked at studies conducted between 1975 and March 2018. These studies looked at a variety of pain conditions, including cancer pain, neuropathic pain, and fibromyalgia. Based on these studies, researchers concluded that CBD was effective in general pain management and did not cause negative side effects (10).

Inflammations

One 2017 review found that CBD’s anti-inflammatory properties may help with the following conditions (11):

A 2016 study looked at the effect of CBD on rats with arthritis . Researchers found that topical CBD gel reduced joint swelling and pain in rats. No significant side effects resulted from the experiment. Research shows that CBD cosmetics have therapeutic potential for reducing the behavior and inflammation associated with arthritis pain without apparent side effects (12).

Insomnia

Several studies on CBD, anxiety and sleep have found that many patients do not notice a difference immediately. A 2019 study found that subjects took about a month to notice a difference (13). So be patient and remember that the desired results may take time.

The final sample consisted of 72 adults with primary concerns of anxiety (n = 47) or poor sleep (n = 25). Anxiety scores decreased during the first month in 57 patients (79.2%) and remained low during the duration of the study. Sleep quality improved during the first month in 48 patients (66.7%), but varied over time. In this chart review, CBD was well tolerated in all but three patients (13).

CBD may also be promising for those suffering from REM sleep disorders and excessive daytime sleepiness. The synthetic cannabinoid nabilone can reduce PTSD-related nightmares and improve sleep among patients with chronic pain (14).

Read more in the article CBD oil and insomnia .

Effects of CBD on concentration

CBD has several properties that not only improve our general well-being, but also increase concentration and energy. It stimulates the endocannabinoid system, one of whose functions is to regulate attention, memory, concentration and energy. By helping the endocannabinoid system to function better, CBD also helps increase our productivity (15).

If your inattention and inability to concentrate are due to health issues, we strongly recommend that you consult your doctor for diagnosis and treatment. While CBD can help improve concentration, focus, and energy, it is still necessary to find the root cause of your problems in order to properly address it. Your doctor can also help you find the best CBD products for focus or energy and dosage.

Terpenes in the treatment of depression, anxiety and stress

Terpenes found in hemp and their effect on anxiety, depression and stress have also been the subject of research. Terpenes are found especially in the essential oils of hemp, but also in the resin of plants. Terpenes give hemp its characteristic aroma. Listed below are 4 common terpenes and their effects. Note most of the experiments have been done on mice and further studies are needed.

  • Limonene – research shows that the terpene limonene can relieve stress and anxiety (16).
  • Pinene – research shows that the terpene pinene has anti-anxiety effects (17).
  • Linalool – research shows that the smell of linalool can have anxiolytic effects (18).
  • Myrcene – research shows that myrcene has a calming effect (19).

Possible side effects of CBD

Although many studies show that CBD is generally safe, it is worth considering the fact that people are different and that different active ingredients will cause a different reaction in some people than in others. Here you can find information about the possible side effects that CBD may cause in some rare cases.

Side effects are relatively rare. However, some users may experience possible minor side effects such as Below is a list of side effects that have been obtained in the 2019 study’s mouse experiments (20).

  • Fatigue
  • Diarrhea
  • Change in appetite
  • Weight fluctuation
  • Mood swings
  • Possible interactions with medicines can reduce or strengthen the effect of the medicine.

The text on this page is not intended for product marketing. The website administrator is also not responsible for the correctness of the text and possible errors. The reader should carefully check all the sources appearing in the text. The content of the page is not intended as self-care instructions for any disease or situation. We recommend discussing possible changes in your life situation first together with an expert doctor.

Sources

  1. Ewa Poleszak et al. Cannabinoids in depressive disorders , Life Sciences, Volume 213, 2018
    https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0024320518306040
  2. Sales AJ, Fogaça MV, Sartim AG, et al. Cannabidiol induces rapid and sustained antidepressant-like effects through increased BDNF signaling and synaptogenesis in the prefrontal cortex . Mol Neurobiol 56, 1070–1081 (2019). doi:10.1007/s12035-018-1143-4
  3. Wen-Juan Huang et al. Endocannabinoid system: Role in depression, reward and pain control , Mol Med Rep. 2016. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5042796/
  4. Abir T. El-Alfy et al. Antidepressant-like effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L . Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. Volume 95, Issue 4, 2010. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0091305710000730
  5. Alexandre R de Mello Schier et al. Antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol: a chemical compound of Cannabis sativa . CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets, 2014. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24923339/
  6. Esther M. Blessing et al. Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders . Neurotherapeutics. 2015. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13311-015-0387-1?handl_url
  7. Ferber, Sari G. et al. The “Entourage Effect”: Terpenes Coupled with Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Mood Disorders and Anxiety Disorders . Current Neuropharmacology, Volume 18. Number 2. 2020. https://www.ingentaconnect.com/contentone/ben/cn/2020/00000018/00000002/art00004
  8. José A. Crippa et al. Translational Investigation of the Therapeutic Potential of Cannabidiol (CBD): Toward a New Age . Front Immunol. 2018. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6161644/
  9. Barbara Costa et al. The non-psychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an orally effective therapeutic agent in rat chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain . Eur J Pharmacol. 2007. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17157290/
  10. Sonja Vučković et al. Cannabinoids and Pain: New Insights From Old Molecules . Front Pharmacol. 2018. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6277878/
  11. Simona Pisanti. Cannabidiol: State of the art and new challenges for Therapeutic applications . Pharmacol Ther. 2017. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28232276/
  12. DC Hammell et al. Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviors in a rat model of arthritis . Eur J Pain. 2016. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4851925/
  13. Scott Shannon et al. Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: A Large Case Series. Perm J. 2019. https://www.healthline.com/health/cbd-for-insomnia#how-to-use
  14. Kimberly A. Babson. Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and Sleep: a Review of the Literature . Current Psychiatry Reports. volume 19, Article number: 23. 2017. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11920-017-0775-9
  15. Ruth E Cooper. Cannabinoids in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A randomized-controlled trial. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2017. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28576350/
  16. Naiana GPB Lima et al. A nxiolytic-like activity and GC-MS analysis of (R)-(+)-limonene fragrance, a natural compound found in foods and plants. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2013. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22995322/
  17. Tadaaki Satou et al. Daily inhalation of α-pinene in mice: effects on behavior and organ accumulation. Phytother Res. 2014. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25340185/
  18. Hiroki Harada et al. Linalool Odor-Induced Anxiolytic Effects in Mice. Front Behav Neurosci. 2018. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6206409/
  19. T Gurgel do Vale et al. Central effects of citral, myrcene and limonene, constituents of essential oil chemotypes from Lippia Alba (Mill.) ne Brown. Phytomedicine. 2002. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12587690/
  20. Ewing Le, Skinner Cm, Quick Cm, et al. Hepatotoxicity of a Cannabidiol-Rich Cannabis Extract in the Mouse Model. Molecules. 2019; 24. https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/24/9/1694

CBD and stress

CBD and stress

Stress is defined as any stimulus that upsets the body’s balance. The stimulus can be real or imaginary, and regardless of it, stress can be prolonged very easily and become a state of being that dominates life. In this article, we will consider stress, the mechanism of its occurrence, the most common symptoms and whether it could CBD oil can help relieve stress.

What is stress?

 

In the past, stress was mostly seen as negative distress, but today it is known that short-term stress is actually good and makes us strive for things (1). A demanding job that needs to be completed, overdue library books that need to be returned, an empty fridge that requires a trip to the food store. Things like this will be handled specifically with the help of stress; a person can’t get an undone task out of his mind and rather tackles it than constantly running the same thought over his mind. Also events related to survival, such as threatening situations, are often triggered by the “fight or flight” reaction caused by positive stress.

 

Chronic or prolonged stress

 

When there are too many challenges or burdensome things in life, a person experiencing stress can also notice physical symptoms. Challenges related to sleep, brain fog, problems related to concentration, forgetting things, etc. are symptoms from which it can be concluded that stress has been prolonged. With chronic stress, hormonal activity may change and go into a knot, and it may take a long time to recover from it.

Stressed woman reads books.

Stress can be short-lived and it can get unfinished business done. Chronic, i.e. prolonged, stress may, on the other hand, cause visible harm such as a stress belly, rashes and pimples on the face.

 

Stress on the body and mind level

 

Nothing in itself directly causes stress. Many things influence its experience, such as a person’s worldview, their current resources, tolerance and resistance, and their attitude to life (1). Not all stress is bad either; what matters is whether the stress is short or long-term and whether there are ways to alleviate it!

 

Stress affects several body systems and quickly causes changes in neurobehavioral processes. These changes cause symptoms of stress such as sweating, headaches or tension.

 

HPA axis

 

The first event of stress is the activation of the sympathetic nervous system, and the second is the activation of the HPA axis. The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis regulates the body’s stress response and is responsible for producing cortisol. The HPA axis is involved in the regulation of acute, chronic, psychological and physical stress.

 

Cortisol

 

Stress activates the hypothalamus in the brain, which sends signals to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands produce a steroid hormone called cortisol, which is also known as a stress hormone. The HPA axis is responsible for producing cortisol, and its function is regulated by the endocannabinoid system. The secretion of cortisol in a stressful situation is normal and necessary, and its amount naturally varies during the day. However, as a result of chronic, prolonged stress, cortisol production may be disturbed and it may cause e.g. insomnia, immune system disorders or even heart disease and diabetes .

 

Stress and the endocannabinoid system

 

The endocannabinoid system, and the system’s signaling, extends to all body functions, including the brain, where stress also occurs. The endocannabinoid system is one of the most important regulators of the stress response; it restores the HPA axis and facilitates the habituation of the stress response to repeated stress experiences (2,3). The endocannabinoid system also regulates the stimulating and balancing effects of neurotransmitters. In addition to these, the endocannabinoid system also affects stress at higher levels such as emotional and cognitive levels. (3)

 

Endocannabinoids from a stress perspective

 

There are two known endogenous cannabinoids in the body, anandamide and 2-AG ( 2-arachidonoylglycerol). Studies show that the concentration of the cannabinoid 2-AG increases in the hypothalamus of the brain during stress, while the amount of anandamide decreases. A decrease in anandamide activates the HPA axis and contributes to the generation of stress. Correspondingly, an increase in the amount of 2-AG prevents stress and calms the HPA axis. (2,4)

The insufficient presence of endocannabinoids is caused by the accelerated activity of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). FAAH is a molecule that breaks down cannabinoids and its activity accelerates in the almond nucleus up to 24 hours after a stress reaction.

 

Cannabinoid receptors in a stress situation

 

CB1 receptor activation is essential as a negative feedback provider of the stress response in addition to its neuroprotective properties (3,4). It has also been suggested that the CB1 receptor is responsible for the ability of the endocannabinoid system to suppress the HPA axis (2).

 

Symptoms of stress

 

The symptoms of stress can really be anything. There is no clear, specific kind of pimple or one and only feeling that defines the body as a state of stress, but anyone suffering from chronic stress will certainly feel the symptoms of stress and notice if it has been prolonged.

The most typical physical symptoms are e.g. headache, stressed stomach, skin rashes , palpitations, nausea, flu cycle and sweating. Mental symptoms include irritability, anxiety , depression , tension, memory problems, fatigue and insomnia . Stress can also affect relationships, e.g. as the isolation of the stressed (5).

 

Headache caused by stress

 

Headache may even be the most common physical symptom associated with stress. Headache occurs as a symptom of both acute and chronic stress and is also caused by unconscious stress.

 

A person suffering from stress stomach and symptoms of stress keeps his hands on his stomach.

A stressed stomach is a common symptom of stress. Prolonged stress can cause challenges for the stomach’s function and it can also appear as a rash.

 

Stressful stomach

 

As a result of stress, the body’s protective mechanisms may be weakened and the result may be sensitization of the nervous system and disturbance of the sense of pain. Although a stressed stomach is not a physical problem, studies show that stress has real effects on bowel function and the feeling of stomach pain. Symptoms of a stressed stomach include, for example, bloating, flatulence, constipation/diarrhea and abdominal pain. (5) CBD has positive effects bowel function and you can read more about it here .

 

Stress pimples and stress-related rashes

 

Stress can also cause rashes. Even a short-term stressful situation can raise pimples on the chest and face. Pimples are caused by rapid hormonal changes in the body caused by stress. As a result of prolonged stress, the skin may start to develop lines, acne and various rashes. by the effect of CBD oil you can read about eczema and other skin symptoms here and here.

 

CBD oil can relieve stress

 

CBD is a versatile cannabinoid. It has been found to have a relatively weak direct effect on the known cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, but it also affects other targets in the body. CBD seems to prevent stress-induced changes related to the serotonin receptor (5-HTA1) and promotes receptor signaling (2,3,4). CBD also has an alleviating effect on stress-related neuroinflammation, and it appears to bind to stress, depression and to anxiety contributing TRPV1 receptor. (2,3,4)

It has been shown that CBD:n one of the most significant tasks in relation to stress would be to increase the activity of CB1 and CB2 receptors by preventing the breakdown of anandamide (2). CBD can help reduce acute stress-related anxiety, but also normalize abnormal stress reactions. (3,4)

 

Natural treatment for stress

 

Fortunately, however, there are many natural and easy ways to relieve stress quickly. During difficult times, you should remember your own well-being and take care of versatile, nutrient-rich food and a sufficiently long, restful night’s sleep. Silencing smart devices, taking a sauna and walking in nature are simple but effective ways to calm down. It is essential to try to prevent stress, and it can be made easier by getting to know your own resources and finding suitable ways to deal with acute stressful situations.

CBD oil dosing for dogs.

The symptoms of stress in dogs are similar to those in humans and can be alleviated with CBD oil.

 

Pets also experience stress

The stress of other family members, such as a dog or other pet, can also cause concern and cause similar symptoms of stress, which personal challenges can also cause. Domestic animals and pets are easily stressed by big changes in their living environment. Traveling and loneliness in particular can cause stress. CBD oil is also given to dogs, cats and other household pets. Read more about the dosage of CBD oil for pets .

 

In summary

 

The body’s balancing endocannabinoid system is a fascinating multifaceted entity that is present everywhere, but not solely responsible for anything. It is even involved in the creation and calming of stress, embodying that reaction caused by the senses that strongly affects peace of mind. CBD oil has been in several studies, and in connection with the studies, it has emerged as an effective and safe aid for many physical and mental symptoms caused by stress!

 

Sources

 

  1. Duodecim ; Stress. 2022. Mattila A.. https://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/dlk00976. Referred on 23/05/2022
  2. Functional Interactions between Stress and the Endocannabinoid System: From Synaptic Signaling to Behavioral Output. 2010. Hill M, Patel S, Compolongo P, Tasker JG, Wotjak C, Bains JS.
  3. Enhancing Endocannabinoid Control of Stress with Cannabidiol.. Henson J., Viettää L., Quezada M., Hall S.. https://www.mdpi.com/2077-0383/10/24/5852/htm. Referred on 23/05/2022
  4. Neurobiological Interactions Between Stress and the Endocannabinoid System. 2015. Morena M, Patel S, Bains JS, Hill MN. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=Hill%20MN%5BAuthor%5D. Referred on 23/05/2022
  5. Bee ; Stress. https://www.mehilainen.fi/mielenterveys/stressi. Referred on 23/05/2022
What are cannabinoids?

What are cannabinoids?

In this article we will discuss what cannabinoids are. Cannabinoids are compounds related to cannabinoid receptors, which are present in the body of all mammals as part of the endocannabinoid system. Cannabinoids are also found in various plants and especially in hemp, where there are at least 120 different ones (Scherma, Masia, Deidda, Fratta, Tanda and Fadda. 2018.)

Internal cannabinoids are called endocannabinoids and external cannabinoids are called phytocannabinoids. Most of the effects of all cannabinoids are still unknown, but more cannabinoid research is being conducted year after year, and existing studies illustrate that cannabinoids have a lot of health and medical potential. The most researched cannabinoids in hemp are THC and CBD , but nowadays new studies are also being found all the time on CBG, CBN and other phytocannabinoids, as well as acid-form cannabinoids, such as CBD-A , i.e. cannabidiol acid.

 

Phytocannabinoids in hemp

Hemp cannabinoids are synthesized and stored especially in hairy trichomes, i.e. resin glands, found on the surface of hemp leaves and inflorescences. These trichomes occur in both female and male plants, but the highest concentration is found in the inflorescences of female plants. In addition, cannabinoids are also present in fruit plant pollen. (Atakan 2012) The presence of phytocannabinoids in plants is explained by their properties to control various biotic (insects, bacteria, fungi) and abiotic (drought and ultraviolet radiation) stressors.

 

Biosynthesis of cannabinoids

In cannabinoid synthesis, more complex compounds are produced from smaller molecules (Marks et al., 2009; de Meijer, 2014). The first step in cannabinoid biosynthesis is the biosynthesis of geranyl pyrophosphate, olivetolic acid, and divaric acid, the precursors of cannabinoid acids. Next, geranyl pyrophosphate and olivetolic acid form cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), and secondly, geranyl pyrophosphate and divaric acid form cannabigerovaric acid (CBGVA), from which all other cannabinoid acids are formed. For example, CBGA becomes THCA , CBDA , CBCA , and CBGAM . CBGVA, on the other hand, forms the cannabinoid acids like THCVA, CBDVA, CBCVA and CBGVAM. The number and ratio of different synthase enzymes determine the cannabinoid profile of different varieties (Marks et al., 2009; de Meijer, 2014). Cannabinoids are acidic in fresh plants and decarboxylated by heat, time and UV light to cannabinoids – From CBDA to CBD and so on. Henceforth, cannabinoids of the cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabichromene (CBC) types can be degraded to cannabielson (CBE) and cannabicyclol (CBL) by oxygen and UV light. (de Meijer, 2014). Cannabinoids of the tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) type also degrade at high temperatures and upon oxidation to cannabinol (CBN).

 

Classification of phytocannabinoids

Natural compounds combined from hemp with a typical C21 terpenophenol backbone are called cannabinoids. This class of compounds also includes derivatives and metabolites that are also considered cannabinoids. Through cannabinoid research, at least 120 different cannabinoids have been isolated, which can be divided into 11 different categories:

Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) ,
Δ8-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ8-THC),
cannabigerol ( CBG ),
cannabichromene ( CBC ),
cannabidiol ( CBD ),
cannabinodiol (CBND),
cannabielsoin (CBE),
cannabidiol (CBL),
cannabinol ( CBN ),
cannabitriol (CBT)
and other cannabinoids .

 

Production of endocannabinoids in the body

Precursors of endocannabinoids include polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic acid (Omega 6). They are synthesized in postsynaptic neurons as derivatives of arachidonic acid (omega 6), which are obtained mainly from food, but the body can also produce it from linoleic acid (omega 6). Studies show that adding essential fatty acids to the diet increases endocannabinoid levels and the number of receptors. (Osei-Hyiaman et al. 2005, Berger et al. 2001).

Unlike other mediators in the body, endocannabinoids are rapidly synthesized as needed and are not stored as needed. The formation of endocannabinoids occurs through several enzymatic pathways. For example anandamidine in the synthesis, first N-acetyltransferase (NAT) attaches the cell membrane phosphatiphylethanolamine to N-arachidonyl to form N-arachidonylphosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE), which is hydrolyzed by phospholipase D (PLD) to anandamide (Di Marzo et al. 1999). 2-AG, on the other hand, can be synthesized in the body in three different ways. Phospholipase C (PLC) and diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL) contribute to its formation. In addition to arachidonic acid, anandamide is composed of ethanolamine. In 2-AG, on the other hand, ethanolamine is replaced by glycerol, and in virodhamine, ethanolamine is attached by an ester bond instead of an amide bond. Thus, in various endocannabinoids, other compounds have been linked to arachidonic acid by various bonds. (MJ Savolainen, T. Huusko, A. Keränen, S. Lindeman, A. Reponen and H. Koponen. 2004.). Shortly after synthesis, ananadamide is degraded back to arachidonic acid and ethanolamine by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). In the rat brain, for example, this occurs within minutes (Cravatt et al. 2001). Other enzymes are also involved in this degradation of endocannabinoids, such as monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), which is responsible for most of the degradation of 2-AG, and its inhibition increases the amount of 2-AG (Long et al. 2008 and Jokipii 2010.). They also produce various endocannabinoid derivatives in addition to degradation. For example, COX-2 produces prostaglandin ethanolamide and prostaglandin glycerol esters, which are more stable as long-term signal transducers (Kozak et al. 2001 and Savolainen, Huusko, Keränen, Lindeman, Reponen and Koponen 2004).

A few of the more important findings in the metabolism of endocannabinoids are FAAH and MAGL, which, by influencing the amount of activity, can regulate endocannabinoid levels in the body, as they are responsible for the degradation of anandamide and 2-AG. These are affected by different foods, spices, herbs and the medicines targeted at them.

 

Sources

 

 

  • Savolainen, T. Huusko, A. Keränen, S. Lindeman, A. Reponen and H. Koponen. 2004. Endocannabinoids – a multifunctional neurotransmitter system in the regulation of pleasure and eating behavior. Duodecim.
  • De Meijer E., 2014. The Chemical Phenotypes (Chemotypes) of Cannabis.
  • In Pertwee RG Handbook of Cannabis, p. 89-110. Oxford University Press, United Kingdom.
  • Jokipii. 2010. Endocannabinoid receptor. University of Jyväskylä
  • Scherma, P. Masia, M. Deidda, W. Fratta, G. Tanda, and P. Fadda. 2018. New Perspectives on the Use of Cannabis in the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders. Medicines. https://www.mdpi.com/2305-6320/5/4/107/htm
  • Marks MD, Tian L., Wenger JP, Omburo SN, Soto-Fuentes W., He J., Gang DR, Weiblen GD, and Dixon RA, 2009. Identification of candidate genes affecting Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol biosynthesis in Cannabis sativa.
  • J Exp Bot 60 (13): 3715-3726. Kozak KR, Crews BC, Ray JL, Tai HH, Morrow JD, Marnett LJ. Metabolism of prostaglandin glycerol esters and prostaglandin ethanolamides in vitro and in vivo.
  • J Biol Chem 2001; 276: 36993–8. Z. I attack. 2012. Cannabis, a complex plant: different compounds and different effects on the individual. Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology published online 5 September 2012
  • Osei-Hyiaman, L. Wang, G. Kunos. 2005. Endocannabinoid activation at hepatic CB1 receptors stimulates fatty acid synthesis and contributes to diet-induced obesity. The Journal of Clinical Investigation.
  • Berger, G. Crozier, T. Bisogno, P. Cavaliere, S. Innis, and V. Di Marzo. 2001. Anandamide and diet: Inclusion of dietary arachidonate and docosahexaenoate leads to increased brain levels of the corresponding N-acylethanolamines in piglets. PNAS.
  • J. Savolainen, T. Huusko, A. Keränen, S. Lindeman, A. Reponen and H. Koponen. 2004. Endocannabinoids – a multifunctional neurotransmitter system in the regulation of pleasure and eating behavior. Duodecim. 120: 1457–65.
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